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Inhalation Toxicology | Page 2

Fadia Mayyas, Karem H Alzoubi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a very common habit worldwide contributing to risk of kidney dysfunction and diabetes (DM). However, the mechanisms are unclear. AIM: The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of cigarette smoking on kidney oxidative stress, inflammation, and remodeling in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of diabetes. METHODS: Rats were randomized into control (intraperitoneal (i.p.) citrate buffer injection and exposure to fresh air), cigarette smoking (1 h daily for 6 d/week, citrate buffer), DM (single dose STZ 35 mg/kg i...
April 4, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
K Monica Lee, Julia Hoeng, Sam Harbo, Ulrike Kogel, William Gardner, Michael Oldham, Eric Benson, Marja Talikka, Athanasios Kondylis, Florian Martin, Bjoern Titz, Sam Ansari, Keyur Trivedi, Emmanuel Guedj, Ashraf Elamin, Nikolai V Ivanov, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch, Willie J McKinney
We compared early biological changes in mice after inhalation exposures to cigarette smoke or e-vapor aerosols (MarkTen® cartridge with Carrier, Test-1, or Test-2 formulations; 4% nicotine). Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3R4F cigarette smoke or e-vapor aerosols by nose-only inhalation for up to 4 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. The 3R4F and e-vapor exposures were set to match the target nose port aerosol nicotine concentration (∼41 µg/L). Only the 3R4F group showed postexposure clinical signs such as tremors and lethargy...
March 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Sussan Kaboudanian Ardestani, Ali Taravati, Zahra Kianmehr, Arash Hajizadeh Dastjerdi, Shahryar Pourfarzam, Mohammad Reza Soroush, Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh, Tooba Ghazanfari
CONTEXT: Sulfur mustard (SM) as a cytotoxic and blistering agent can alkylate a variety of cellular components, causing the incidence of ongoing oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to assess oxidative stress index (OSI) in SM-exposed veterans with long-term pulmonary complications. METHODS: Participants consisted of 289 SM-exposed individuals with pulmonary complications (classified into three groups: mild, moderate and severe) and 66 healthy individuals as the control group...
March 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Keiki Ogino, Kenjiro Nagaoka, Tatsuo Ito, Kei Takemoto, Tomoaki Okuda, Shoji F Nakayama, Noriyoshi Ogino, Yuka Seki, Hiroki Hamada, Shogo Takashiba, Yoshihisa Fujikura
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the protein and trace element components of PM2.5 and their contribution to the allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. METHODS: PM2.5, treated at high temperature and with a strong acid to hydrolyze any protein content and remove trace elements, was administered to BALB/c mice. Allergic airway inflammation was compared between the three groups (saline, pure PM2.5 and treated PM2.5) by evaluating airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells, serum IgE, the mRNA of various cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin-1 and CXCL3), mucus protein mRNA (MUC5ac and MUC5b) and the filtration of inflammatory cells in the lung...
March 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Dan Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Richard C Pleus, Gretchen Bruce, Heather Klintworth, Dennis Sullivan, William Johnson, Narayanan Rajendran, James Keenan
Cellulose insulation (CI), a common building material, is a mixture of cellulose fibers and borates. Borates are approximately 20% of the product weight and act as a flame retardant. Given possible exposure to workers and consumers, an inhalation toxicity study was conducted following Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 414 for Prenatal Development Toxicity to evaluate if CI is a developmental toxicant. Pregnant female rats were exposed by nose-only inhalation to CI aerosols containing 20% boric acid for six h/day, from gestational day (GD) 6-19, and fetuses were evaluated for developmental parameters...
March 4, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Halina Milnerowicz, Marta Wrześniak, Małgorzata Królik, Katarzyna Kowalska
Pregnancy and tobacco smoking (TS) each can cause increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; this, in turn, can lead to disorders in iron management and disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of TS and Cd on Fe, Zn, and anti-oxidant levels (i.e. glutathione [GSH], metallothionein [MT]) in the blood of pregnant women. The study reported here evaluated 110 blood samples from pregnant women in their 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. Concentrations of ferritin and transferrin were measured in the serum; Zn, Fe and cotinine in the plasma, that of Cd in whole blood, that for glutathione in red blood cell lysates, and levels of metallothionein both in the plasma and in lysates prepared from isolated erythrocytes...
February 22, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Wei-Chung Su, Yi Chen, Jinxiang Xi
Ultrafine particles (UFPs) in workplaces have been and continue to be an important occupational health concern. The inhalation and the consequent deposition of UFPs in workers' lower airways can lead to many adverse health effects. Therefore, it is vital to study the deposition of UFPs in the human respiratory tract from the viewpoint of occupational health. In this study, a set of physiologically representative human tracheobronchial airway replicas were made using high-resolution 3D printers, and a new approach that was distinct from the traditional methods was developed to apply these airway replicas in estimating UFP respiratory deposition...
February 20, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Dinelia Rivera-Burgos, Michael C Babin, Jillian M Staugler, Thomas Vinci, Mark R Perry
Cyanides are highly toxic compounds that have been used as weapons of terrorism throughout history. Cyanide (CN) is acutely toxic by all routes of administration; however, inhalation is the main exposure route. To adequately test effective countermeasures against inhalational CN threats, robust and well-characterized animal models are needed. This paper describes the initial development of a hydrogen cyanide (HCN) exposure swine model for documenting the physiological effects and toxicological profile during and after HCN inhalation exposure...
