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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

Hanna S Gauvin, Katie L McMahon, Marcus Meinzer, Greig I de Zubicaray
Studies of context effects in speech production have shown that semantic feature overlap produces interference in naming of categorically related objects. In neuroimaging studies, this semantic interference effect is consistently associated with involvement of left superior and middle temporal gyri. However, at least part of this effect has recently been shown to be attributable to visual form similarity, as categorically related objects typically share visual features. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined interference produced by visual form overlap in the absence of a category relation in a picture-word interference paradigm...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Lieke Heil, Olympia Colizoli, Egbert Hartstra, Johan Kwisthout, Stan van Pelt, Iris van Rooij, Harold Bekkering
When seeing people perform actions, we are able to quickly predict the action's outcomes. These predictions are not solely based on the observed actions themselves but utilize our prior knowledge of others. It has been suggested that observed outcomes that are not in line with these predictions result in prediction errors, which require additional processing to be integrated or updated. However, there is no consensus on whether this is indeed the case for the kind of high-level social-cognitive processes involved in action observation...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Brianna Ruth Doherty, Freek van Ede, Alexander Fraser, Eva Zita Patai, Anna Christina Nobre, Gaia Scerif
Social attention when viewing natural social (compared with nonsocial) images has functional consequences on contextual memory in healthy human adults. In addition to attention affecting memory performance, strong evidence suggests that memory, in turn, affects attentional orienting. Here, we ask whether the effects of social processing on memory alter subsequent memory-guided attention orienting and corresponding anticipatory dynamics of 8-12 Hz alpha-band oscillations as measured with EEG. Eighteen young adults searched for targets in scenes that contained either social or nonsocial distracters and their memory precision tested...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Talia L Retter, Michael A Webster, Fang Jiang
Individuals who are deaf since early life may show enhanced performance at some visual tasks, including discrimination of directional motion. The neural substrates of such behavioral enhancements remain difficult to identify in humans, although neural plasticity has been shown for early deaf people in the auditory and association cortices, including the primary auditory cortex (PAC) and STS region, respectively. Here, we investigated whether neural responses in auditory and association cortices of early deaf individuals are reorganized to be sensitive to directional visual motion...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Justin Riddle, Kai Hwang, Dillan Cellier, Sofia Dhanani, Mark D'Esposito
Beta and gamma frequency neuronal oscillations have been implicated in top-down and bottom-up attention. In this study, we used rhythmic TMS to modulate ongoing beta and gamma frequency neuronal oscillations in frontal and parietal cortex, while human participants performed a visual search task that manipulates bottom-up and top-down attention (single feature and conjunction search). Both task conditions will engage bottom-up attention processes, whereas the conjunction search condition will require more top-down attention...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Nima Khalighinejad, Elisa Brann, Alexander Dorgham, Patrick Haggard
Across-trial variability of EEG decreases more markedly before self-initiated than before externally triggered actions, providing a novel neural precursor for volitional action. However, it remains unclear whether this neural convergence is an early, deliberative stage or a late, execution-related stage in the chain of cognitive processes that transform intentions to actions. We report two experiments addressing these questions. Participants viewed randomly moving dots on a screen. At a random time, all dots started moving coherently to the left or right side of the screen...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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February 6, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Fabienne van Rossenberg, Eveline A Crone
Although male brains have consistently reported to be 8-10% larger than female brains, it remains not well understood whether there are differences between sexes (average or variance) in developmental trajectories. Furthermore, if sex differences in average brain growth or variance are observed, it is unknown whether these sex differences have behavioral relevance. The present longitudinal study aimed to unravel sex effects in cortical brain structure, development, and variance, in relation to the development of educationally relevant cognitive domains and executive functions (EFs)...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Tamar I Regev, Israel Nelken, Leon Y Deouell
The perceptual organization of pitch is frequently described as helical, with a monotonic dimension of pitch height and a circular dimension of pitch chroma, accounting for the repeating structure of the octave. Although the neural representation of pitch height is widely studied, the way in which pitch chroma representation is manifested in neural activity is currently debated. We tested the automaticity of pitch chroma processing using the MMN-an ERP component indexing automatic detection of deviations from auditory regularity...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Qiaoli Huang, Huan Luo
Objects, shown explicitly or held in mind internally, compete for limited processing resources. Recent studies have demonstrated that attention samples locations and objects rhythmically. Interestingly, periodic sampling not only operates over objects in the same scene but also occurs for multiple perceptual predictions that are held in attention for incoming inputs. However, how the brain coordinates perceptual predictions that are endowed with different levels of bottom-up saliency information remains unclear...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Vignesh Muralidharan, Xinze Yu, Mike X Cohen, Adam R Aron
