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Seminars in Dialysis

Connie J Wang, Kirsten L Johansen
Clinical manifestations of functional and morphological muscular abnormalities in dialysis patients are muscle weakness and low exercise capacity, possibly leading to a sedentary life style with low physical activity. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle atrophy and weakness contribute to the development of frailty and affect patients' ability to physically navigate their environment. While many dialysis patients may appear too frail to participate in moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise training, those who can complete such programs appear to derive substantial benefit...
April 10, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Ann M O'Hare, Emma Murphy, Catherine R Butler, Claire A Richards
In this essay, we describe the evolution of attitudes toward dialysis discontinuation in historical context, beginning with the birth of outpatient dialysis in the 1960s and continuing through the present. From the start, attitudes toward dialysis discontinuation have reflected the clinical context in which dialysis is initiated. In the 1960s and 1970s, dialysis was only available to select patients and concerns about distributive justice weighed heavily. Because there was strong enthusiasm for new technology and dialysis was regarded as a precious resource not to be wasted, stopping treatment had negative moral connotations and was generally viewed as something to be discouraged...
April 10, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Danielle L Kirkman, Matthew Scott, Jason Kidd, Jamie H Macdonald
Dialysis adequacy is an independent predictor of high mortality rates in hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic exercise is a potential strategy to increase uremic solute removal by increasing blood flow to low perfusion tissue beds. The purpose of this review is to establish the efficacy of intradialytic exercise for hemodialysis adequacy. Additionally, this review aims to provide practical information to aid health care professionals implement intradialytic exercise for dialysis adequacy. Database and hand searches identified 15 published interventional studies that implemented intradialytic exercise for dialysis adequacy as a primary outcome measure in adult maintenance hemodialysis patients...
April 9, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Oscar Swift, Enric Vilar, Ken Farrington
Unexplained chronic inflammation is prevalent in end-stage kidney disease, and contributes toward accelerated cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The source of inflammation is unclear, although increased gastrointestinal permeability is a likely contributory factor. Whether a "leaky" gut leads to penetration of the systemic circulation by gut-derived pathogens is at least partly dependent on Kupffer cell function. These resident liver macrophages are an important part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), and there is evidence for Kupffer cell and reticuloendothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease...
April 9, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Daniel Samaha, Edward G Clark
Non-tunneled hemodialysis catheter (NTHC) insertion is an essential skill for nephrology practice and remains a requirement of training. However, improper insertion technique can increase the risk of potentially fatal infectious and mechanical complications. Evidence-based strategies can reduce the rates of such complications and should be integrated into practice and training. Ultrasound (US) guidance should routinely be used for NTHC insertion at the femoral and internal jugular sites (with avoidance of the subclavian site)...
April 4, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Laura Labriola
Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT), in conjunction with systemic antibiotics, is recommended by scientific societies as a treatment of uncomplicated catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in hemodynamically stable hemodialysis patients for whom catheter salvage is the goal. The rationale for this strategy is the eradication of intraluminal biofilms by the highly concentrated antibiotic used in the lock. However, the available evidence supporting this recommendation is scanty, and only includes small, short-term, observational studies (most of them single-arm), with different definitions of CRBSI cure and variable follow-up periods...
April 4, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
John A Sargent, Marco Marano, Stefano Marano, F John Gennari
In response to rapid alkali delivery during hemodialysis, hydrogen ions (H+ ) are mobilized from body buffers and from stimulation of organic acid production in amounts sufficient to convert most of the delivered bicarbonate to CO2 and water. Release of H+ from nonbicarbonate buffers serves to back-titrate them to a more alkaline state, readying them to buffer acids that accumulate in the interval between treatments. By contrast, stimulation of organic acid production only serves to remove added bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) from the body; the organic anions produced by this process are lost into the dialysate, irreversibly acidifying the patient as well as diverting metabolic activity from normal homeostasis...
April 3, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Helen L MacLaughlin, Katrina L Campbell
There is clear evidence that survival rates following transplantation far exceed those for remaining on dialysis, regardless of body size measured by body mass index (BMI). Studies over the past 15 years also suggest little to no difference in long-term outcomes, including graft survival and mortality, irrespective of BMI, in contrast to earlier evidence. However, weight bias still exists, as access to kidney transplantation remains inequitable in centers using arbitrary BMI limits. Clinicians faced with the decision regarding listing based on body size are not helped by conflicting recommendations in national and international guidelines...
April 2, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Jaime Uribarri, Man S Oh
The dialysate alkali used in hemodialysis to replace low body alkali levels in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients has changed over time from bicarbonate to acetate and finally back to bicarbonate with a small addition of acetate. The ideal way to replace alkali in dialysis patients remains uncertain. Elsewhere in this issue of the journal, Sargent and Gennari, who have contributed greatly to our understanding of dialysis and acid-base kinetics, suggest that decreasing the currently used concentration of bicarbonate while increasing concentration of acetate in the dialysate may be a much more physiological approach to alkali delivery during hemodialysis...
April 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Amy L Clarke, Manisha Jhamb, Paul N Bennett
Theory-driven interventions are required to increase the adoption and implementation of physical activity and exercise programs among patients with ESKD. The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) represents a synthesis of behavior change theories and can be used to aid the systematic development of theory-driven interventions designed to change exercise behavior. The goal of this review was to synthesize barriers and facilitators to engagement and implementation of exercise and develop theory-based recommendations for exercise behavior change interventions in patients with ESKD...
