Inhalation Toxicology | Page 2

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October 16, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Jessica L Ray, Andrij Holian
Background: Respiratory disease is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. These diseases frequently present with a sex bias in occurrence and severity, yet the mechanisms responsible for these sex biases is a critically understudied area of basic research. Methods: Male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or crystalline silica (cSiO2 ) via oropharyngeal aspiration. Acute assessments were conducted 24 h and 7 days after a single exposure. In chronic experiments, mice were exposed to respective particles once per week for 4 weeks and sacrificed 8 weeks after the last exposure...
September 26, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Rachel Burmeister, Joseph F Rhoderick, Andrij Holian
Objectives: Inhalation of crystalline silica (cSiO2 ) remains a significant occupational hazard and may lead to the development of silicosis. When cSiO2 particles are phagocytized by alveolar macrophages, they cause disruption of the lysosomal membrane which results in cell death. There are currently no pharmaceutical treatments directed at this mechanism of disease; however, many existing pharmaceuticals, such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), become sequestered in the lysosome through an ion-trapping mechanism...
September 26, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Davide Sciuscio, Julia Hoeng, Manuel C Peitsch, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck
Background: Nicotine, because of its volatility, has a complex dosimetry following inhalation as a vapor/aerosol mix. To better control the dosimetry, nicotine could be formulated with a suitable dry powder excipient for use in a clinical inhaler. Aim and Methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic PK profile of two dry powder formulations containing 2.5% or 5% nicotine using three experimental models associated to the PreciseInhale™ aerosolization system: the in vitro DissolvIt dissolution system; the ex vivo isolated, ventilated, and perfused lung (IPL) of the rat; and the in vivo intratracheally intubated rat...
September 9, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Marie McGee Hargrove, Yong Ho Kim, Charly King, Charles E Wood, M Ian Gilmour, Janice A Dye, Stephen H Gavett
Background: Acute and chronic exposures to biomass wildfire smoke pose significant health risks to firefighters and impacted communities. Susceptible populations such as asthmatics may be particularly sensitive to wildfire effects. We examined pulmonary responses to biomass smoke generated from combustion of peat, oak, or eucalyptus in control and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Methods: Mice were exposed 1 h/d for 2 consecutive days to emissions from each fuel type under smoldering or flaming conditions (∼40 or ∼3...
August 20, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Gary M Marsh, A Michael Ierardi, Stacey M Benson, Brent L Finley
Objectives: We previously published a pooled statistical power analysis of mesothelioma incidence in the Italian, Norwegian, Austrian, and French cosmetic talc miner and miller cohorts. Soon thereafter, updates to the Italian and Norwegian cohorts were published, providing an additional 14,322 person-years of observation. In this study, we provide an updated power analysis using the newly available information. Methods: We pooled the current results regarding pleural cancer/mesothelioma mortality or incidence in four cosmetic talc miner and miller cohorts in Italy, Norway, Austria, and France...
August 5, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Shira Chapman, Shlomi Lazar, Rellie Gez, Ishai Rabinovitz, Guy Yaakov, Ettie Grauer
Objective: Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor and a highly toxic, volatile warfare agent. Rats and guinea pigs exposed to sarin display cholinergic excitotoxicity which includes hyper-salivation, respiratory distress, tremors, seizures, and death. Here we focused on the characterization of the airways injury induced by direct exposure of the lungs to sarin vapor and compared it to that induced by the intramuscularly route. Materials and methods: Rats were exposed to sarin either in vapor (∼1LCT50, 34...
July 30, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Margarita Marinova, Pavel Solopov, Christiana Dimitropoulou, Ruben M L Colunga Biancatelli, John D Catravas
Objective : Accidental exposure to hydrochloric acid (HCl) is associated with acute lung injury in humans, development of long-term chronic airway obstruction, and fibrosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the progression to pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. We utilized a mouse model of progressive lung injury from a single exposure to HCl to investigate the effects of HCl on the lower respiratory tract. Materials and methods: HCl (0.05-0.3 N) or saline was injected intratracheally into male C57Bl/6J mice...
June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Lisa Kobos, Seyedeh Mahboobeh Teimouri Sendesi, Andrew J Whelton, Brandon E Boor, John A Howarter, Jonathan Shannahan
Objectives: US water infrastructure is in need of widespread repair due to age-related deterioration. Currently, the cured-in-place (CIPP) procedure is the most common method for water pipe repair. This method involves the on-site manufacture of a new polymer composite plastic liner within the damaged pipe. The CIPP process can release materials resulting in occupational and public health concerns. To understand hazards associated with CIPP-related emission exposures, an in vitro toxicity assessment was performed...