How do we prepare to stop ourselves in the future? Here, we used scalp EEG to test the hypothesis that people prepare to stop by putting parts of their motor system (specifically, here, sensorimotor cortex) into a suppressed state ahead of time. On each trial, participants were cued to prepare to stop one hand and then initiated a bimanual movement. On a minority of trials, participants were instructed to stop the cued hand while continuing quickly with the other. We used a guided multivariate source separation method to examine oscillatory power changes in presumed sensorimotor cortical areas...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Nadège Bault, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Martina Puppi, Gaëlle Opolczynski, Alessia Monti, Davide Braghittoni, Florence Thibaut, Aldo Rustichini, Giorgio Coricelli
Individuals learn by comparing the outcome of chosen and unchosen actions. A negative counterfactual value signal is generated when this comparison is unfavorable. This can happen in private as well as in social settings-where the foregone outcome results from the choice of another person. We hypothesized that, despite sharing similar features such as supporting learning, these two counterfactual signals might implicate distinct brain networks. We conducted a neuropsychological study on the role of private and social counterfactual value signals in risky decision-making...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Eleanna Varangis, Qolamreza Razlighi, Christian G Habeck, Zachary Fisher, Yaakov Stern
Research on the cognitive neuroscience of aging has identified myriad neurocognitive processes that are affected by the aging process, with a focus on identifying neural correlates of cognitive function in aging. This study aimed to test whether internetwork connectivity among six cognitive networks is sensitive to age-related changes in neural efficiency and cognitive functioning. A factor analytic connectivity approach was used to model network interactions during 11 cognitive tasks grouped into four primary cognitive domains: vocabulary, perceptual speed, fluid reasoning, and episodic memory...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Farah Naaz, Lindsay K Knight, Brendan E Depue
Highly influential models have proposed that responses to different types of threat are mediated by partially segregated neural systems, with the amygdala underlying phasic responses to explicit threat (fear) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) mediating sustained responses to ambiguous threat (anxiety). However, newer models have suggested similar recruitment of both regions across a wide spectrum of threat. Therefore, to empirically test these models and further elucidate the activation profiles and connectivity patterns of the amygdala and the BNST during threat processing, 20 participants were scanned using high-resolution fMRI (1...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jong H Yoon, Edward Cui, Michael J Minzenberg, Cameron S Carter
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is thought to be a central regulator of behavioral inhibition, and behavioral inhibition is thought to be a major determinant of impulsivity. Thus, it would be reasonable to hypothesize that STN function is related to impulsivity. However, it has been difficult to test this hypothesis due to the challenges in noninvasively and accurately measuring this structure's signal in humans. We utilized a novel approach for STN signal localization that entails identifying this structure directly on fMRI images for each individual participant in native space...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Kenny Skagerlund, Taylor Bolt, Jason S Nomi, Mikael Skagenholt, Daniel Västfjäll, Ulf Träff, Lucina Q Uddin
What are the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms that give rise to mathematical competence? This study investigated the relationship between tests of mathematical ability completed outside the scanner and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex in adults. These parietal areas are also involved in executive functions (EFs). Therefore, it remains unclear whether there are unique networks for mathematical processing. We investigate the neural networks for mathematical cognition and three measures of EF using resting-state fMRI data collected from 51 healthy adults...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Pierre Jolicœur
We explored the flow of information during visual search by examining activity indexing visual attention (N2pc) and the subsequent processing of the selected objects in visual short-term memory (SPCN) time-locked to stimulus presentation and to the motor response. We measured event-related activity at posterior sites (PO7/PO8) for 96 participants during a simple visual search task. A response-locked posterior contralateral negativity (RpcN) was observed with a scalp distribution similar to that of the N2pc and SPCN...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Laura Crucianelli, Yannis Paloyelis, Lucia Ricciardi, Paul M Jenkinson, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
Multisensory integration processes are fundamental to our sense of self as embodied beings. Bodily illusions, such as the rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the size-weight illusion (SWI), allow us to investigate how the brain resolves conflicting multisensory evidence during perceptual inference in relation to different facets of body representation. In the RHI, synchronous tactile stimulation of a participant's hidden hand and a visible rubber hand creates illusory body ownership; in the SWI, the perceived size of the body can modulate the estimated weight of external objects...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Adam Waytz, John T Cacioppo, Rene Hurlemann, Fulvia Castelli, Ralph Adolphs, Lynn K Paul
Anthropomorphism, the attribution of distinctively human mental characteristics to nonhuman animals and objects, illustrates the human propensity for extending social cognition beyond typical social targets. Yet, its processing components remain challenging to study because they are typically all engaged simultaneously. Across one pilot study and one focal study, we tested three rare people with basolateral amygdala lesions to dissociate two specific processing components: those triggered by attention to social cues (e...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Pawel J Matusz, Nora Turoman, Ruxandra I Tivadar, Chrysa Retsa, Micah M Murray
In real-world environments, information is typically multisensory, and objects are a primary unit of information processing. Object recognition and action necessitate attentional selection of task-relevant from among task-irrelevant objects. However, the brain and cognitive mechanisms governing these processes remain not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that attentional selection of visual objects is controlled by integrated top-down audiovisual object representations ("attentional templates") while revealing a new brain mechanism through which they can operate...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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