Wenwen Liu, Ting Yang, Yingying Kong, Xinyou Xie, Zhi Ruan
Human Ureaplasma species are being increasingly recognized as opportunistic pathogens in human genitourinary tract infections, infertility, adverse pregnancy, neonatal morbidities, and other adult invasive infections. Although some general reviews have focused on the detection and clinical manifestations of Ureaplasma spp., the molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenesis of Ureaplasma spp. have not been adequately explained. The purpose of this review is to offer valuable insights into the current understanding and future research perspectives of the molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenesis of human Ureaplasma infections...
May 24, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Maria Inês Magalhães, Maria João Azevedo, Flávia Castro, Maria José Oliveira, Ângela M Costa, Benedita Sampaio Maia
In early-life, the gut microbiota is highly modifiable, being modulated by external factors such as maternal microbiota, mode of delivery, and feeding strategies. The composition of the child's gut microbiota will deeply impact the development and maturation of its immune system, with consequences for future health. As one of the main sources of microorganisms to the child, the mother represents a crucial factor in the establishment of early-life microbiota, impacting the infant's wellbeing. Recent studies have proposed that dysbiotic maternal gut microbiota could be transmitted to the offspring, influencing the development of its immunity, and leading to the development of diseases such as obesity...
April 23, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Stephen J Vesper
The prevalence of asthma in the United States (U.S.) has doubled since 1970, coinciding with the increased use of gypsum-drywall in home construction. Mold growth is promoted when gypsum-drywall gets wet. Since asthma is linked to mold exposures, accurate quantification of mold contamination in homes is critical. Therefore, qPCR assays were created and then used to quantify 36 common molds in dust collected in representative U.S. homes during the first American Health Homes Survey (AHHS). The concentrations of the 36 molds, i...
April 23, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Sankaranarayanan Gomathinayagam, Gothandam Kodiveri Muthukaliannan
This brief review explores the intricate interplay between bacteriophages and plasmids in the context of antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) dissemination. Originating from studies in the late 1950s, the review traces the evolution of knowledge regarding extrachromosomal factors facilitating horizontal gene transfer and adaptation in bacteria. Analyzing the gene repertoires of plasmids and bacteriophages, the study highlights their contributions to bacterial evolution and adaptation. While plasmids encode essential and accessory genes influencing host characteristics, bacteriophages carry auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) that augment host metabolism...
April 23, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Abdul Hamid Borghol, Elio R Bitar, Aya Hanna, Georges Naim, Elias A Rahal
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), a dsDNA herpesvirus, is believed to play a significant role in exacerbating and potentially triggering autoimmune and autoinflammatory maladies. Around 90% of the world is infected with the virus, which establishes latency within lymphocytes. EBV is also known to cause infectious mononucleosis, a self-limited flu-like illness, in adolescents. EBV is often reactivated and it employs several mechanisms of evading the host immune system. It has also been implicated in inducing host immune dysfunction potentially resulting in exacerbation or triggering of inflammatory processes...
April 18, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Loick P Kojom Foko, Amit Moun, Vineeta Singh
Shifting from high- to low-malaria transmission accompanies a higher proportion of asymptomatic low-density malaria infections (LDMI). Currently, several endemic countries, such as India, are experiencing this shift as it is striving to eliminate malaria. LDMI is a complex concept for which there are several important questions yet unanswered on its natural history, infectiousness, epidemiology, and pathological and clinical impact. India is on the right path to eliminating malaria, but it is facing the LDMI problem...
April 17, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Gangli Zhu, Ni Tong, Yipeng Zhu, Lize Wang, Qirui Wang
Pathogens can not only cause infectious diseases, immune system diseases, and chronic diseases, but also serve as potential triggers or initiators for certain tumors. They directly or indirectly damage human health and are one of the leading causes of global deaths. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification, a type of protein post-translational modification (PTM) that occurs when SUMO groups bond covalently to particular lysine residues on substrate proteins, plays a crucial role in both innate and adaptive immunologic responses, as well as pathogen-host immune system crosstalk...
April 15, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Sayantan Mukherjee, Aditi Chopra, Shaswata Karmakar, Subraya Giliyar Bhat
Periodontitis is an immuno-inflammatory disease of the soft tissues surrounding the teeth. Periodontitis is linked to many communicable and non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancers. The oral-systemic link between periodontal disease and systemic diseases is attributed to the spread of inflammation, microbial products and microbes to distant organ systems. Oral bacteria reach the gut via swallowed saliva, whereby they induce gut dysbiosis and gastrointestinal dysfunctions...
April 11, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Xia Zhao, Yan Zhang, Bing Luo
Ferroptosis is a new type of cell death, which is mainly dependent on the formation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides mediated by iron. It is distinct from other forms of regulation of cell death in morphology, immunology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. Various cell death mechanisms have been observed in many viral infections, and virus-induced cell death has long been considered as a double-edged sword that can inhibit or aggravate viral infections. However, understanding of the role of ferroptosis in various viral infections is limited...
April 8, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Yasmin Bano, Abhinav Shrivastava, Piyush Shukla, Anis Ahmad Chaudhary, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Shahanavaj Khan
Available evidence illustrates that microbiome is a promising target for the study of growth, diagnosis and therapy of various types of cancer. Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The relationship of microbiota and their products with diverse pathologic conditions has been getting large attention. The novel research suggests that the microbiome plays an important role in the growth and progression of lung cancer. The lung microbiome plays a crucial role in maintaining mucosal immunity and synchronizing the stability between tolerance and inflammation...
