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Critical Reviews in Immunology

Wenbo Chen, Pingli Mo, Chundong Yu
Steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) is a transcriptional coactivator that interacts with nuclear receptors such as the estrogen receptor and the androgen receptor and several other transcription factors to enhance their effects on target gene expression. SRC-3 plays important roles in many developmental, physiological, and pathologic events, including body growth, mammary gland development, energy homeostasis, inflammatory regulation, and cancer initiation and progression. SRC-3 has been suggested to be involved in host defense against bacterial pathogens...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Dongchun Liang, Hui Shao, Willi K Born, Rebecca L O'Brien, Henry J Kaplan, Deming Sun
Regulatory effects of γδ T-cells on immune responses have been studied for years. We have investigated the regulatory effect of γδ T-cells on Th1 and Th17 autoimmune responses, and have studied molecular and cellular mechanisms by which γδ T-cells enhance or inhibit immune responses, exploiting a well-characterized murine model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Our results show that (1) aberrant γδ T-cell activation is an important pathogenic event in EAU; (2) γδ T-cells have a unique regulatory effect on Th17 autoimmune responses, which is shaped by the activation status of γδ T-cells; and (3) γδ-mediated immunoregulation is closely linked with the extracellular adenosine metabolism...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Rafael M Rezende, Howard L Weiner
Oral tolerance can be defined as an inhibition of specific immune responsiveness to subsequent parenteral injections of proteins to which an individual or animal has been previously exposed via the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral-fed antigens, but induction of regulatory CD4 T-cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 and the membrane-bound TGF-β stands out as the major players in oral tolerance. Oral antigen administration suppresses several animal models of autoimmune disease, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis, and diabetes, but also nonautoimmune inflammatory conditions such as asthma, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, allergy, and stroke...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Amanda Teets, Linda Pham, Emma Lan Tran, Lana Hochmuth, Rahul Deshmukh
Long-term treatment in the setting of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and urothelial carcinoma (UC) has shown that current first-line chemotherapeutic agents are losing effectiveness and that there are limited treatment options available outside of radiation therapy and surgical interventions. The use of immunotherapeutic agents such as monoclonal antibodies has been considered a promising alternative for cancers that progress despite treatment with radiation therapy, surgery, and/or chemotherapeutic agents...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Julian J Freen-van Heeren, Benoit P Nicolet, Monika C Wolkers
T cells produce a wide variety of effector molecules in response to infections, such as cytokines, chemokines, granzymes, and perforins. Because different stimuli promote the production of specific effector molecules, T cell responses come in different flavors. In addition, single-cell analysis of protein production revealed that T cells respond heterogeneously to activation. To unravel the regulatory mechanisms that determine T cell effector function, novel methods were developed that simultaneously measure protein levels with the corresponding mRNA...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Jacquelyn Freund-Brown, Leilani Chirino, Taku Kambayashi
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells equipped with the ability to rapidly kill stressed cells that are neoplastic or virally infected. These cells are especially important in settings where these stressed cells downregulate MHC class I molecules and evade recognition by cytotoxic T cells. However, the activity of NK cells alone is often suboptimal to fully control tumor growth or to clear viral infections. Thus, the enhancement of NK cell function is necessary to fully harness their antitumor or antiviral potential...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Yong Liu, Chaoyu Ma, Nu Zhang
Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have emerged as a major component of T cell biology. Recent investigations have greatly advanced our understanding of TRMs. Common features have been discovered to distinguish memory T cells residing in various mucosal and non-mucosal tissues from their circulating counterparts. Given that most organs and tissues contain a unique microenvironment, local signal-induced tissue-specific features are tightly associated with the differentiation, homeostasis, and protective functions of TRMs...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Jacobus Hendricks, Nicolaas A Bos, Frans G M Kroese
The marginal zone (MZ) is largely composed of a unique subpopulation of B cells, the so-called MZ-B cells. At a molecular level, memory B cells are characterized by the presence of somatically mutated IGV genes. The earliest studies in the rat have documented the presence of hapten-specific MZ-B cells after immunization in the MZ. This work later received experimental support demonstrating that the IGHV-Cµ transcripts expressed by phenotypically defined splenic MZ-B cells (defined as CD90neg IgMhigh IgDlow B cells) can carry somatic hypermutation...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Pal Boto, Tamas Imre Csuth, Istvan Szatmari
The transcription factor RUNX3 is a prominent regulator of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages. Gene loss of function studies demonstrated the unique and essential roles of this master regulator in differentiated lymphoid and myeloid cells. As a complementary approach, RUNX3 was upregulated in various leukocyte subsets to probe the instructive role of this 'multilineage'-specific transcription factor. In this report, we overview the immunomodulatory functions of RUNX3 within the hematopoietic compartment to gain insight into the consequences of Runx3 deletion or overexpression in committed immune cells...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Jasper Rip, Esmee K Van Der Ploeg, Rudi W Hendriks, Odilia B J Corneth
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is an intracellular signaling molecule first identified as the molecule affected in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) patients, who almost completely lack peripheral B cells and serum immunoglobulins. BTK is crucial for B cell development and various B cell functions, including cytokine and natural antibody production. Importantly, it is also expressed in numerous other cells, including monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts. A few rare cases of autoimmune disease in XLA patients have been described...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Luke S Uebelhoer, Christina L Lancioni
