Nazarii Kobyliak, Maria Khomenko, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Alexandra Fedchenko, Oleksii Savchuk, Yuliya Tseyslyer, Liudmyla Ostapchenko
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia because of insulin resistance (IR) and\or pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Last century research showed that gut microbiota has a direct effect on metabolism and metabolic diseases. New studies into the human microbiome and its connection with the host is making it possible to develop new therapies for a wide variety of diseases. Inflammation is a well-known precursor to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of hypertension, visceral obesity, and dyslipidemia, which can lead to T2D through the damage of pancreatic β-cell and reduce insulin secretion...
September 13, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Qiong Ma, Xueke Li, Hua Jiang, Xi Fu, Liting You, Fengming You, Yifeng Ren
The oral cavity contains a site-specific microbiota that interacts with host cells to regulate many physiological processes in the human body. Emerging evidence has suggested that changes in the oral microbiota can increase the risk of lung cancer (LC), and the oral microbiota is also altered in patients with LC. Human and animal studies have shown that oral microecological disorders and/or specific oral bacteria may play an active role in the occurrence and development of LC through direct and/or indirect mechanisms...
September 11, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Kai Xia, Renyuan Gao, Lin Li, Xiaocai Wu, Tianqi Wu, Yu Ruan, Lu Yin, Chunqiu Chen
Intestinal inflammation modifies host physiology to promote the occurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC), as seen in colitis-associated CRC. Gut microbiota is crucial in cancer progression, primarily by inducing intestinal chronic inflammatory microenvironment, leading to DNA damage, chromosomal mutation, and alterations in specific metabolite production. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in microbiota-based prevention and treatment strategies, such as probiotics, prebiotics, microbiota-derived metabolites, and fecal microbiota transplantation...
September 6, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
S Mayo-Pérez, Y Gama-Martínez, S Dávila, N Rivera, I Hernández-Lucas
The LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) are DNA-binding proteins present in bacteria, archaea, and in algae. Knowledge about their distribution, abundance, evolution, structural organization, transcriptional regulation, fundamental roles in free life, pathogenesis, and bacteria-plant interaction has been generated. This review focuses on these aspects and provides a current picture of LTTR biology.
August 27, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Lejaniya Abdul Kalam Saleena, Sui Kiat Chang, Khanom Simarani, Kantha Deivi Arunachalam, Rarinthorn Thammakulkrajang, Yu Hsuan How, Liew Phing Pui
Recently, more consumers are interested in purchasing probiotic food and beverage products that may improve their immune health. The market for functional foods and beverages that include Bifidobacterium is expanding because of their potential uses in both food and therapeutic applications. However, maintaining Bifidobacterium's viability during food processing and storage remains a challenge. Microencapsulation technique has been explored to improve the viability of Bifidobacterium . Despite the technical, microbiological, and economic challenges, the market potential for immune-supporting functional foods and beverages is significant...
August 8, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Ilyas Alav, Michelle M C Buckner
Horizontal gene transfer plays a key role in the global dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR genes are often carried on self-transmissible plasmids, which are shared amongst bacteria primarily by conjugation. Antibiotic use has been a well-established driver of the emergence and spread of AMR. However, the impact of commonly used non-antibiotic compounds and environmental pollutants on AMR spread has been largely overlooked. Recent studies found common prescription and over-the-counter drugs, artificial sweeteners, food preservatives, and environmental pollutants, can increase the conjugative transfer of AMR plasmids...
July 18, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Zirou Ouyang, Hanlin Zhao, Min Zhao, Yaxuan Yang, Jianhong Zhao
Clostridioides difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped, obligate anaerobe that is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Type IV pili (T4P) are elongated appendages on the surface of C. difficile that are polymerized from many pilin proteins. T4P play an important role in C. difficile adherence and particularly in its persistence in the host intestine. Recent studies have shown that T4P promote C. difficile aggregation, surface motility, and biofilm formation, which may enhance its pathogenicity...
July 15, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Enamul Hoque, Johannes Fritscher
Anaerobic fungi are known to migrate and establish a 3D network of biofilms (microbiomes) and live invisible in the rumen and terrestrial subsurface, deep-sea - marine, and anoxic environment. They deserve our attention to understand anoxic fungal ecology and functions and develop new products and solutions. Such fungi activate unique genes to produce various polysaccharidases deemed essential for degrading plants' lignocellulosic materials. Nutrient release, recycling, and physical support by anaerobic fungi are crucial for microbiome formation...
July 15, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
S W G van Hoogstraten, C Kuik, J J C Arts, B Cillero-Pastor
The formation of bacterial biofilms in the human body and on medical devices is a serious human health concern. Infections related to bacterial biofilms are often chronic and difficult to treat. Detailed information on biofilm formation and composition over time is essential for a fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms of biofilm formation and its response to anti-biofilm therapy. However, information on the chemical composition, structural components of biofilms, and molecular interactions regarding metabolism- and communication pathways within the biofilm, such as uptake of administered drugs or inter-bacteria communication, remains elusive...
July 15, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Yanin Xu, Haiyan Du, Yuchun Chen, Chong Ma, Qian Zhang, Hao Li, Zhiyong Xie, Yanjun Hong
Despite ongoing breakthroughs in novel anticancer therapies, chemotherapy remains a mainstream therapeutic modality in different types of cancer. Unfortunately, chemotherapy-related toxicity (CRT) often leads to dose limitation, and even results in treatment termination. Over the past few years, accumulating evidence has indicated that the gut microbiota is extensively engaged in various toxicities initiated by chemotherapeutic drugs, either directly or indirectly. The gut microbiota can now be targeted to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy...