March 31, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Ekta Narwal, Jairam Choudhary, Manoj Kumar, Ryszard Amarowicz, Sunil Kumar, Radha, Deepak Chandran, Sangram Dhumal, Surinder Singh, Marisennayya Senapathy, Sureshkumar Rajalingam, Muthamilselvan Muthukumar, Mohamed Mekhemar
The mouth houses the second largest diversity of microorganisms in the body, harboring more than 700 bacterial species colonizing the soft mucosa and hard tooth surfaces. Microbes are the cause of several health-related problems, such as dental carries, gingivitis, periodontitis, etc., in the mouth across different age groups and socioeconomic/demographic groups. Oral infections are major health problems that affect the standard of living. Compromised oral health is related to chronic conditions and systemic disorders...
March 28, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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March 20, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
M Maziere, J C Andrade, P Rompante, C F Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: In 2022, the World Health Organization published a report encouraging researchers to focus on Candida spp. to strengthen the global response to fungal oral infections and antifungal resistance. In the context of innovative research, it seems pertinent to investigate the antifungal potential of natural extracts of plants and the methodology involved in the recent reports. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the current state of in vitro research on the evaluation of the ability of plant extracts to inhibit Candida spp...
March 18, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Chongshan Yuan, Kunyu Xie, Lianjun Feng, Shouyang Gao, Lifu Cai
The uterine environment provides necessary conditions for the existence of endometrial microbiota, which in turn plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of the uterine environment. The endometrial microbiome is highly susceptible to external factors such as age, hormones, menstrual, pregnancy, etc. When the microbiota is imbalanced, it will further promote the occurrence of uterine diseases such as endometritis and endometrial cancer. Regulating the microbiome of the endometrium is of positive significance for promoting uterine health...
March 15, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Asrar Ahmad Malik, Mohd Shariq, Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Sheeba Zarin, Yashika Ahuja, Haleema Fayaz, Anwar Alam, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
Autophagy is a crucial immune defense mechanism that controls the survival and pathogenesis of M. tb by maintaining cell physiology during stress and pathogen attack. The E3-Ub ligases (PRKN, SMURF1, and NEDD4) and autophagy receptors (SQSTM1, TAX1BP1, CALCOCO2, OPTN, and NBR1) play key roles in this process. Galectins (LGALSs), which bind to sugars and are involved in identifying damaged cell membranes caused by intracellular pathogens such as M. tb , are essential. These include LGALS3, LGALS8, and LGALS9, which respond to endomembrane damage and regulate endomembrane damage caused by toxic chemicals, protein aggregates, and intracellular pathogens, including M...
March 12, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Anusree Sajeevan, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Adline Princy Solomon
Vibrio cholerae is a cholera-causing pathogen known to instigate severe contagious diarrhea that affects millions globally. Survival of vibrios depend on a combination of multicellular responses and adapt to changes that prevail in the environment. This process is achieved through a strong communication at the cellular level, the process has been recognized as quorum sensing (QS). The severity of infection is highly dependent on the QS of vibrios in the gut milieu. The quorum may exist in a low/high cell density (LCD/HCD) state to exert a positive or negative response to control the regulatory pathogenic networks...
March 5, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Mianzhi Wang, Junxuan Zhang, Jingyi Wei, Lei Jiang, Li Jiang, Yongxue Sun, Zhenling Zeng, Zhiqiang Wang
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinically priority pathogensis now a major threat to public health worldwide. Phages are bacterial parasites that efficiently infect or kill specific strains and represent the most abundant biological entities on earth, showing great attraction as potential antibacterial therapeutics in combating AMR. This review provides a summary of phage-inspired strategies to combat AMR. We firstly cover the phage diversity, and then explain the biological principles of phage therapy that support the use of phages in the post-antimicrobial era...
March 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Renata O Mattos-Graner, Marlise I Klein, Lívia Araújo Alves
In this review, we address the interplay between the complement system and host microbiomes in health and disease, focussing on oral bacteria known to contribute to homeostasis or to promote dysbiosis associated with dental caries and periodontal diseases. Host proteins modulating complement activities in the oral environment and expression profiles of complement proteins in oral tissues were described. In addition, we highlight a sub-set of bacterial proteins involved in complement evasion and/or dysregulation previously characterized in pathogenic species (or strains), but further conserved among prototypical commensal species of the oral microbiome...
March 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Kusum Kharga, Shubhang Jha, Tanvi Vishwakarma, Lokender Kumar
Antibiotics have remained the cornerstone for the treatment of bacterial infections ever since their discovery in the twentieth century. The uproar over antibiotic resistance among bacteria arising from genome plasticity and biofilm development has rendered current antibiotic therapies ineffective, urging the development of innovative therapeutic approaches. The development of antibiotic resistance among bacteria has further heightened the clinical failure of antibiotic therapy, which is often linked to its low bioavailability, side effects, and poor penetration and accumulation at the site of infection...
February 29, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Daniel Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara Jareño-Moreno, Clara Buch-Cardona, François Mougeot, Juan José Luque-Larena, Dolors Vidal
Francisella tularensis is the pathogen of tularemia, a zoonotic disease that have a broad range of hosts. Its epidemiology is related to aquatic environments, particularly in the subspecies holarctica . In this review, we explore the role of water and mosquitoes in the epidemiology of Francisella in Europe. F. tularensis epidemiology has been linked to natural waters, where its persistence has been associated with biofilm and amebas. In Sweden and Finland, the European countries where most human cases have been reported, mosquito bites are a main route of transmission...
February 23, 2024: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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