June 12, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
J F Gomes, R M Miranda, J P Oliveira, H M Esteves, P C Albuquerque
Objectives: The objective of this study was the evaluation of the professional exposure to nanoparticles during tasks performed in workstations for production of metallic parts by laser welding additive manufacturing. Materials and methods: The study was developed in an installed additive manufacturing machine, having controlled temperature and humidity in an industrial unit where metal parts were being produced using stainless steel powders of granulometry of 10 to 35 μm. Results and discussion: Monitoring of airborne nanoparticles emission was made using adequate equipment, which showed considerable number of nanoparticles over the baseline, having the same composition as the steel powder used...
June 10, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Nour A Al-Sawalha, Riham R AlSari, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) is a popular form of tobacco consumption. Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke altered kidney function and oxidative stress balance in offspring. However, the effect of prenatal WTS exposure on kidney function parameters, blood pressure and oxidative stress in adult offspring rats were unknown. Methods: Pregnant Wister rats were exposed to either WTS for 2 hours per day utilizing a whole body exposure system or fresh air from day 0 of gestation to day 21. Systolic blood pressure, histological analysis of kidney, kidney function biomarkers [angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin I, angiotensin II, urea nitrogen, creatinine and albumin], and oxidative stress biomarkers (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) were measured in male- and female- offspring rats on week 20...
June 10, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Yong Joo Park, Mi Ho Jeong, In Jae Bang, Ha Ryong Kim, Kyu Hyuck Chung
Abstracts Objective: The major active ingredient of humidifier disinfectant, polyhexamethylene guanidine-phosphate (PHMG-P), caused hundreds of deaths with pulmonary fibrosis. However, structurally similar guanidine-based disinfectants are still in use in various fields. Moreover, as they are precursors of excellent antimicrobial compounds, new chemicals with guanidine-based structures have been synthesized and introduced. In this study, we evaluated pulmonary fibrotic responses induced by PHMG-P, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and oligo(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxyethyl guanidinium chloride (PGH) and their toxicity mechanisms in type II alveolar epithelial A549 cells...
June 10, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Guanghe Wang, Wenjing Liu, Weimin Song
Sale of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products has exponentially increased in the past decade, which raise concerns about its safety. This updated review provides the available toxicology profile of e-cigarettes, summarizing evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies. Data regarding which components in e-liquids exhibit potential toxicities are inconsistent. Some studies have reported that nicotine plays a significant role in inducing adverse outcomes and that solvents alone do not induce any adverse effects...
June 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Mevlüt Karataş, Meşide Gündüzöz, Murat Büyükşekerci, Osman Gökhan Özakıncı, Türkan Nadir Öziş
OBJECTIVES: This follow-up study set out to evaluate the natural course and radiographic progression of silicosis among ceramic workers and describe the risk factors related with disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of ceramic workers with silicosis who were referred to our hospital between February 2010 and March 2018. A total of 165 ceramic workers followed at least 24 months and with at least two chest radiographs were included in the study...
May 10, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Ning Xu, Yiru Shao, Kaili Ye, Yubei Qu, Obulkasim Memet, Daikun He, Jie Shen
OBJECTIVE: We have previously found that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy can ameliorate phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Moreover, exosomes can be used as a cell-free alternative therapy. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effect of MSC-derived exosomes on phosgene-induced ALI. METHODS: MSC-derived exosomes were isolated from MSCs through ultracentrifugation. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to phosgene at 8.33 g/m3 for 5 min. MSC-derived exosomes were intratracheally administered and rats were sacrificed at the time points of 6, 24 and 48 h...
May 9, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
M E Gerlofs-Nijland, B G H Bokkers, H Sachse, J J E Reijnders, M Gustafsson, A J F Boere, P F H Fokkens, D L A C Leseman, K Augsburg, F R Cassee
OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence that exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) from road traffic is associated with adverse health outcomes. Although it is often assumed to be caused by vehicle exhaust emissions such as soot, other components may also contribute to detrimental effects. The toxicity of fine PM (PM2.5; <2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter) released from brake pads was compared to PM from other sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2...
May 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
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