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March 20, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
M Maziere, J C Andrade, P Rompante, C F Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: In 2022, the World Health Organization published a report encouraging researchers to focus on Candida spp. to strengthen the global response to fungal oral infections and antifungal resistance. In the context of innovative research, it seems pertinent to investigate the antifungal potential of natural extracts of plants and the methodology involved in the recent reports. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the current state of in vitro research on the evaluation of the ability of plant extracts to inhibit Candida spp...
March 18, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Chongshan Yuan, Kunyu Xie, Lianjun Feng, Shouyang Gao, Lifu Cai
The uterine environment provides necessary conditions for the existence of endometrial microbiota, which in turn plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of the uterine environment. The endometrial microbiome is highly susceptible to external factors such as age, hormones, menstrual, pregnancy, etc. When the microbiota is imbalanced, it will further promote the occurrence of uterine diseases such as endometritis and endometrial cancer. Regulating the microbiome of the endometrium is of positive significance for promoting uterine health...
March 15, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Asrar Ahmad Malik, Mohd Shariq, Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Sheeba Zarin, Yashika Ahuja, Haleema Fayaz, Anwar Alam, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
Autophagy is a crucial immune defense mechanism that controls the survival and pathogenesis of M. tb by maintaining cell physiology during stress and pathogen attack. The E3-Ub ligases (PRKN, SMURF1, and NEDD4) and autophagy receptors (SQSTM1, TAX1BP1, CALCOCO2, OPTN, and NBR1) play key roles in this process. Galectins (LGALSs), which bind to sugars and are involved in identifying damaged cell membranes caused by intracellular pathogens such as M. tb , are essential. These include LGALS3, LGALS8, and LGALS9, which respond to endomembrane damage and regulate endomembrane damage caused by toxic chemicals, protein aggregates, and intracellular pathogens, including M...
March 12, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Anusree Sajeevan, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Adline Princy Solomon
Vibrio cholerae is a cholera-causing pathogen known to instigate severe contagious diarrhea that affects millions globally. Survival of vibrios depend on a combination of multicellular responses and adapt to changes that prevail in the environment. This process is achieved through a strong communication at the cellular level, the process has been recognized as quorum sensing (QS). The severity of infection is highly dependent on the QS of vibrios in the gut milieu. The quorum may exist in a low/high cell density (LCD/HCD) state to exert a positive or negative response to control the regulatory pathogenic networks...
March 5, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Mianzhi Wang, Junxuan Zhang, Jingyi Wei, Lei Jiang, Li Jiang, Yongxue Sun, Zhenling Zeng, Zhiqiang Wang
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinically priority pathogensis now a major threat to public health worldwide. Phages are bacterial parasites that efficiently infect or kill specific strains and represent the most abundant biological entities on earth, showing great attraction as potential antibacterial therapeutics in combating AMR. This review provides a summary of phage-inspired strategies to combat AMR. We firstly cover the phage diversity, and then explain the biological principles of phage therapy that support the use of phages in the post-antimicrobial era...
March 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Renata O Mattos-Graner, Marlise I Klein, Lívia Araújo Alves
In this review, we address the interplay between the complement system and host microbiomes in health and disease, focussing on oral bacteria known to contribute to homeostasis or to promote dysbiosis associated with dental caries and periodontal diseases. Host proteins modulating complement activities in the oral environment and expression profiles of complement proteins in oral tissues were described. In addition, we highlight a sub-set of bacterial proteins involved in complement evasion and/or dysregulation previously characterized in pathogenic species (or strains), but further conserved among prototypical commensal species of the oral microbiome...
March 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Kusum Kharga, Shubhang Jha, Tanvi Vishwakarma, Lokender Kumar
Antibiotics have remained the cornerstone for the treatment of bacterial infections ever since their discovery in the twentieth century. The uproar over antibiotic resistance among bacteria arising from genome plasticity and biofilm development has rendered current antibiotic therapies ineffective, urging the development of innovative therapeutic approaches. The development of antibiotic resistance among bacteria has further heightened the clinical failure of antibiotic therapy, which is often linked to its low bioavailability, side effects, and poor penetration and accumulation at the site of infection...
February 29, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Daniel Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara Jareño-Moreno, Clara Buch-Cardona, François Mougeot, Juan José Luque-Larena, Dolors Vidal
Francisella tularensis is the pathogen of tularemia, a zoonotic disease that have a broad range of hosts. Its epidemiology is related to aquatic environments, particularly in the subspecies holarctica . In this review, we explore the role of water and mosquitoes in the epidemiology of Francisella in Europe. F. tularensis epidemiology has been linked to natural waters, where its persistence has been associated with biofilm and amebas. In Sweden and Finland, the European countries where most human cases have been reported, mosquito bites are a main route of transmission...
February 23, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Sajid Iqbal, Farida Begum, Ihsan Ullah, Nasir Jalal, Peter Shaw
Microbes represent the most common organisms on Earth; however, less than 2% of microbial species in the environment can undergo cultivation for study under laboratory conditions, and the rest of the enigmatic, microbial world remains mysterious, constituting a kind of "microbial dark matter" (MDM). In the last two decades, remarkable progress has been made in culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. More recently, studies of MDM have relied on culture-independent techniques to recover genetic material through either unicellular genomics or shotgun metagenomics to construct single-amplified genomes (SAGs) and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), respectively, which provide information about evolution and metabolism...