February 13, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Won Tae Jeong, Hyun Ki Cho, Hyung Ryeol Lee, Ki Hoon Song, Heung Bin Lim
Standardized methods for collecting smoke and for measuring smoke components in heat not burn tobacco product (HTP) are yet to be established, and there is a lack of consensus as to whether the content of HTP cigarettes can be assayed in the same manner as for conventional cigarettes. Since HTPcigarettes do not generate ash when smoked, we compared the levels of tobacco alkaloids (TAs) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) of HTP cigarettes before and after aerosol generation. HTP cigarettes were smoked according to two international standardization methods...
February 11, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Osama Y Alshogran, Leen S Magarbeh, Karem H Alzoubi, Mohammad I Saleh, Omar F Khabour
Waterpipe smoke contains many toxic constituents that can alter drug pharmacokinetics. This study assessed the effect of waterpipe smoke exposure on the activity and expression of CYP450 enzymes in rats. Animals (n = 10/group) were exposed to either waterpipe smoke or side-stream cigarette smoke for 1 h/day (6 days/week) for 31 days, or fresh air (control). An intragastric cocktail solution containing three probe drugs, phenacetin, chlorzoxazone and testosterone was administered to assess the activity of CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A, respectively...
February 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Baojun Yuan, Wei Yuan, Xiaoting Wen, Chao Li, Lichang Gao, Baolin Li, Dongmei Wang, Liufu Cui, Yongzhe Li
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is caused by long-term exposure to inhaled coal dust; it is likely influenced by the interaction between environmental factors and multiple susceptibility genes, such as the CYBA (cytochrome b-245α polypeptide) gene that has recently been identified to be involved in the genetic susceptibility for several pulmonary diseases. The aim of this case-control study was to explore the association between CYBA gene polymorphisms and the development of CWP in coal miners belonging to the Han ethnic group in China...
January 18, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
David M Lehmann, Wanda C Williams
Halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of occupational asthma. Until recently, laboratory research into the development and manifestation of platinum hypersensitivity responses were hindered by the lack of an animal model suitable for assessing the functional consequences of allergic sensitization. We employed a newly developed mouse model to assess the potential allergenicity of ammonium tetrachloroplatinate (ATCP), compare the relative potency of ATCP and another platinum salt, ammonium hexachloroplatinate (AHCP) and assess potential cross-reactivity...
January 18, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Leslie C Thompson, Yong Ho Kim, Brandi L Martin, Allen D Ledbetter, Janice A Dye, Mehdi S Hazari, M Ian Gilmour, Aimen K Farraj
Exposure to wildland fire-related particulate matter (PM) causes adverse health outcomes. However, the impacts of specific biomass sources remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiopulmonary responses in rats following exposure to PM extracts collected from peat fire smoke. We hypothesized that peat smoke PM would dose-dependently alter cardiopulmonary function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8/group) were exposed to 35 µg (Lo PM) or 350 µg (Hi PM) of peat smoke PM extracts suspended in saline, or saline alone (Vehicle) via oropharyngeal aspiration (OA)...
January 15, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Nguyen Lu Phuong, Nguyen Dang Khoa, Kiao Inthavong, Kazuhide Ito
Regional deposition of inhaled aerosols is essential for assessing health risks from toxic exposure. Upper airway physiology plays a significant role in respiratory defense by filtering micrometer particles, whose deposition mechanism is predominantly inertial impaction and is mainly controlled by airflow characteristics. The monkey is commonly used in tests that study inhalation toxicity as well as in preclinical tests as human surrogates due to their anatomical similarities to humans. Therefore, accurate predictions and an understanding of the inhaled particles and their distribution in monkeys are essential for extrapolating laboratory animal data to humans...
January 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Raymond F Hamilton, Zheqiong Wu, Megha Thakkar, Andrij Holian, Somenath Mitra
OBJECTIVE: The toxicity of silver nanomaterials in various forms has been extensively evaluated, but the toxicity of silver nanocarbon composites is less well understood. Therefore, silver-carbon nanotube composites (Ag-MWCNT-COOH) and silver-graphene oxide composites (Ag-GO) were synthesized by microwave irradiation and evaluated in two in vitro cell models. MATERIALS/METHODS: Toxicity of silver nanosphere (Ag), Ag-MWCNT-COOH and Ag-GO were analyzed by MTS assay and LDH assay in primary C57BL/6 murine alveolar macrophages and human THP-1 cells...
January 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Anna Bizoń, Monika Ołdakowska, Halina Milnerowicz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) L55M polymorphism on the enzyme's activity and concentration in the serum as well as its association with lipid profile parameters in a group of healthy persons. We also evaluated the presence of PON1 L55M polymorphism in a group of subjects exposed to tobacco smoke and with overweight or obesity on those parameters. METHODS: Analysis of L55M polymorphism was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR - RFLP)...
January 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
H Kan, D Pan, V Castranova
Human and animal studies have confirmed that inhalation of particles from ambient air or occupational settings not only causes pathophysiological changes in the respiratory system, but causes cardiovascular effects as well. At an equal mass lung burden, nanoparticles are more potent in causing systemic microvascular dysfunction than fine particles of similar composition. Thus, accumulated evidence from animal studies has led to heightened concerns about the potential short- and long-term deleterious effects of inhalation of engineered nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system...
January 3, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Eugene Demchuk, Shannon L Ball, San L Le, Andrew J Prussia
OBJECTIVE: Dimethyl sulfide (DMS, CAS 75-18-3) is an industrial chemical. It is both an irritant and neurotoxicant that may be life-threatening because of accidental release. The effects of DMS on public health and associated public health response depend on the exposure concentration and duration. However, currently, public health advisory information exists for only a 1 h exposure duration, developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). In the present work, the AIHA-reviewed data were computationally extrapolated to other common short-term durations...
January 2, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Andrij Holian, Mitchell Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
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