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Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI

Vladimir Juras, Vladimir Mlynarik, Pavol Szomolanyi, Ladislav Valkovič, Siegfried Trattnig
In 2017, a whole-body 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device was given regulatory approval for clinical use in both the EU and United States for neuro and musculoskeletal applications. As 7 Tesla allows for higher signal-to-noise , which results in higher resolution images than those obtained on lower-field-strength scanners, it has attracted considerable attention from the musculoskeletal field, as evidenced by the increasing number of publications in the last decade. Besides morphological imaging, the quantitative MR methods, such as T2, T2*, T1ρ mapping, sodium imaging, chemical-exchange saturation transfer, and spectroscopy, substantially benefit from ultrahigh-field scanning...
April 2, 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Majid Khan, Rahul Garg, Chengcheng Gui, Young Lee, Arjun Sahgal, Mahmud Mossa-Basha, Nina Mayr, Simon Lo, Kristin Redmond
Historically, management options for spinal metastases include surgery for stabilization and decompression and/or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). EBRT is palliative in nature, as it lacks accurate targeting such that the prescribed radiation doses must be limited in order to maintain safety. Modern advancement in imaging and radiotherapy technology have facilitated the development of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), which provides increased targeted precision for radiation delivery to tumors resulting in lower overall toxicity, particularly to regional structures such as the spinal cord and esophagus, while delivering higher, more effective, and radically ablative radiation doses...
April 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Charles Colip, Murat Alp Oztek, Simon Lo, Willam Yuh, James Fink
As new advances in the genomics and imaging of CNS tumors continues to evolve, a standardized system for classification is increasingly essential to diagnosis and management. The molecular markers introduced in the 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors bring both practical and conceptual advances to the characterization of gliomas, strengthening the prognostic and predictive value of terminology while shedding light on the underlying mechanisms that drive biologic behavior. The purpose of this article is to provide a succinct overview of primary intracranial gliomas from a neuroradiologic prospective and according to the 5th edition WHO classification that was revised in 2016...
April 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Ilinca Popp, Wolfgang A Weber, Stephanie E Combs, William T C Yuh, Anca L Grosu
Delineating the gross tumor volume (GTV) is a core task within radiation treatment planning. GTVs must be precisely defined irrespective of the region involved, but even more so in a sensitive area such as the brain. As precision medicine cannot exist without precision imaging, the current article aims to discuss the various imaging modalities employed in the radiation treatment planning of brain tumors.Gliomas, meningiomas, and paragangliomas are some of the most challenging tumors and the advancement in diagnostic imaging can significantly contribute to their delineation...
April 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Christian D Diehl, Lia M Halasz, Jan J Wilkens, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Stephanie E Combs
Radiation therapy (RT) is a mainstay in the interdisciplinary treatment of brain tumors of the skull base and brain. Technical innovations during the past 2 decades have allowed for increasingly precise treatment with better sparing of adjacent healthy tissues to prevent treatment-related side effects that influence patients' quality of life. Particle therapy with protons and charged ions offer favorable kinetics with sharp dose deposition in a well-defined depth (Bragg-Peak) and a steep radiation fall-off beyond that maximum...
April 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Murat Alp Oztek, Yolanda D Tseng, Nina A Mayr, Upendra Parvathaneni
Radiation oncologists and radiologists have a unique and mutually dependent relationship. Radiation oncologists rely on diagnostic imaging to locate the tumor and define the treatment target volume, evaluation of response to therapy, and follow-up. Accurate interpretation of post-treatment imaging requires diagnostic radiologists to have a basic understanding of radiation treatment planning and delivery. There are various radiation treatment modalities such as 3D conformal radiation therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery as well as different radiation modalities such as photons and protons that can be used for treatment...
April 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Nina A Mayr, Simon S Lo, Murat Alp Oztek, Charles G Colip, William T C Yuh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Maria de Fatima Viana Vasco Aragão, Vanessa van der Linden, Natacha Calheiros Petribu, Marcelo Moraes Valenca, Paul M Parizel, Roberto Jose Vieira de Mello
In the present case series, the cause of death of infants diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) was lung disease (pneumonia and sepsis with massive pulmonary aspiration), probably secondary to dysphagia and reflux. The main findings in infants with a confirmed diagnosis of CZS who died were as follows: (1) calcification and hypoplasia of the lentiform nuclei, hypoplasia of the caudate nuclei, and calcification at the cortical-subcortical junction was noted in all cases (100%) and calcification of the caudate nuclei was noted in 66...
February 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Camila V Ventura, Marcelo C Ventura Filho, Liana O Ventura
The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and the link to birth defects in newborns exposed in utero, caught international attention. Due to its rapid spread throughout the Americas, authorities declared ZIKV a Public Health Emergency of International Concern that lasted from February to November 2016."Congenital Zika Syndrome" (CZS) is a new entity that reflects a broad spectrum of symptoms and signs observed in newborns infected by the ZIKV in utero. A recent review concluded that CZS differs from other congenital infections for its five distinct features: "(1) severe microcephaly with partially collapsed skull; (2) thin cerebral cortices with subcortical calcifications; (3) macular scarring and focal pigmentary retinal mottling; (4) congenital contractures; and (5) marked early hypertonia and symptoms of extrapyramidal involvement...