April 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Claire J Grant, Shih-Han S Huang, Chris W McIntyre
The gastro-intestinal tract is being increasingly recognized as the site of key pathophysiological processes in the hemodialysis patient. Intestinal dysbiosis, increased intraluminal toxin production, and increased intestinal permeability are commonly observed processes which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and thus elevated mortality. The acute circulatory effects of dialysis itself may contribute significantly to the development of gastrointestinal dysfunction as a result of both local and distant effects...
April 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Peter Kotanko
Evidence from both observational and randomized controlled studies indicates that the use of bioimpedance in the care of chronic hemodialysis patients is associated with improved outcomes, in particular better volume and blood pressure control. Bioimpedance as a means to assess fluid status in dialysis patients has been approved by numerous regulatory agencies and is being used in dozens of countries around the globe. The most notable exception to the worldwide acceptance of this technique is the US where no BIA device has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in dialysis patients...
March 29, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Eva Segura-Ortí, Alicia García-Testal
Intradialytic exercise can improve physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Virtual reality (VR) exercise has resulted in benefits in non-dialysis contexts, but implementation in HD patients has been limited. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of VR, present the results of a 12-week intradialytic VR exercise intervention, and compare VR to conventional exercise. The secondary aim was to review the effect of VR exercise during the last 30 minutes of the HD session on hemodynamic stability...
March 27, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Matthew P M Graham-Brown, Meg J Jardine, James O Burton
Patients on hemodialysis are physically inactive. Less than 50% of hemodialysis patients undertake exercise once a week and such patients have increased mortality compared to patients who undertake regular exercise. The reasons for physical inactivity and reduced functional capacity are complex and inter-related, with skeletal muscle catabolism, chronic inflammation, anemia, malnutrition, uremia, the burden of co-morbid diseases, and "enforced" sedentary time during hemodialysis all contributing. Many of these factors drive cardiovascular disease (CVD) processes in this cohort of patients and in the general population, exercise interventions have been shown to modify many of these risk factors...
March 24, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Myriam Isnard-Rouchon, Mike West, Paul N Bennett
People with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) are physically inactive leading to low physical function and poor health outcomes. Guidelines recommend that nephrologists encourage PD patients to increase their activity levels; however, PD patients are often discouraged from participating in exercise programs because of perceived barriers and a lack of precision about the appropriate exercise regimen. This review suggests ways forward to assist nephrology professionals to encourage PD patients to exercise, instead of creating barriers...
March 24, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Colleen F McKenna, Amadeo F Salvador, Floris K Hendriks, Alana P Y Harris, Luc J C van Loon, Nicholas A Burd
Skeletal muscle loss is the most important hallmark of protein energy wasting syndrome as it contributes to declines in physical independence, poor quality of life, and higher mortality risk in individuals with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). As such, exercise and nutritional interventions have been investigated with the goal to preserve skeletal muscle mass and overall quality of life. Unfortunately, current efforts are unable to confirm the capacity of exercise to mitigate ESRD-associated muscle wasting...
March 22, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Nadia M Chu, Mara A McAdams-DeMarco
In this review we summarize the research pertaining to the role of exercise in preventing cognitive decline in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Impairment in cognitive function, especially in executive function, is common in patients with ESKD, and may worsen with maintenance dialysis as a result of retention of uremic toxins, recurrent cerebral ischemia, and high burden of inactivity. Cognitive impairment may lead to long-term adverse consequences, including dementia and death. Home-based and intradialytic exercise training (ET) are among the nonpharmacologic interventions identified to preserve cognitive function in ESKD...
March 22, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Sheron Latcha
Age is a risk factor for both cancer and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Newer cancer treatments are allowing patients to live longer with their cancer, the renal toxicity from the cancer itself or from the therapies that was used to treat the malignancy. Consequently, nephrologists will increasingly be asked to evaluate and counsel patients with ESRD and advanced cancer regarding the initiation of dialysis. Data on morbidity, mortality, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes in this population are sparse. Expectations regarding what dialysis can reasonably accomplish in this cohort can be unrealistically high among patients, their family members and the rest of the health care team...
March 20, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
John T Daugirdas
In the most simple analysis, a patient's hematocrit during hemodialysis will rise when the rate of ultrafiltration exceeds the rate at which the fluid is mobilized from extravascular spaces; the greater the rise in hematocrit, the lower blood volume is and the more likely intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is to occur. A secondary mechanism of IDH may be due to sudden shift of blood volume away from the heart under conditions of borderline cardiac filling. A substantial portion of blood volume resides in the splanchnic venous system...
March 12, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Leslie P Wong
The potential for harm from errors and adverse events in dialysis is significant. Achieving a culture of safety in dialysis to reduce the potential harm to patients has been challenging. Recently, improving dialysis safety has been highlighted by Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety (NTDS), a national initiative to eliminate dialysis infections. Other aspects of dialysis safety are important, though less measurable. Approaching dialysis safety from a systematic thinking view helps us to understand the need for leadership and high-functioning teams to deliver safe, reliable care in dialysis facilities...
March 8, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
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