July 13, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Niranjana Sri Sundaramoorthy, Prakash Shankaran, Vidhya Gopalan, Saisubramanian Nagarajan
Treatment to common bacterial infections are becoming ineffective of late, owing to the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance globally. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most notorious microorganisms and are among the critical priority pathogens listed by WHO in 2017. These pathogens are the predominant cause of sepsis, urinary tract infections (UTIs), pneumonia, meningitis and pyogenic liver abscess. Concern arises due to the resistance of bacteria to most of the beta lactam antibiotics like penicillin, cephalosporin, monobactams and carbapenems, even to the last resort antibiotics like colistin...
August 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Mónica A Farías, Benjamín Diethelm-Varela, Alexis M Kalergis, Pablo A González
Lipids play essential roles in the cell as components of cellular membranes, signaling molecules, and energy storage sources. Lipid droplets are cellular organelles composed of neutral lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and are also considered as cellular energy reserves, yet new functions have been recently associated with these structures, such as regulators of oxidative stress and cellular lipotoxicity, as well as modulators of pathogen infection through immune regulation. Lipid metabolism and lipid droplets participate in the infection process of many RNA viruses and control their replication and assembly, among others...
June 22, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Amrita C Bhagwat, Sunil D Saroj
One of the main issues in modern medicine is the decrease in the efficacy of antibiotic therapy against resistant microorganisms. The advent of antimicrobial resistance has added significantly to the impact of infectious diseases, in number of infections, as well as added healthcare costs. The development of antibiotic tolerance and resistance is influenced by a variety of environmental variables, and it is important to identify these environmental factors as part of any strategy for combating antibiotic resistance...
June 20, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Augustin Géron, Johannes Werner, Ruddy Wattiez, Sabine Matallana-Surget
Diel cycle is of enormous biological importance as it imposes daily oscillation in environmental conditions, which temporally structures most ecosystems. Organisms developed biological time-keeping mechanisms - circadian clocks - that provide a significant fitness advantage over competitors by optimising the synchronisation of their biological activities. While circadian clocks are ubiquitous in Eukaryotes, they are so far only characterised in Cyanobacteria within Prokaryotes. However, growing evidence suggests that circadian clocks are widespread in the bacterial and archaeal domains...
June 18, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Brijeshwar Singh, Surbhi Jaiswal, Prashant Kodgire
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections has brought unmanageable antibiotic-resistant strains into existence. Vibrio spp. represents one such gram-negative enteric pathogenic group with more than 100 species, infecting humans and fish. The Vibrio spp. is demarcated into two groups, one that causes cholera and the other producing non-cholera or vibriosis infections. People who encounter contaminated water are at risk, but young children and pregnant women are the most vulnerable. Though controllable, Vibrio infection still necessitates the development of preventative measures, such as vaccinations, that can lessen the severity of the infection and reduce reliance on antibiotic use...
June 5, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Karolina Pierzynowska, Joanna Morcinek-Orłowska, Lidia Gaffke, Weronika Jaroszewicz, Piotr M Skowron, Grzegorz Węgrzyn
The phage display technology is based on the presentation of peptide sequences on the surface of virions of bacteriophages. Its development led to creation of sophisticated systems based on the possibility of the presentation of a huge variability of peptides, attached to one of proteins of bacteriophage capsids. The use of such systems allowed for achieving enormous advantages in the processes of selection of bioactive molecules. In fact, the phage display technology has been employed in numerous fields of biotechnology, as diverse as immunological and biomedical applications (in both diagnostics and therapy), the formation of novel materials, and many others...
June 4, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Yi Teng Lau, Hock Siew Tan
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infection with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised individuals. With the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains that have rapidly gained resistance to most antibiotics, an extensive search for an effective A. baumannii vaccine is ongoing. Over the decade, many subunit vaccine candidates were identified using reverse vaccinology and in vivo animal studies for validation. Nineteen subunit vaccine candidates with a wide range of efficacy, from 14% to 100% preclinical survival rates, were included in this review...
May 21, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Lin Shang, Dongmei Deng, Bastiaan P Krom, Susan Gibbs
The oral cavity is inhabited by abundant microbes which continuously interact with the host and influence the host's health. Such host-microbe interactions (HMI) are dynamic and complex processes involving e.g. oral tissues, microbial communities and saliva. Due to difficulties in mimicking the in vivo complexity, it is still unclear how exactly HMI influence the transition between healthy status and disease conditions in the oral cavity. As an advanced approach, three-dimensional (3D) organotypic oral tissues (epithelium and mucosa/gingiva) are being increasingly used to study underlying mechanisms...
May 11, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Tom Fieldman
Current methods for combatting infectious diseases are largely limited to the prevention of infection, enhancing host immunity ( via vaccination), and administration of small molecules to slow the growth of or kill pathogens (e.g. antimicrobials). Beyond efforts to deter the rise of antimicrobial resistance, little consideration is given to pathogen evolution. Natural selection will favor different levels of virulence under different circumstances. Experimental studies and a wealth of theoretical work have identified many likely evolutionary determinants of virulence...
May 5, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Ethan Ng, John Rong Hao Tay, Sean Kuan Boey, Marja L Laine, Sašo Ivanovski, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne
Systemic antibiotics are an effective adjunct in the treatment of periodontitis, but their judicious use is necessary as antimicrobial resistance is a growing global concern. This review aims to explore the current understanding and insight related to antibiotic resistance in the subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed) was carried out from 1 January 2012 to 25 November 2021 for studies related to antibiotic resistance in periodontitis patients. Of the 90 articles identified, 12 studies were selected for inclusion...
May 4, 2023: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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