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Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Amanda Ricciuto, Anne M Griffiths
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) denotes a group of chronic incurable disorders characterized by relapsing-remitting inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD represents a growing global burden with a prevalence exceeding 0.3% in the Western world and an accelerating incidence in newly industrialized countries. The target for treating IBD has shifted in recent years from symptom control to mucosal healing (MH), which has been shown to be associated with favourable long-term outcomes. The gold standard for ascertaining MH is endoscopic assessment, but endoscopy is limited by its invasive nature, high cost and finite availability...
May 15, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Pierre-Antoine Peyron, Sylvain Lehmann, Constance Delaby, Eric Baccino, Christophe Hirtz
The accurate estimation of the time of death is a challenge in forensic medicine, as the methods routinely used to assess the post-mortem interval (PMI) are far from being precise. Over the past decades, biochemical methods have been implemented on post-mortem samples to improve the precision of PMI estimation. Studies have focussed on the biochemical profiles of closed compartment body fluids, as they are preserved longer than blood after death and are thus subject to confined post-mortem chemical changes...
May 15, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Stéphanie Desmedt, Valérie Desmedt, Leen De Vos, Joris R Delanghe, Reinhart Speeckaert, Marijn M Speeckaert
Initially considered as a macrophage inhibitor (macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) has been identified as a pleiotropic protein that plays key roles in prenatal development, in inflammation, in the regulation of cellular responses to stress signals, and in tissue repair after acute injuries in adult life. Multiple studies have revealed that GDF-15, a distant member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family, acts as a critical hormone to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism...
May 10, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Deirdre L Church, Christopher Naugler
Large laboratory systems that include facilities with a range of capabilities and capacity are being created within consolidated healthcare systems. This paradigm shift is being driven by administrators and payers seeking to achieve resource efficiencies and to conform practice to the requirements of computerization as well as the adoption of electronic medical records. Although standardization and harmonization of practice improves patient care outcomes and operational efficiencies, administratively driven practice conformity (conformity to opinion) also has serious drawbacks and may lead to significant system failure...
May 7, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Concetta Panebianco, Valerio Pazienza
Lack of specific symptoms and reliable biomarkers, along with aggressive nature and resistance to therapies make pancreatic cancer one of the leading causes of death for cancer worldwide. The search for new diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic tools that could improve clinical outcomes of patients has led, in recent years, to the investigation of potential roles for microbiota in the pathogenesis of this disease. The human microbiota encompasses trillions of microorganisms residing within several body tissues and organs, where they provide beneficial functions for host homeostasis and health...
May 7, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Valentina Sas, Cristina Blag, Gabriela Zaharie, Emil Puscas, Cosmin Lisencu, Nicolae Andronic-Gorcea, Sergiu Pasca, Bobe Petrushev, Irina Chis, Mirela Marian, Delia Dima, Patric Teodorescu, Sabina Iluta, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Gheorghe Popa, Sorin Man, Anca Colita, Cristina Stefan, Seiji Kojima, Ciprian Tomuleasa
Childhood leukemia is mostly a ''developmental accident'' during fetal hematopoiesis and may require multiple prenatal and postnatal ''hits''. The World Health Organization defines transient leukemia of Down syndrome as increased peripheral blood blasts cells in neonates with Down syndrome and classifies this type of leukemia as a separate entity. Although it was shown that Down syndrome predisposes children to myeloid leukemia, neither the nature of the predisposition nor the associated genetic lesions have been defined...
May 1, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Khushbu Patel, Brenda B Suh-Lailam
Point-of-care testing (POCT) refers to testing performed outside the clinical laboratory near the patient or at the site of patient care. This could be in critical care settings like the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department (ED) or primary care settings like physician offices where testing is performed by nonlaboratory personnel. POCT circumvents several steps in central laboratory testing including specimen transportation and processing resulting in faster turnaround times. Provider access to rapid test results at the site of patient care allows for prompt medical decision making which can lead to improved patient outcomes, operational efficiencies, patient satisfaction, and even cost savings in some cases...
April 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Cristina Bagacean, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Adrian Tempescul, Ravnit Grewal, Wesley H Brooks, Christian Berthou, Yves Renaudineau
Increased resistance to apoptosis represents a key oncogenic mechanism in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that has been attributed to the up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Such an observation was associated with the development of molecules inhibiting Bcl-2 activity, and among them, BH3-mimetics represent a novel class of therapeutic compounds. In 2016, venetoclax became the first approved oral inhibitor of Bcl-2, and it has been used with success in patients with CLL who present with a 17p deletion or TP53 mutations and in those who have received at least one prior therapy...
April 2, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Xander M R Van Wijk, Robert Goodnough, Jennifer M Colby
This manuscript offers a broad overview of the state of emergency toxicology testing in clinical laboratories. We summarize the specific challenges of performing emergency toxicology testing, introduce a variety of currently used methods including mass spectrometry, and compare and contrast the utility of different types of mass spectrometers for this purpose. Finally, we examine evidence on the utility of toxicological testing in the treatment of poisoned patients, with special emphasis on the demonstrated utility of mass spectrometry-based tests...
April 1, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Aroa Relaño-Ginés, Sylvain Lehmann, Dominique Deville de Périère, Christophe Hirtz
One of the main hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases is the loss of neurons in the brain and/or spinal cord. The clinical characteristics of neurodegenerative diseases depend on the specific regions of the central nervous system that have undergone cell loss. These diseases place an enormous burden on society due to the degree of human suffering and their substantial economic cost. Indeed, approximately 1 in 6 individuals worldwide suffer from neurological disorders. As the world's population ages, the impact of neurological disorders is expected to increase and likely become one of the main public health and medical challenges of the coming century...
