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Seminars in Dialysis

Maurizio Bossola
Xerostomia, or dryness of oral cavity, is relatively common in patients on chronic hemodialysis and significantly impairs their quality of life. Xerostomia is often the consequence of reduced salivary flow resulting from atrophy and fibrosis of the salivary glands, an event that is of uncertain origin. Many medications commonly used in dialysis patients may also cause or exacerbate xerostomia. Its consequences may be serious and disturbing and include difficulties in chewing, swallowing, tasting, and speaking; increased risk of oral disease, including lesions of the mucosa, gingiva and tongue; bacterial and fungal infections, such as candidiasis, dental caries, and periodontal disease; interdialytic weight gain resulting from increased fluid intake; and a reduction in the quality of life...
May 22, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
João L Viana, Pedro Martins, Kristen Parker, Magdalena Madero, Héctor Pérez Grovas, Kirsten Anding, Stefan Degenhardt, Iwona Gabrys, Shauna Raugust, Christina West, Theresa E Cowan, Kenneth R Wilund
Despite having good intentions, hemodialysis (HD) clinics often fail to sustain exercise programs that they initiate. There are many reasons for this, including a lack of funding, inadequate training of the clinic staff, a lack of exercise professionals to manage the program or train the staff, and the many challenges inherent to exercising a patient population with multiple comorbid diseases. Despite these barriers, there are several outstanding examples of successful exercise programs in HD clinics throughout the world...
May 13, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Stefanos Roumeliotis, Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Vassilios Liakopoulos
During the last two decades, oxidative stress (OS) has emerged as a novel risk factor for a variety of adverse events, including atherosclerosis and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Increased OS occurs even in early stages of the disease, progresses with deterioration of renal function and is further aggravated by hemodialysis (HD), due to the bioincompatibility of the method. Compared to HD, peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a more biocompatible dialysis modality, characterized by a significantly reduced, but still high, OS status...
May 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Baback Roshanravan, Kushang V Patel
Maintenance of independent living is the top health priority among patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Mobility limitation is often the first sign of functional limitation leading to loss of independence. Regular assessments of physical capacity can help provide kidney health providers identify patients at risk of frailty and other adverse health-related outcomes that contribute to the loss of functional independence. These physical capacities can be measured with commonly used self-reported measures of physical function or by objective physical performance testing...
May 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Surachet Vongsanim, Andrew Davenport
Women in the general population have a survival advantage over men, but this advantage is not sustained in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients treated by hemodialysis. To understand why gender may affect survival we need to understand confounders which may affect dialysis practices. The current paradigm is to prescribe hemodialysis to achieve a target dialyzer urea clearance adjusted to total body water volume (Kt/Vurea ). Estimated glomerular filtration calculated from serum creatinine is often used to determine when patients start dialysis; as creatinine generation rates are lower in women, this may potentially result in a lead time bias with male patients starting dialysis earlier than females...
May 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Raymond Vanholder, Wim Van Biesen, Norbert Lameire
Dialyzer clearance of urea multiplied by dialysis time and normalized for urea distribution volume (Kt/Vurea or simply Kt/V) has been used as an index of dialysis adequacy since more than 30 years. This article reviews the flaws of Kt/V, starting with a lack of proof of concept in three randomized controlled hard outcome trials (RCTs), and continuing with a long list of conditions where the concept of Kt/V was shown to be flawed. This information leaves little room for any conclusion other than that Kt/V, as an indicator of dialysis adequacy, is obsolete...
April 25, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Kenneth R Wilund, Jin Hee Jeong, Sharlene A Greenwood
Despite decades of research, there are few published guidelines related to the safety and efficacy of exercise training in hemodialysis patients. This has led to disparate recommendations regarding the type, intensity, and timing for exercise, especially for patients with multiple comorbidities. Many common recommendations are not supported by research data, so their justification is uncertain. These recommendations include exercising in the first hour of dialysis; not exercising if hypertensive, cramping, or volume overloaded; avoiding heavy weights on vascular access limb; clinicians managing an exercise program; intradialytic exercise or interdialytic exercise is better; and strength training during dialysis is impractical...
April 25, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Clara Bohm, Kara Schick-Makaroff, Jennifer M MacRae, Maria Tan, Stephanie Thompson
Exercise improves objective measures of physical function in individuals on hemodialysis, but its effect on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is largely unknown. We performed a scoping review to characterize the existing knowledge base on exercise and PROs in dialysis patients to make recommendations for future research. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and SPORT Discus from inception to November 28, 2018 and then screened results for randomized controlled trials comparing aerobic/resistance exercise, or both, with no exercise in individuals on dialysis that reported results of any PRO...
April 21, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Connie J Wang, Kirsten L Johansen
Clinical manifestations of functional and morphological muscular abnormalities in dialysis patients are muscle weakness and low exercise capacity, possibly leading to a sedentary life style with low physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle atrophy and weakness contribute to the development of frailty and affect patients' ability to physically navigate their environment. While many dialysis patients may appear too frail to participate in moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise training, those who can complete such programs appear to derive substantial benefit...
April 10, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Ann M O'Hare, Emma Murphy, Catherine R Butler, Claire A Richards
In this essay, we describe the evolution of attitudes toward dialysis discontinuation in historical context, beginning with the birth of outpatient dialysis in the 1960s and continuing through the present. From the start, attitudes toward dialysis discontinuation have reflected the clinical context in which dialysis is initiated. In the 1960s and 1970s, dialysis was only available to select patients and concerns about distributive justice weighed heavily. Because there was strong enthusiasm for new technology and dialysis was regarded as a precious resource not to be wasted, stopping treatment had negative moral connotations and was generally viewed as something to be discouraged...
