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Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease

Alison M Moore, Manon Mathias, Jørgen Valeur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Adam Bencard, Louise Emma Whiteley
This paper presents the Mind the Gut exhibition, opened in 2017 at the Medical Museion, the University of Copenhagen's museum for the culture and history of medicine. It is an experimental exhibition combining science, art, and history in an examination of the relationship between mind and gut, including the trillions of microbes that inhabits them. Mind the Gut was the result of a 2-year-long research and curatorial process, which began in 2015 when Museion was awarded the Bikuben Foundation Vision Award. The exhibition brings together the long history of attempts to understand and intervene in the relationship between mind and gut, between emotions and digestion with cutting-edge biomedical research, and includes the perspectives of science, medicine, and personal experience, via a combination of artworks, historical objects from the Medical Museion collections, items from laboratories, and individual stories...
2018: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Kristine Lillestøl
In this paper, some of the medical literature on the historical disease-concept of 'neurasthenia gastrica' is reviewed. Neurasthenia gastrica was defined as a sub-unit of the wider category of neurasthenia, also referred to as nervous exhaustion or nervous weakness. Neurasthenia was a commonly used diagnostic label at the end of the nineteenth century and a few decades onwards, and was used to describe a wide variety of symptoms for which no 'organic' basis could be found. In neurasthenia gastrica, however, the gastrointestinal symptoms predominated, and there was considerable debate as to how the gut interacted with the central nervous system in the development of these ailments...
2018: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Grace Lucas
Background: In recent decades, dominant models of mental illness have become increasingly focused on the head, with mental disorders being figured as brain disorders. However, research into the active role that the microbiome-gut-brain axis plays in affecting mood and behaviour may lead to the conclusion that mental health is more than an internalised problem of individual brains. Objective: This article explores the implications of shifting understandings about mental health that have come about through research into links between the gut microbiome and mental health problems such as depression and anxiety...
2018: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
K Adamberg, S Adamberg
Background : Nutrient and energy metabolism in human colon depends on bacterial growth rate that is determined by the colonic transit rate. Objective : A novel approach, De-stat culture was used to distinguish the fast and slow growing sub-populations from fecal microbiota. Design : The enrichment and metabolism of bacteria from pooled fecal cultures of children was studied at dilution rates D  = 0.2-0.0 1/h in mucin-supplemented media containing either arabinogalactan or apple pectin. Results : The study revealed clear differentiation of the fecal microbiota at higher (above 0...
2018: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Manon Mathias
This article focuses on autointoxication, a discredited medical theory from the late nineteenth century that provides important points of reflection for today's research on the role of microbes in the human gut for mental health. It considers how the theory of autointoxication, which came into great prominence amongst physicians and the general public worldwide, fell from grace by the middle of the twentieth century, and briefly asks why studies of the human microbiome are now back in vogue. It departs from earlier articles on the topic firstly by arguing that autointoxication theory was especially prevalent in France, and secondly by focusing on the application of this theory to mental health...
2018: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Ian Miller
The gut-brain axis and the microbiome have recently acquired an important position in explaining a wide range of human behaviours and emotions. Researchers have typically presented developments in understandings of the microbiome as radical and new, offering huge potential for better understandings of our bodies and what it means to be human. Without refuting the value of this research, this article insists that, traditionally, doctors and patients acknowledged the complex interactions between their guts and emotions, although using alternative models often based on nerves or psychology...
2018: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Jørgen Valeur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Alison M Moore
This paper shows how Austrian psychiatrists of the 1870s developed the first pathological accounts of institutional coprophagia, examining how they related the behaviour to mental illness and dementia. These ideas about coprophagia contrasted dramatically to the long European pharmacological tradition of using excrement for the treatment of a wide range of health conditions. Recent medical scholarship on institutional coprophagia is also reviewed here, with a novel hypothesis proposed about why some patients in long-term care resort to the behaviour in institutions where there is little opportunity for healthy human-microbe interactions...
