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Critical Reviews in Microbiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776938/role-of-abnormal-microrna-expression-in-helicobacter-pylori-associated-gastric-cancer
#1
Dan Zou, Ling Xu, Heming Li, Yanju Ma, Yuehua Gong, Tianshu Guo, Zhitao Jing, Xiuying Xu, Ye Zhang
Epidemiological studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is a risk factor for gastric cancer (GC). HP infection may induce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, and abnormally increase the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines in mucosal epithelial cells of the stomach. However, the specific mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of HP-associated GC is still poorly understood. Recent studies have revealed that abnormal microRNA expression may affect the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of mucosal epithelial cells of the stomach to further influence GC occurrence, development, and metastasis...
February 19, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773116/correction
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773108/establishment-of-an-ideal-gut-microbiota-to-boost-healthy-growth-of-neonates
#3
Thi Thanh Binh Nguyen, Hea-Jong Chung, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Seong-Tshool Hong
For decades, supporting the optimal growth of low birth weight (LBW) infants has been considered one of the most important paediatric challenges, despite advances in neonatal intensive care technology and nutrition interventions. Since gut microbiota affects such diverse phenotypes in adults, the difference in gut microbiota composition between normal infants and LBW infants raises the possibility of gut microbiota playing an important role in different growth rates of neonates. Based on the concept that probiotics are generally beneficial to the health, numerous studies have been made on probiotics as a supplement to the diet of the LBW infants...
February 18, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729832/an-update-on-possible-pathogenic-mechanisms-of-periodontal-pathogens-on-renal-dysfunction
#4
Aditi Chopra, Karthik Sivaraman
Periodontitis is a potential source of permanent systemic inflammation that initiates renal dysfunction and contributes to the development of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Although numerous studies have confirmed the bidirectional role of periodontal infection and renal inflammation, no literature has yet highlighted the sophisticated pathogenic mechanisms by which periodontal pathogens, particularly Porphynomonas Gingivalis, induce renal dysfunction and contributed in the development of CKDs. The present review aims to critically analyze and highlight the novel pathogenesis of periodontitis induced CKDs...
February 7, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663924/anaerobes-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-airways
#5
Claudie Lamoureux, Charles-Antoine Guilloux, Clémence Beauruelle, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud
Anaerobes are known to constitute an important part of the airway microbiota in both healthy subjects and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Studies on the potential role of anaerobic bacteria in CF and thus their involvement in CF pathophysiology have reported contradictory results, and the question is still not elucidated. The aim of this study was to summarize anaerobe diversity in the airway microbiota and its potential role in CF, to provide an overview of the state of knowledge on anaerobe antibiotic resistances (resistome), and to investigate the detectable metabolites produced by anaerobes in CF airways (metabolome)...
January 21, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663919/targeting-nuclear-proteins-for-control-of-viral-replication
#6
Wen Meng, Xiao-Jia Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that exploit host cell machineries for replication. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of host cell nuclear proteins whose translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm is induced and utilized by viruses to support viral replication and infection. Utilization of nuclear proteins for viral replication and infection involves disruption of nuclear import, enhancement of nuclear export, removal of nuclear localization signal (NLS) from nuclear proteins and alteration of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) to cooperatively support viral replication...
January 21, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663917/fructose-rich-niches-traced-the-evolution-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-toward-fructophilic-species
#7
Pasquale Filannino, Raffaella Di Cagno, Ali Zein Alabiden Tlais, Vincenzo Cantatore, Marco Gobbetti
Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are found in fructose-rich habitats associated with flowers, fruits, fermented foods, and the gastrointestinal tract of several insects having a fructose-based diet. FLAB are heterofermentative lactobacilli that prefer fructose instead of glucose as carbon source, although additional electron acceptor substrates (e.g. oxygen) remarkably enhance their growth on glucose. As a newly discovered bacterial group, FLAB are gaining increasing interest. In this review, the ecological context in which these bacteria exist and evolve was resumed...
January 21, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663449/life-inside-and-out-making-and-breaking-protein-disulfide-bonds-in-chlamydia
#8
Signe Christensen, Róisín M McMahon, Jennifer L Martin, Wilhelmina M Huston
Disulphide bonds are widely used among all domains of life to provide structural stability to proteins and to regulate enzyme activity. Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria that are especially dependent on the formation and degradation of protein disulphide bonds. Members of the genus Chlamydia have a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between two distinct cell types; the extracellular infectious elementary body (EB) and the intracellular replicating reticulate body. The proteins in the envelope of the EB are heavily cross-linked with disulphides and this is known to be critical for this infectious phase...