April 1, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
K Berend, A J Duits
Acid-base homeostasis is fundamental for life. The body is exceptionally sensitive to changes in pH, and as a result, potent mechanisms exist to regulate the body's acid-base balance to maintain it in a very narrow range. Accurate and timely interpretation of an acid-base disorder can be lifesaving but establishing a correct diagnosis may be challenging. The underlying cause of the acid-base disorder is generally responsible for a patient's signs and symptoms, but laboratory results and their integration into the clinical picture is crucial...
March 27, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Stella K Vasiliou, Eleftherios P Diamandis
Breast cancer (BCa) is the second most common cancer worldwide and the most prevalent cancer in women. The majority of BCa cases are positive (+) for the estrogen receptor (ER+ , 80%) and progesterone receptor (PR+ , 65%). Estrogen and progesterone hormones are known to be involved in cancer progression, and thus hormonal deprivation is used as an effective treatment for ER+ PR+ BCa subtypes. However, some ER+ PR+ BCa patients develop resistance to such therapies. Meanwhile, chemotherapy is the only available treatment for ER- PR- BCa tumors...
March 1, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Ana Sanches-Silva, Kasi Pandima Devi, Touqeer Ahmed, Momina Shahid, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Marco Dacrema, Maria Daglia, Nady Braidy, Rosa Anna Vacca, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Diana Gulei, Davide Barreca, Maciej Banach, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Samira Shirooie
Autophagy is an important biological mechanism involved in the regulation of numerous fundamental cellular processes that are mainly associated with cellular growth and differentiation. Autophagic pathways are vital for maintaining cellular homeostasis by enhancing the turnover of nonfunctional proteins and organelles. Neuronal cells, like other eukaryotic cells, are dependent on autophagy for neuroprotection in response to stress, but can also induce cell death in cerebral ischemia. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy may induce neuroprotection following acute brain injury, including ischemic stroke...
March 1, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Christopher Naugler, Deirdre L Church
The daily operation of clinical laboratories will be drastically impacted by two disruptive technologies: automation and artificial intelligence (the development and use of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence). These technologies will also expand the scope of laboratory medicine. Automation will result in increased efficiency but will require changes to laboratory infrastructure and a shift in workforce training requirements. The application of artificial intelligence to large clinical datasets generated through increased automation will lead to the development of new diagnostic and prognostic models...
March 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Caroline Diener, Valentina Galata, Andreas Keller, Eckart Meese
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) hold great promise as blood-borne and circulating biomarkers for numerous diseases. However, the reliability of such liquid biopsies is particularly impacted by problems associated with the handling of biological liquids in the pre-analytical stage of biomarker processing. Dried blood spots (DBS) and other capillary blood microsampling devices offer a way to circumvent many of these complications. DBS are supposed to be far less sensitive to collection protocols, storage conditions, and transport processes, while offering the possibility for a decentralized sample collection...
January 29, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Eberhard Buse, Udo R Markert
The cynomolgus monkey is increasingly considered in toxicological research as the most appropriate model for humans due to the species' close physiological contiguity, including reproductive physiology. Here, literature on the cynomolgus monkey placenta is reviewed in regards to its similarity to the human placenta and particularly for its immunological role, which is not entirely mirrored in humans. Pertinent original data are included in this article. The cynomolgus monkey placenta is evaluated based on three aspects: first, morphological development; second, the spatial and temporal appearance of maternal and fetal immune cells and certain immune cell products of the innate and adaptive immune systems; and third, the expression of relevant immune tolerance-related molecules including the homologs of anti-human leucocyte antigen, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, FAS/FAS-L, annexin II, and progesterone...
January 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Edward W Randell, Sedef Yenice
International standards and practice guidelines recommend the use of delta check alerts for laboratory test result interpretation and quality control. The value of contemporary applications of simple univariate delta checks determined as an absolute change, percentage change, or rate of change to recognize specimen misidentification or other laboratory errors has not received much study. This review addresses these three modes of calculation, but in line with the majority of published work, most attention is focused on the identification of specimen misidentification errors...
January 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Quin Xie, Kevin Faust, Randy Van Ommeren, Adeel Sheikh, Ugljesa Djuric, Phedias Diamandis
The precision-based revolution in medicine continues to demand stratification of patients into smaller and more personalized subgroups. While genomic technologies have largely led this movement, diagnostic results can take days to weeks to generate. Management at, or closer to, the point of care still heavily relies on the subjective qualitative interpretation of clinical and diagnostic imaging findings. New and emerging technological advances in artificial intelligence (AI) now appear poised to help bring objectivity and precision to these traditionally qualitative analytic tools...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Xiu Wang, Mianmian Wu, Yunshan Cao, Zhi Zhang, Fang Guo, Xiaorong Li, Yan Zhang
Programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, as negative co-stimulatory molecules, are indispensable for regulating both physiological and pathological immune responses. The PD-1/PD-L1-mediated signaling pathway has been studied extensively in cancer research and has become a hotspot for biopharmaceuticals and immunotherapy. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies to PD-1 have just been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat certain types of malignancies. Recent research has unveiled a close association between the PD-1/PD-L1 system and eye diseases...
January 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Julien Favresse, Giuseppe Lippi, Pierre-Marie Roy, Bernard Chatelain, Hugues Jacqmin, Hugo Ten Cate, François Mullier
D-dimer is a soluble fibrin degradation product deriving from the plasmin-mediated degradation of cross-linked fibrin. D-dimer can hence be considered a biomarker of activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and it is routinely used for ruling out venous thromboembolism (VTE). D-dimer is increasingly used to assess the risk of VTE recurrence and to help define the optimal duration of anticoagulation treatment in patients with VTE, for diagnosing disseminated intravascular coagulation, and for screening medical patients at increased risk of VTE...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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