April 10, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Danielle L Kirkman, Matthew Scott, Jason Kidd, Jamie H Macdonald
Dialysis adequacy is an independent predictor of high mortality rates in hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic exercise is a potential strategy to increase uremic solute removal by increasing blood flow to low perfusion tissue beds. The purpose of this review is to establish the efficacy of intradialytic exercise for hemodialysis adequacy. Additionally, this review aims to provide practical information to aid health care professionals implement intradialytic exercise for dialysis adequacy. Database and hand searches identified 15 published interventional studies that implemented intradialytic exercise for dialysis adequacy as a primary outcome measure in adult maintenance hemodialysis patients...
April 9, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Oscar Swift, Enric Vilar, Ken Farrington
Unexplained chronic inflammation is prevalent in end-stage kidney disease, and contributes toward accelerated cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The source of inflammation is unclear, although increased gastrointestinal permeability is a likely contributory factor. Whether a "leaky" gut leads to penetration of the systemic circulation by gut-derived pathogens is at least partly dependent on Kupffer cell function. These resident liver macrophages are an important part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), and there is evidence for Kupffer cell and reticuloendothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease...
April 9, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Daniel Samaha, Edward G Clark
Non-tunneled hemodialysis catheter (NTHC) insertion is an essential skill for nephrology practice and remains a requirement of training. However, improper insertion technique can increase the risk of potentially fatal infectious and mechanical complications. Evidence-based strategies can reduce the rates of such complications and should be integrated into practice and training. Ultrasound (US) guidance should routinely be used for NTHC insertion at the femoral and internal jugular sites (with avoidance of the subclavian site)...
April 4, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Laura Labriola
Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT), in conjunction with systemic antibiotics, is recommended by scientific societies as a treatment of uncomplicated catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in hemodynamically stable hemodialysis patients for whom catheter salvage is the goal. The rationale for this strategy is the eradication of intraluminal biofilms by the highly concentrated antibiotic used in the lock. However, the available evidence supporting this recommendation is scanty, and only includes small, short-term, observational studies (most of them single-arm), with different definitions of CRBSI cure and variable follow-up periods...
April 4, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
John A Sargent, Marco Marano, Stefano Marano, F John Gennari
In response to rapid alkali delivery during hemodialysis, hydrogen ions (H+ ) are mobilized from body buffers and from stimulation of organic acid production in amounts sufficient to convert most of the delivered bicarbonate to CO2 and water. Release of H+ from nonbicarbonate buffers serves to back-titrate them to a more alkaline state, readying them to buffer acids that accumulate in the interval between treatments. By contrast, stimulation of organic acid production only serves to remove added bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) from the body; the organic anions produced by this process are lost into the dialysate, irreversibly acidifying the patient as well as diverting metabolic activity from normal homeostasis...
April 3, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Jaime Uribarri, Man S Oh
The dialysate alkali used in hemodialysis to replace low body alkali levels in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients has changed over time from bicarbonate to acetate and finally back to bicarbonate with a small addition of acetate. The ideal way to replace alkali in dialysis patients remains uncertain. Elsewhere in this issue of the journal, Sargent and Gennari, who have contributed greatly to our understanding of dialysis and acid-base kinetics, suggest that decreasing the currently used concentration of bicarbonate while increasing concentration of acetate in the dialysate may be a much more physiological approach to alkali delivery during hemodialysis...
April 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Amy L Clarke, Manisha Jhamb, Paul N Bennett
Theory-driven interventions are required to increase the adoption and implementation of physical activity and exercise programs among patients with ESKD. The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) represents a synthesis of behavior change theories and can be used to aid the systematic development of theory-driven interventions designed to change exercise behavior. The goal of this review was to synthesize barriers and facilitators to engagement and implementation of exercise and develop theory-based recommendations for exercise behavior change interventions in patients with ESKD...
April 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Claire J Grant, Shih-Han S Huang, Chris W McIntyre
The gastro-intestinal tract is being increasingly recognized as the site of key pathophysiological processes in the hemodialysis patient. Intestinal dysbiosis, increased intraluminal toxin production, and increased intestinal permeability are commonly observed processes which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and thus elevated mortality. The acute circulatory effects of dialysis itself may contribute significantly to the development of gastrointestinal dysfunction as a result of both local and distant effects...
April 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Eva Segura-Ortí, Alicia García-Testal
Intradialytic exercise can improve physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Virtual reality (VR) exercise has resulted in benefits in non-dialysis contexts, but implementation in HD patients has been limited. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of VR, present the results of a 12-week intradialytic VR exercise intervention, and compare VR to conventional exercise. The secondary aim was to review the effect of VR exercise during the last 30 minutes of the HD session on hemodynamic stability...
March 27, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Matthew P M Graham-Brown, Meg J Jardine, James O Burton
Patients on hemodialysis are physically inactive. Less than 50% of hemodialysis patients undertake exercise once a week and such patients have increased mortality compared to patients who undertake regular exercise. The reasons for physical inactivity and reduced functional capacity are complex and inter-related, with skeletal muscle catabolism, chronic inflammation, anemia, malnutrition, uremia, the burden of co-morbid diseases, and "enforced" sedentary time during hemodialysis all contributing. Many of these factors drive cardiovascular disease (CVD) processes in this cohort of patients and in the general population, exercise interventions have been shown to modify many of these risk factors...
March 24, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
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