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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

F Pittet, N Van Caenegem, A Hicks-Nelson, H P Santos, S Bradburn, C Murgatroyd, B C Nephew
The social environment of lactation is a key etiological factor for the occurrence of postpartum disorders affecting women and their children. Postpartum depression and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in new mothers and negatively affect offspring's cognitive development through mechanisms which are still unclear. Here, using a rat model, we manipulated the maternal social environment during lactation and explored the pathways through which social isolation (vs. the opportunity for limited social interaction with another lactating female, from 1 day before parturition to postpartum day 16) and chronic social conflict (daily exposure to a male intruder from postpartum day 2 to day 16) affect offspring learning and memory, measured at 40 to 60 days of age...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Fernando Cázarez-Márquez, Sebastien Milesi, Marie-Pierre Laran-Chich, Paul Klosen, Andries Kalsbeek, Valérie Simonneaux
Many animals exhibit remarkable metabolic and reproductive adaptations to seasonal changes in their environment. When day length shortens, Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) reduce their body weight and inhibit their reproductive activity, while the opposite occurs in springtime. These physiological adaptations are thought to depend on photoperiodic changes in hypothalamic genes encoding the peptides kisspeptin and RFRP3 for the control of reproduction, and pro-opiomelanocortin and somatostatin for metabolic regulation...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Tatiane Vilhena-Franco, André Souza Mecawi, Gislaine Almeida-Pereira, Fabiana Lucio Oliveira, Lucila Leico Kagohara Elias, José Antunes-Rodrigues
Vasopressinergic neurones of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei express oestrogen receptor β (ERβ) and receive afferent projections from osmosensitive neurones that express oestrogen receptor α (ERα). However, which subtype of these receptors mediates the oestradiol effects on vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by hydromineral challenge has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. Moreover, AVP secretion induced by hyperosmolality is well known to involve activation of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vaniloid, member 1) in magnocellular neurones, but whether oestradiol modulates expression of this receptor is unknown...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Doris S Bayerl, Stefanie M Klampfl, Oliver J Bosch
Gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) is a major regulator and activator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Many studies proved the importance of GnRH in reproduction and sexual behaviour. However, to date only a single study shows an involvement of GnRH in maternal behaviour where a 30% reduction of GnRH neurons abolishes the mothers' motivation to retrieve pups. On this basis, we aimed to investigate the effects of acute central GnRH receptor blockade in lactating rats on maternal care under non-stress and stress conditions, maternal motivation in the pup retrieval test, maternal anxiety on the elevated plus maze, and maternal aggression in the maternal defence test...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Darleen A Sandoval
Bariatric surgery is our most effective strategy, to date, for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. However, given the enormity of the obesity epidemic, and sometimes variable results, it is not a feasible strategy for treatment for all obese patients. A simple Pubmed search for "bariatric surgery" reveals over 28,000 papers that have been published since the 1940's when the first bariatric surgeries were performed. However, there is still an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms for the weight loss and metabolic success of surgery...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Anna Göbel, Marcus Heldmann, Martin Göttlich, René Georges, Relana Nieberding, Alexander Sartorius, Georg Brabant, Thomas F Münte
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is associated with memory impairments. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial withdrawal of levothyroxine on working memory tasks and brain function. METHODS: Fifteen subjects under long-term levothyroxine substitution due to complete hypothyroidism participated in this study. A functional MRI was performed using a working memory task (n-back task) and neuropsychological tests were performed before and 52-54 days after the induction of subclinical hypothyroidism by reducing pretest levothyroxine dosage by 30%...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Samantha C Lauby, Diptendu Chatterjee, Pauline Pan, Patrick O McGowan, Alison S Fleming
Rat mothers exhibit natural variations in care and can shape offspring adult behavior and their maternal care by affecting the dopaminergic system. We explored whether genotype and gene x environment interactions are involved in these processes in nulliparous female offspring. We assessed maternal licking/grooming toward individual female pups during the first week postpartum and dopamine-related behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Behaviors explored included strategy shifting, impulsive action, and sucrose preference...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Sarah M Gray, Laura C Page, Jenny Tong
Ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), are implicated in the regulation of glucose metabolism through direct actions in the pancreatic islet as well as peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues and brain. While many studies have explored the role of ghrelin in glucose tolerance and insulin secretion, a complete mechanistic understanding has yet to be elucidated. This review highlights the local expression and function of ghrelin and GHSR1a in pancreatic islets and how this axis may modulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Julian G Mercer, Perry Barrett
This Special Issue of Journal of Neuroendocrinology is published almost exactly 30 years after Volume 1, Issue 1 appeared in February 1989. The Journal and the discipline of neuroendocrinology have come a long way in the intervening period. The Journal is now established as an official journal of the International Neuroendocrine Federation, the European Neuroendocrine Association, the Pan American Neuroendocrine Society, as well as, of course, the British Society for Neuroendocrinology (BSN), its owner. As is recounted in the testimony of Stafford Lightman, the first Editor-in-Chief of the Journal, the decisions that were taken right at the beginning during the planning for, and early years of, the Journal were particularly astute...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Cintia Yamila Porcari, Iracema Gome Araújo, Lilia Urzedo-Rodrigues, Laurival Antonio De Luca, José Vanderlei Menani, Ximena Elizabeth Caeiro, Hans Imboden, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Luís Carlos Reis, Laura Vivas, Andrea Godino, André Souza Mecawi