During the period of transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, the neonatal immune system must learn to rapidly identify pathogens while balancing pro-inflammatory, antimicrobial responses with immune regulation that allows for resolution of inflammation and limits responses to commensal organisms and benign environmental antigens. However, the naive immune system of neonates is presented with several barriers that limit robust proinflammatory immune responses. Specifically, epigenetic modifications to neonatal naive CD4+ T cells, heightened neonatal regulatory T cell frequency and function, and limitations in the co-stimulatory potential of neonatal antigen presenting cells restrict development of CD4+ T cells with a T-helper 1 type functional profile...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Andrew C Lennard
The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-lra) is unusual in that it is the only known naturally occurring, cytokine receptor antagonist with no apparent agonist function. Over the last 5 years, since the cloning of the IL-lra cDNA sequence, there has been intensive research on the genetics, regulation, and potential therapeutic value of this protein. The later discovery of a second form of IL-lra in 1991 has complicated the picture. Whereas the originally described IL-lra is predominantly glycosylated and secreted (sIL-lra), the alternative isoform is unglycosylated and intracellular (icIL-lra)...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Denis P Snider
The bacterial enterotoxins, cholera toxin and the heat labile toxin of E. coli, are well known adjuvants for mucosal immune response. Their common A chain mediates the toxigenic mechanism by causing ADP ribosylation of G proteins and subsequent elevation of cAMP in target cells. A large IgA and IgG antibody response to admixed protein antigen (Ag) is the hallmark of these adjuvants and is clearly associated with the A chain activity. Expansion of Ag-specific B and T cells, alteration of T cell cytokine production, and changes in regulatory T cells have been reported as adjuvant mechanisms...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Elanchezhiyan Manickan, Kevin L Karem, Barry T Rouse
The reports in 1993 that naked DNA encoding viral genes conferred protective immunity came as a surprise to most vaccinologists. This review analyses the expanding number of examples where plasmid DNA induces immune responses. Issues such as the type of immunity induced, mechanisms of immune protection, and how DNA vaccines compare with other approaches are emphasized. Additional issues discussed include the likely means by which DNA vaccines induce CTL, how the potency and type of immunity induced can be modified, and whether DNA vaccines represent a practical means of manipulating unwanted immune response occurring during immunoinflammatory diseases...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Anette Gjorloff Wingren, Eduardo Parra, Mikael Varga, Terje Kalland, Hans-Olov Sjogren, Gunnar Hedlund, Mikael Dohlsten
Two signals are required for induction of cell proliferation and cytokine production in resting T cells. Occupancy of the T cell receptor by antigen/MHC complexes delivers the first signal to the T cell, while the second signal is provided by interaction with costimulatory ligands on APC. CD2, LFA-1, and CD28 are the major costimulatory and adhesive molecules on T cells and bind to the LFA-3, ICAM-1 and B7 ligands, respectively, on APC. LFA-3 plays a central role for naive and memory T helper cells during the early phase of an immune response...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Michael J Berridge
Lymphocytes employ a complex assembly of signaling elements that have been organized on a spatiotemporal map to define their role in stimulating both proliferation and apoptosis. The antigen/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) initiates the sequence by organizing the assembly of an active T-cell receptor (TCR) complex responsible for transmitting information down various signaling cassettes (e.g., the IP3/Ca2+, DAG/ PKC, ras/MAPK, and the PI 3-K pathways). It is proposed that CD28 may exert its costimulatory action by facilitating the assembly of an effective scaffold of signaling elements within the TCR complex...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Vasso Apostolopoulos, Ian F C McKenzie
Mucins are attracting great interest as potential targets for immunotherapy in the development of vaccines for cancers expressing Mucinl (MUC1) (e.g., breast, pancreas, ovary, and others) as there is (1) a 10-fold increase in the amount in adenocarcinomas; (2) an alteration in expression where they become ubiquitous, and (3) due to altered glycosylation, new epitopes appear on the cell surface that are absent in normal tissues. These new epitopes can be carbohydrate; others are peptide in nature. The cloning of the cDNAs from mucins, particularly MUC1, has led to rapid advances being made, and it is clear that a highly immunogenic peptide exists within the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) found in all mucins...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Jon D Laman, Eric Claassen, Randolph J Noelle
Initially, a role for the interaction between CD40, expressed on B cells, and gp39 (CD40L), expressed on activated T cells, has been defined in humoral immunity. CD40-CD40L interaction is an essential signal for B cell proliferation, expression of activation markers, immunoglobulin production, and isotype switching. CD40-CD40L interaction is also required for formation of B memory cells and germinal centers, and signaling through CD40 prevents apoptosis of germinal center B cells. Defective expression of CD40L in humans leads to an inability to produce isotypes other than IgM (hyper IgM syndrome), and to an absence of germinal centers...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Thierry Calandra, Richard Bucala
Originally described as a T lymphocyte-derived factor that inhibited the random migration of macrophages, the protein known as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was an enigmatic cytokine for almost 3 decades. In recent years, the discovery of MIF as a product of the anterior pituitary gland and the cloning and expression of bioactive, recombinant MIF protein have led to the definition of its critical biological role in vivo. MIF has the unique property of being released from macrophages and T lymphocytes that have been stimulated by glucocorticoids...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Philippe Le Bouteiller
Among the various areas of recent investigation in the field of human MHC class I antigens, the following have been selected for discussion in this review: (1) classical HLA class I genes: are they ubiquitously expressed?, what are the special features of their polymorphism?, are HLA-C molecules functional?, (2) non-classical HLA class I gene products: how restricted is their tissue distribution?, do they exhibit a little polymorphism?, what is their function, if any? (3) non-HLA genes recently detected in the HLA class I chromosomal region: are some of them involved in immunological function and development?, (4) other novel coding sequences present, or possibly present, in the region: the hemochromatosis gene, grc region and associated tumor suppressor genes, housekeeping genes, human equivalent of the murine H-2M region and Ped gene; (5) transcriptional regulation: are there cis-regulatory elements, including locus control region(s)...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
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