January 21, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30632429/protein-glycosylation-sweet-or-bitter-for-bacterial-pathogens
#9
Aadil Hussain Bhat, Sudipa Maity, Kuldeep Giri, Kiran Ambatipudi
Protein glycosylation systems in many bacteria are often associated with crucial biological processes like pathogenicity, immune evasion and host-pathogen interactions, implying the significance of protein-glycan linkage. Similarly, host protein glycosylation has been implicated in antimicrobial activity as well as in promoting growth of beneficial strains. In fact, few pathogens notably modulate host glycosylation machineries to facilitate their survival. To date, diverse chemical and biological strategies have been developed for conjugate vaccine production for disease control...
January 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628529/prognostic-factors-in-264-adults-with-invasive-scedosporium-spp-and-lomentospora-prolificans-infection-reported-in-the-literature-and-fungiscope%C3%A2
#10
Danila Seidel, Arne Meißner, Michaela Lackner, Ellen Piepenbrock, Jon Salmanton-García, Melanie Stecher, Sibylle Mellinghoff, Axel Hamprecht, Luisa Durán Graeff, Philipp Köhler, Matthew P Cheng, Julie Denis, Isabelle Chedotal, Jagdish Chander, Diana Lynn Pakstis, Ibai Los-Arcos, Monica Slavin, Maria Teresa Montagna, Giuseppina Caggiano, Mihai Mares, Janina Trauth, Ute Aurbach, Maria J G T Vehreschild, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Rafael F Duarte, Raoul Herbrecht, Hilmar Wisplinghoff, Oliver A Cornely, Björn Bachmann, Kersten Borchert, Alexander Burchardt, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Maximilian Christopeit, Naima Fasih, Khosro Hekmat, Belén Hernández Rupérez, Björn Kemmerling, Johanna Kessel, Anupma Jyoti Kindo, Nikolay Klimko, Robert Krause, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Eric Levesque, Shawn Lockhart, Jörg Steinmann, Alessandro Maritati, Birgid Markiefka, Maria Teresa Martín Gómez, Jacques Meis, Jarmo Oksi, Livio Pagano, Antonio Ramos Martinez, Frederike Reischies, Pere Soler Palacin, Edith Vermeulen
Invasive Scedosporium spp. and Lomentospora prolificans infections are an emerging threat in immunocompromised and occasionally in healthy hosts. Scedosporium spp. is intrinsically resistant to most, L. prolificans to all the antifungal drugs currently approved, raising concerns about appropriate treatment decisions. High mortality rates of up to 90% underline the need for comprehensive diagnostic workup and even more for new, effective antifungal drugs to improve patient outcome. For a comprehensive analysis, we identified cases of severe Scedosporium spp...
January 10, 2019: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30526164/bacterial-min-proteins-beyond-the-cell-division
#11
Ashoka Chary Taviti, Tushar Kant Beuria
Min system in Escherichia coli is one of the well-studied phenomena of self-organization and spatial distribution of proteins. Several multidisciplinary approaches were used to study the oscillation phenomena of the Min system. The focus of most of these studies was to understand the role of Min system in placement of the Z-ring to the mid-cell and to characterize its interaction with divisome proteins. The involvement of Min system in other cellular processes is poorly characterized. Few recent studies have suggested that Min proteins play an important role in various cellular processes such as bacterial motility, colonization, and virulence...
December 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522365/underscoring-interstrain-variability-and-the-impact-of-growth-conditions-on-associated-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-in-preclinical-testing-of-novel-antimicrobial-drugs
#12
David A Sanchez, Luis R Martinez
In the era of multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms, reliable efficacy testing of novel antimicrobials during developmental stages is of paramount concern prior to introduction in clinical trials. Unfortunately, interstrain variability is often underappreciated when appraising the efficacy of innovative antimicrobials as preclinical testing of a limited number of standardized strains in unvarying conditions does not account for the vastness and potential for hyperdiversity among and within microbial populations...