February 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Mariana de Carvalho Leal, Danielle Seabra Ramos, Silvio S Caldas Neto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Marli Tenório Cordeiro
The recommendations for laboratory diagnosis of ZIKV infection are the detection of viral-RNA by molecular methods, detection of ZIKV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by serologic tests and the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for confirmation of positive IgM results, in pregnant women. In the acute phase of disease ZIKV may be detected in blood (whole blood, serum, plasma), urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and other fluids; in urine, the virus may be detected over a longer period, viz...
February 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Maria de Fatima Viana Vasco Aragao, Natacha Calheiros de Lima Petribu, Vanessa van der Linden, Marcelo Moraes Valenca, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Paul M Parizel
In congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZS), the most frequent radiological findings are calcifications in the cortical-white matter junction and malformations of cortical development (pachygyria or polymicrogyria, which occur predominantly in the frontal lobes, or a simplified gyral pattern), ventriculomegaly, enlargement of the cisterna magna and the extra-axial subarachnoid space, corpus callosum abnormalities, and reduced brain volume. This syndrome can also result in a decrease in the brainstem and cerebellum volumes and delayed myelination...
February 2019: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Sara Reis Teixeira, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Carolina A Servin, Kshitij Mankad, Giulio Zuccoli
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a form of inflicted head injury. AHT is more frequent in 2-year-old or younger children. It is an important cause of neurological impairment and the major cause of death from head trauma in this age group. Brain magnetic resonance imaging allows the depiction of retinal hemorrhages, injured bridging veins, and identifying and localizing extra- and intra-axial bleeds, contusions, lacerations, and strokes. The diagnosis of AHT is a multidisciplinary team effort which includes a careful evaluation of social, clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Guilherme de Souza E Cassia, César Augusto Pinheiro Ferreira Alves, Ajay Taranath, Nicolás Sgarbi López, Ozgur Oztekin, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Zoltan Patay
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant solid tumor in childhood and the most common embryonal neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system. Several morphological variants are recognized: classic medulloblastoma, large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma, and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity. Recent advances in transcriptome and methylome profiling of these tumors led to a molecular classification that includes 4 major genetically defined groups. Accordingly, the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization's Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System recognizes the following medulloblastoma entities: Wingless (WNT)-activated, Sonic hedgehog (SHH)-activated, Group 3, and Group 4...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Giulio Zuccoli, Charles Fitz, Stephanie Greene, Samuel A Lindner, Raffaele Nardone, Abdullah S Khan, Deepa Rajan, Dana D Cummings
Vascular injury is increasingly recognized as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children (29 days to 18 years of age). Since vascular brain injury in children appears to be less common than in adults, the index of suspicion for vascular brain injury is usually lower. In this review article, we describe frequent and rare conditions underlying pediatric stroke including cardioembolic, viral, autoimmune, post-traumatic, and genetic etiologies. Furthermore, we provide a neuroimaging correlate for clinical mimics of pediatric stroke...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Felipe S Barros, Victor Hugo R Marussi, Lázaro L F Amaral, Antônio José da Rocha, Christiane M S Campos, Leonardo F Freitas, Thierry A G M Huisman, Bruno P Soares
Phakomatoses, also known as neurocutaneous disorders, comprise a vast number of entities that predominantly affect structures originated from the ectoderm such as the central nervous system and the skin, but also the mesoderm, particularly the vascular system. Extensive literature exists about the most common phakomatoses, namely neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau and Sturge-Weber syndrome. However, recent developments in the understanding of the molecular underpinnings of less common phakomatoses have sparked interest in these disorders...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Sniya Valsa Sudhakar, Karthik Muthusamy, Manohar Shroff
Brain has been considered as an immune-privileged site for centuries owing to the presence of blood-brain barrier, absent lymphatic drainage, and antigen-presenting cells. However, the present prevailing concept is of immune surveillance where brain is continuously surveyed by immune cells. However, the presence of immune cells in central nervous system (CNS) brings the risk of inflammation and autoimmunity involving both T and B cell mediated pathways. These mechanisms form the underlying pathology in a wide spectrum of pediatric CNS diseases manifesting as acquired neurological deficits...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Fabrício G Gonçalves, Tomás de Andrade L Freddi, Ajay Taranath, Rahul Lakshmanan, Robert Goetti, Fabricio S Feltrin, Kshitij Mankad, Sara R Teixeira, Prasad B Hanagandi, Filippo Arrigoni
Mutations causing dysfunction of the tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins, otherwise known as tubulinopathies, are a group of recently described entities, that lead to complex brain malformations. An understanding of the fundamental principles of operation of the cytoskeleton and compounds in particular microtubules, actin, and microtubule-associated proteins, can assist in the interpretation of the imaging findings of tubulinopathies. Somewhat consistent morphological imaging patterns have been described in tubulinopathies such as dysmorphic basal ganglia-the hallmark (found in 75% of cases), callosal dysgenesis, cerebellar hypoplasia/dysplasia, and cortical malformations, most notably lissencephaly...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Suraj D Serai, Giulio Zuccoli
Synthetic magnetic resonance imaging is a novel imaging technique that allows generating multiple contrast-weighted images based on relaxivity measurements of tissue properties in a single acquisition using a multiecho, multidelay saturation recovery spin-echo sequence. The synthetic images can be generated postacquisition from the parametric tissue maps, which can be beneficial to reduce scan time and improve patient throughput. Based on relaxometry maps, synthetic magnetic resonance imaging can also perform brain tissue segmentation and myelin quantification without additional scan time...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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