February 22, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Rupesh Aggarwal, Pooja Mahajan, Sameeksha Pandiya, Aayushi Bajaj, Shailendra Kumar Verma, Puja Yadav, Arun S Kharat, Asad Ullah Khan, Meenakshi Dua, Atul Kumar Johri
Healthy state is priority in today's world which can be achieved using effective medicines. But due to overuse and misuse of antibiotics, a menace of resistance has increased in pathogenic microbes. World Health Organization (WHO) has announced ESKAPE pathogens ( Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) as the top priority pathogens as these have developed resistance against certain antibiotics. To combat such a global issue, it is utmost important to identify novel therapeutic strategies/agents as an alternate to such antibiotics...
February 21, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Alexandra M Mowday, Jella M van de Laak, Zhe Fu, Kimiora L Henare, Ludwig Dubois, Philippe Lambin, Jan Theys, Adam V Patterson
Cancer immunotherapies have been widely hailed as a breakthrough for cancer treatment in the last decade, epitomized by the unprecedented results observed with checkpoint blockade. Even so, only a minority of patients currently achieve durable remissions. In general, responsive patients appear to have either a high number of tumor neoantigens, a preexisting immune cell infiltrate in the tumor microenvironment, or an 'immune-active' transcriptional profile, determined in part by the presence of a type I interferon gene signature...
February 12, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Kritika Malik, Prashant Kodgire
Cancer research has extensively explored various factors contributing to cancer development, including chemicals, drugs, smoking, and obesity. However, the role of bacterial infections in cancer induction remains underexplored. In particular, the mechanisms underlying H. pylori -induced B-cell lymphoma, a potential consequence of bacterial infection, have received little attention. In recent years, there has been speculation about contagious agents causing persistent inflammation and encouraging B-lymphocyte transition along with lymphomagenesis...
January 30, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Mahnoor Zulfiqar, Vinay Singh, Christoph Steinbeck, Maria Sorokina
Microbial communities thrive through interactions and communication, which are challenging to study as most microorganisms are not cultivable. To address this challenge, researchers focus on the extracellular space where communication events occur. Exometabolomics and interactome analysis provide insights into the molecules involved in communication and the dynamics of their interactions. Advances in sequencing technologies and computational methods enable the reconstruction of taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities using high-throughput multi-omics data...
January 25, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Jeffrey S Schorey, Joseph Vecchio, William R McManus, Joshua Ongalo, Kylie Webber
Although the importance of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) sensors in controlling viral infection is well established, their role in promoting an effective immune response to pathogens other than viruses is less clear. This is particularly true for infections with mycobacteria, as studies point to both protective and detrimental roles for activation of nucleic acid sensors in controlling a mycobacterial infection. Some of the contradiction likely stems from the use of different model systems and different mycobacterial species/strains as well as from which nucleic acid sensors were studied and what downstream effectors were evaluated...
December 28, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Lionel Schiavolin, Geoffrey Deneubourg, Jenny Steinmetz, Pierre R Smeesters, Anne Botteaux
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major human pathogen, causing diseases ranging from mild superficial infections of the skin and pharyngeal epithelium to severe systemic and invasive diseases. Moreover, post infection auto-immune sequelae arise by a yet not fully understood mechanism. The ability of GAS to cause a wide variety of infections is linked to the expression of a large set of virulence factors and their transcriptional regulation in response to various physiological environments. The use of transcriptomics, among others -omics technologies, in addition to traditional molecular methods, has led to a better understanding of GAS pathogenesis and host adaptation mechanisms...
December 23, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Ananya Anurag Anand, Ayush Amod, Sarfraz Anwar, Amaresh Kumar Sahoo, Gautam Sethi, Sintu Kumar Samanta
Lately, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing at an exponential rate making it important to search alternatives to antibiotics in order to combat multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Out of the several antibacterial and antibiofilm strategies being tested, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown to give better hopes in terms of a long-lasting solution to the problem. To select a desired AMP, it is important to make right use of available tools and databases that aid in identification, classification, and analysis of the physiochemical properties of AMPs...
December 15, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Suleiman Aminu, AbdulAziz Ascandari, Meriem Laamarti, Nour El Houda Safdi, Achraf El Allali, Rachid Daoud
The classical microbiology techniques have inherent limitations in unraveling the complexity of microbial communities, necessitating the pivotal role of sequencing in studying the diversity of microbial communities. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) enables researchers to uncover the metabolic capabilities of the microbial community, providing valuable insights into the microbiome. Herein, we present an overview of the rapid advancements achieved thus far in the use of WGS in microbiome research. There was an upsurge in publications, particularly in 2021 and 2022 with the United States, China, and India leading the metagenomics research landscape...
November 25, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Tegan M Hibbert, Marvin Whiteley, Stephen A Renshaw, Daniel R Neill, Joanne L Fothergill
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is responsible for infections in people living with chronic respiratory conditions, such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB). Traditionally, in people with chronic respiratory disorders, P. aeruginosa infection has been managed with a combination of inhaled and intravenous antibiotic therapies. However, due in part to the prolonged use of antibiotics in these people, the emergence of multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains is a growing concern...
November 24, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Geum-Jae Jeong, Fazlurrahman Khan, Nazia Tabassum, Young-Mog Kim
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can efficiently adapt to changing environmental conditions due to its ubiquitous nature, intrinsic/acquired/adaptive resistance mechanisms, high metabolic versatility, and the production of numerous virulence factors. As a result, P. aeruginosa becomes an opportunistic pathogen, causing chronic infection in the lungs and several organs of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Biofilm established by P. aeruginosa in host tissues and medical device surfaces has been identified as a major obstruction to antimicrobial therapy...
November 15, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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