December 6, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663918/the-zebrafish-model-of-tuberculosis-no-lungs-needed
#13
Ghada Bouz, Nada Al Hasawi
Tuberculosis is still a global health burden. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which afflicts around one third of the world's population and costs around 1.3 million people their lives every year. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine is inefficient to prevent overt infection. Additionally, the lengthy inconvenient course of treatment, along with the raising issue of antimicrobial resistance, result in incomplete eradication of this infectious disease. The lack of proper animal models that replicate the latent and active courses of human tuberculosis infection remains one of the main reasons behind the poor advancement in tuberculosis research...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30369284/the-biotechnological-potential-of-epicoccum-spp-diversity-of-secondary-metabolites
#14
Raíssa Mesquita Braga, Gabriel Padilla, Welington Luiz Araújo
Epicoccum is a genus of ubiquitous fungi typically found in air, in soil, and on decaying vegetation. They also commonly display an endophytic lifestyle and are isolated from diverse plant tissues. The fungi from the genus Epicoccum are mainly known for their use as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens and for their ability to produce many secondary metabolites with potential biotechnological applications, such as antioxidant, anticancer,r and antimicrobial compounds. Among the bioactive compounds produced by Epicoccum spp...
October 28, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30354913/beyond-the-expected-the-structural-and-functional-diversity-of-bacterial-amyloids
#15
Jesús Cámara-Almirón, Joaquin Caro-Astorga, Antonio de Vicente, Diego Romero
Intense research has confirmed the formerly theoretical distribution of amyloids in nature, and studies on different systems have illustrated the role of these proteins in microbial adaptation and in interactions with the environment. Two lines of research are expanding our knowledge on functional amyloids: (i) structural studies providing insights into the molecular machineries responsible for the transition from monomer to fibers and (ii) studies showing the way in which these proteins might participate in the microbial fitness in natural settings...
October 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30318982/sources-and-mechanisms-of-bioaerosol-generation-in-occupational-environments
#16
Ekaterina Mirskaya, Igor E Agranovski
The primary purpose of this study was to critically review published data related to the sources and mechanisms of aerosolization of microorganisms, their fragments and metabolites in a variety of occupational environments. The processes and mechanisms considered in the review include bursting bubbles; liquid dispersion as the result of irrigation, separation, high pressure cleaning and technological water recycling; manual and automated handling of contaminated material in agriculture, waste processing and industrial processes; as well as high temperature industrial processes...
October 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30318978/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-hml-2-a-comprehensive-review
#17
Marta Garcia-Montojo, Tara Doucet-O'Hare, Lisa Henderson, Avindra Nath
The human genome contains a large number of retroviral elements acquired over the process of evolution, some of which are specific to primates. However, as many of these are defective or silenced through epigenetic changes, they were historically considered "junk DNA" and their potential role in human physiology or pathological circumstances have been poorly studied. The most recently acquired, human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K), has multiple copies in the human genome and some of them have complete open reading frames that are transcribed and translated, especially in early embryogenesis...
October 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30318962/scavenger-receptors-promiscuous-players-during-microbial-pathogenesis
#18
Rita Pombinho, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes
Innate immunity is the most broadly effective host defense, being essential to clear the majority of microbial infections. Scavenger Receptors comprise a family of sensors expressed in a multitude of host cells, whose dual role during microbial pathogenesis gained importance over recent years. SRs regulate the recruitment of immune cells and control both host inflammatory response and bacterial load. In turn, pathogens have evolved different strategies to overcome immune response, avoid recognition by SRs and exploit them to favor infection...
October 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30318945/photodynamic-inactivation-as-an-emergent-strategy-against-foodborne-pathogenic-bacteria-in-planktonic-and-sessile-states
#19
Alex Fiori Silva, Anabela Borges, Efstathios Giaouris, Jane Martha Graton Mikcha, Manuel Simões
Foodborne microbial diseases are still considered a growing public health problem worldwide despite the global continuous efforts to ensure food safety. The traditional chemical and thermal-based procedures applied for microbial growth control in the food industry can change the food matrix and lead to antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, currently applied disinfectants have limited efficiency against biofilms. Therefore, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has become a novel alternative for controlling foodborne pathogenic bacteria in both planktonic and sessile states...
October 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30016175/recent-progress-in-bio-inspired-biofilm-resistant-polymeric-surfaces
#20
REVIEW
Cristina Cattò, Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli
Any surface of human interest can serve as a substrate for biofilm growth, sometimes with detrimental effects. The social and economic consequences of biofilm-mediated damage to surfaces are significant, the financial impact being estimated to be billions of dollars every year. After describing traditional biocide-based approaches for the remediation of biofilm-affected surfaces, this review deals with more recent developments in material science, focusing on non-toxic, eco-sustainable nature-inspired biomaterials with anti-biofilm properties superior to the conventional biocide-based approaches in terms of addressing the biofilm problem...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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