2018: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
S D Forssten, A C Ouwehand
Background : Probiotic formulations can be single- or multi-strain. Commercially, multi-strain preparations have been suggested to have improved functionality over single-strain cultures. Probiotics are often tested as single-strain preparations but may subsequently be commercially formulated as multi-strain products. Objective : The aim of this study was to determine what happens at the site of action, the intestine, with probiotics as single- compared to multi-strain preparations. The human gastrointestinal tract contains a broad mixture of different microbes which may affect the survival of different probiotics in different ways...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Alessandra Pino, Giuliana Giunta, Cinzia L Randazzo, Salvatore Caruso, Cinzia Caggia, Antonio Cianci
Background: Bacterial vaginosis is the most frequent condition associated to the vaginal microbiota imbalance, affecting about the 40-50% of women in the world. Even if antibiotics are effcetive for bacterial vaginosis treatment a long-term recurrence rates, higher than 70%, is recorded. Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein with bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties. It owns the ability to protect the host against infection, by binding and regulating the iron needed for the bacterial proliferation...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Benoit Pugin, Weronika Barcik, Patrick Westermann, Anja Heider, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Peter Hellings, Cezmi A Akdis, Liam O'Mahony
Background: Biogenic amines (BAs) are metabolites produced by the decarboxylation of amino acids with significant physiological functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. BAs can be produced by bacteria in fermented foods, but little is known concerning the potential for microbes within the human gut microbiota to produce or degrade BAs. Objective: To isolate and identify BA-producing and BA-degrading microbes from the human gastrointestinal tract. Design: Fecal samples from human volunteers were screened on multiple growth media, under multiple growth conditions...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Line Skute Bråten, Marianne Sødring, Jan Erik Paulsen, Lars Gustav Snipen, Knut Rudi
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. The role of the intestinal microbiota in CRC, however, is not well established. In particular, the co-variation between age, tumor progression and microbiota remains largely unknown. Objective and design: We therefore used a recently developed A/J Min/+ mouse model resembling human CRC to investigate how microbial composition in cecum correlates with tumor progression, butyrate and age. Results: We found that the association between the gut microbiota and tumor load was stronger, by far, than the association with both butyrate and age...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Özgün C O Umu, Knut Rudi, Dzung B Diep
The gut microbiota is considered an organ that co-develops with the host throughout its life. The composition and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota are subject to a complex interplay between the host genetics and environmental factors, such as lifestyle, diet, stress and antimicrobials. It is evident that certain prebiotics, and antimicrobials produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), can shape the composition of the gut microbiota and its metabolic activities to promote host health and/or prevent diseases...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Elena Kashuba, Alexey A Dmitriev, Shady Mansour Kamal, Ojar Melefors, Gennady Griva, Ute Römling, Ingemar Ernberg, Vladimir Kashuba, Anatoli Brouchkov
Background: Permafrost preserves a variety of viable ancient microorganisms. Some of them can be cultivated after being kept at subzero temperatures for thousands or even millions of years. Objective: To cultivate bacterial strains from permafrost. Design: We isolated and cultivated two bacterial strains from permafrost that was obtained at Mammoth Mountain in Siberia and attributed to the Middle Miocene. Bacterial genomic DNA was sequenced with 40-60× coverage and high-quality contigs were assembled. The first strain was assigned to Staphylococcus warneri species (designated MMP1) and the second one to Staphylococcus hominis species (designated MMP2), based on the classification of 16S ribosomal RNA genes and genomic sequences...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Erin A McKenney, Lydia K Greene, Christine M Drea, Anne D Yoder
Background: The gut microbiome (GMB) is the first line of defense against enteric pathogens, which are a leading cause of disease and mortality worldwide. One such pathogen, the protozoan Cryptosporidium, causes a variety of digestive disorders that can be devastating and even lethal. The Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli) - an endangered, folivorous primate endemic to Madagascar - is precariously susceptible to cryptosporidiosis under captive conditions. If left untreated, infection can rapidly advance to morbidity and death...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Bjarne Landfald, Jørgen Valeur, Arnold Berstad, Jan Raa
Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) via the gut microbiota has recently been proposed as an important pathophysiological mechanism linking ingestion of 'unhealthy foods', such as beef (containing carnitine) and eggs (containing choline), and the development of atherosclerosis. Hence, TMAO has gained attention as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, fish and seafood contain considerable amounts of TMAO and are generally accepted as cardioprotective: a puzzling paradox that seems to have been neglected...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
V Deepak Bamola, Arnab Ghosh, Raj Kishor Kapardar, Banwari Lal, Simrita Cheema, Priyangshu Sarma, Rama Chaudhry
Background : The intestinal microbiota, through complex interactions with the gut mucosa, play a key role in the pathogenesis of colon carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The disease condition and dietary habits both influence gut microbial diversity. Objective : The aim of this study was to assess the gut microbial profile of healthy subjects and patients with colon carcinoma and IBD. Healthy subjects included 'Indian vegetarians/lactovegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, and 'Indian non-vegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, certain meats and fish, and the eggs of certain birds and fish...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Nadia Gaci, Prem Prashant Chaudhary, William Tottey, Monique Alric, Jean-François Brugère
Background: The availability of fresh stool samples is a prerequisite in most gut microbiota functional studies. Objective: Strategies for amplification and long-term gut microbiota preservation from fecal samples would favor sample sharing, help comparisons and reproducibility over time and between laboratories, and improve the safety and ethical issues surrounding fecal microbiota transplantations. Design: Taking advantage of in vitro gut-simulating systems, we amplified the microbial repertoire of a fresh fecal sample and assessed the viability and resuscitation of microbes after preservation with some common intracellular and extracellular acting cryoprotective agents (CPAs), alone and in different combinations...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
J Paul Brooks, Gregory A Buck, Guanhua Chen, Liyang Diao, David J Edwards, Jennifer M Fettweis, Snehalata Huzurbazar, Alexander Rakitin, Glen A Satten, Ekaterina Smirnova, Zeev Waks, Michelle L Wright, Chen Yanover, Yi-Hui Zhou
Background: Recent studies of various human microbiome habitats have revealed thousands of bacterial species and the existence of large variation in communities of microorganisms in the same habitats across individual human subjects. Previous efforts to summarize this diversity, notably in the human gut and vagina, have categorized microbiome profiles by clustering them into community state types (CSTs). The functional relevance of specific CSTs has not been established. Objective: We investigate whether CSTs can be used to assess dynamics in the microbiome...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
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