Angiotensin II (ANG II) acts on AT1 receptors located in the organum vasculosum and subfornical organ (SFO) of the lamina terminalis as a main facilitatory mechanism of sodium appetite. The brain serotonin (5-HT) system with soma located in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) provides a main inhibitory mechanism. In the present work, we first investigated the existence of ANG II AT1 receptors in serotonergic DRN neurons. Then, we examined whether whole body sodium depletion affects the gene expression of the AT1a receptor subtype and the presumed functional significance of AT1 receptors...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
R A Augustine, P Knowles, Z Khant Aung, D R Grattan, S R Ladyman
Pregnancy in rodents is associated with hyperphagia, increased fat deposition, elevated leptin concentrations and insensitivity to the satiety action of leptin. To investigate the hormonal mechanisms involved in the development of this state of pregnancy-induced leptin resistance, we have used a pseudopregnancy rat model. We have previously demonstrated that pseudopregnant rats have a normal feeding response to leptin, but if pseudopregnancy is extended using chronic i.c.v. ovine prolactin infusion along with progesterone implants, then leptin no longer suppresses food intake...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Tatsushi Onaka, Yuki Takayanagi
Oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamus are activated by stressful stimuli and food intake. The oxytocin receptor is located in various brain regions, including the sensory information-processing cerebral cortex, the cognitive information-processing prefrontal cortex, reward-related regions such as the ventral tegmental areas, nucleus accumbens, and raphe nucleus, stress-related areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus, and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, homeostasis-controlling hypothalamus, and the dorsal motor complex controlling intestinal functions...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
S Pose, M J Zuluaga, M Ferreño, D Agrati, G Bedó, N Uriarte
The maternal behavior of a rat dynamically changes during the postpartum period, adjusting to the characteristics and physiological needs of the pups. This adaptation has been attributed to functional modifications in the maternal circuitry. Maternal behavior can also flexibly adapt according to different litter compositions. Thus, mothers with two overlapping litters can concurrently take care of neonate and juvenile pups; mostly directing their attention to the newborns. We hypothesized that the maternal circuitry of these mothers would show a differential activation pattern after interacting with pups depending on their offspring's developmental stage...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
O Rudenko, C Springer, L J Skov, A N Madsen, L Hasholt, A Nørremølle, B Holst
Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by metabolic disturbances, along with cognitive and psychiatric impairments. Targeting metabolic HD dysfunction through maintenance of body weight and fat mass and restoration of peripheral energy metabolism can improve the progression of neurological symptoms. In this respect, we focused on the therapeutic potential of the orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin, which plays an important role in promoting a positive energy balance...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Tuong-Vi Nguyen, Sherri Lee Jones, Patricia Gower, Jimin Lew, Matthew D Albaugh, Kelly N Botteron, James J Hudziak, Vladimir S Fonov, D Louis Collins, Benjamin C Campbell, Linda Booij, Catherine Herba, Patricia Monnier, Simon Ducharme, Deborah Waber, James T McCracken
Estradiol is known to play an important role in the developing human brain, but little is known on the entire network of potential regions which might be affected and on how these effects may vary from childhood to early adulthood, which in turn can explain sexually differentiated behaviors. Here we examined the relationship between estradiol, cortico-amygdalar structural covariance, and cognitive or behavioral measures typically showing sex differences (verbal/spatial skills, anxious-depressed symptomatology) in 152 children and adolescents (6-22 years old)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Eduardo H L Umeoka, Edward J Robinson, Sada Lakshmi Turimella, Jolien S van Campen, R Lívia C Motta-Teixeira, Angela Sarabdjitsingh, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Kees Braun, Pierre N de Graan, Marian Joëls
Stress is among the most frequently self-reported factors provoking epileptic seizures in children and adults. It is still unclear though, why some people display stress-sensitive seizures while others don't. Recently, we showed that young epilepsy patients with stress-sensitive seizures exhibit a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Most likely, this dysregulation gradually develops, and is triggered by stressors occurring early in life (ELS). ELS may be particularly impactful when overlapping with the period of epileptogenesis...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Inga D Neumann, Rainer Landgraf
This is a short overview over the last thirty years of oxytocin (and vasopressin) research performed in our labs starting with attempts to quantitate the release of this nonapeptide in the rodent brain during physiological conditions such as suckling in the lactating animal. Using push-pull perfusion and microdialysis approaches, release patterns in hypothalamic and limbic brain regions could be characterized to occur from intact neuronal structures, to be independent of peripheral secretion into blood, and to respond differentially to various stimuli, particularly those related to reproduction and stress...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Sarah H Lockie, Romana Stark, David C Spanswick, Zane B Andrews
Information about metabolic status arrives in the brain in the form of a complex milieu of circulating signalling factors including glucose and fatty acids, ghrelin, leptin and insulin. The specific interactions between humoral factors, brain sites of action and how they influence behaviour is largely unknown. We have previously seen interactions between glucose availability and the actions of ghrelin mediated via the AgRP neurons of the hypothalamus. Here we examine whether these effects generalise to another ghrelin-sensitive brain nucleus, the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Gerald Lincoln
The tenet of this review is that innate circannual timing is an ancestral trait that first evolved in free-living eukaryotic cells some 2000My ago. Marine algae of the genus Allexandrium provide a living unicellular model. This species shows the primitive trait of 'alternation of generations' where the organism alternates between fast replicating vegetative cells in summer, and a dormant cystic cell over winter. The resistant cysts sink into the cold ocean sediments. Remarkably, excystment in spring is governed by an endogenous circannual timing mechanism...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Alfonso Abizaid
Ghrelin is a hormone associated with feeding and energy balance. Not surprisingly, this hormone is secreted in response to acute stressors and it is chronically elevated after exposure to chronic stress in tandem with a number of metabolic changes aimed at attaining homeostatic balance. In this review we propose that ghrelin plays a key role in these stress-induced homeostatic processes. Ghrelin targets the hypothalamus and brain stem nuclei that are part of the sympathetic nervous system to increase appetite and energy expenditure and promote the use of carbohydrates as a source of fuel while sparing fat...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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