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Inhalation Toxicology

Gary M Marsh, A Michael Ierardi, Stacey M Benson, Brent L Finley
Objectives: We previously published a pooled statistical power analysis of mesothelioma incidence in the Italian, Norwegian, Austrian, and French cosmetic talc miner and miller cohorts. Soon thereafter, updates to the Italian and Norwegian cohorts were published, providing an additional 14,322 person-years of observation. In this study, we provide an updated power analysis using the newly available information. Methods: We pooled the current results regarding pleural cancer/mesothelioma mortality or incidence in four cosmetic talc miner and miller cohorts in Italy, Norway, Austria, and France...
August 5, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Shira Chapman, Shlomi Lazar, Rellie Gez, Ishai Rabinovitz, Guy Yaakov, Ettie Grauer
Objective: Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor and a highly toxic, volatile warfare agent. Rats and guinea pigs exposed to sarin display cholinergic excitotoxicity which includes hyper-salivation, respiratory distress, tremors, seizures, and death. Here we focused on the characterization of the airways injury induced by direct exposure of the lungs to sarin vapor and compared it to that induced by the intramuscularly route. Materials and methods: Rats were exposed to sarin either in vapor (∼1LCT50, 34...
July 30, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Mark D Ihrie, Alexia J Taylor-Just, Nigel J Walker, Matthew D Stout, Amit Gupta, Jamie S Richey, Barry K Hayden, Gregory L Baker, Barney R Sparrow, Katherine S Duke, James C Bonner
Background: Increasing evidence from rodent studies indicates that inhaled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have harmful effects on the lungs. In this study, we examined the effects of inhalation exposure to MWCNTs on allergen-induced airway inflammation and fibrosis. We hypothesized that inhalation pre-exposure to MWCNTs would render mice susceptible to developing allergic lung disease induced by house dust mite (HDM) allergen. Methods: Male B6C3F1/N mice were exposed by whole-body inhalation for 6 h a day, 5 d a week, for 30 d to air control or 0...
July 26, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
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June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Margarita Marinova, Pavel Solopov, Christiana Dimitropoulou, Ruben M L Colunga Biancatelli, John D Catravas
Objective : Accidental exposure to hydrochloric acid (HCl) is associated with acute lung injury in humans, development of long-term chronic airway obstruction, and fibrosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the progression to pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. We utilized a mouse model of progressive lung injury from a single exposure to HCl to investigate the effects of HCl on the lower respiratory tract. Materials and methods: HCl (0.05-0.3 N) or saline was injected intratracheally into male C57Bl/6J mice...
June 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Lisa Kobos, Seyedeh Mahboobeh Teimouri Sendesi, Andrew J Whelton, Brandon E Boor, John A Howarter, Jonathan Shannahan
Objectives: US water infrastructure is in need of widespread repair due to age-related deterioration. Currently, the cured-in-place (CIPP) procedure is the most common method for water pipe repair. This method involves the on-site manufacture of a new polymer composite plastic liner within the damaged pipe. The CIPP process can release materials resulting in occupational and public health concerns. To understand hazards associated with CIPP-related emission exposures, an in vitro toxicity assessment was performed...
June 12, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
J F Gomes, R M Miranda, J P Oliveira, H M Esteves, P C Albuquerque
Objectives: The objective of this study was the evaluation of the professional exposure to nanoparticles during tasks performed in workstations for production of metallic parts by laser welding additive manufacturing. Materials and methods: The study was developed in an installed additive manufacturing machine, having controlled temperature and humidity in an industrial unit where metal parts were being produced using stainless steel powders of granulometry of 10 to 35 μm. Results and discussion: Monitoring of airborne nanoparticles emission was made using adequate equipment, which showed considerable number of nanoparticles over the baseline, having the same composition as the steel powder used...
June 10, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Nour A Al-Sawalha, Riham R AlSari, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) is a popular form of tobacco consumption. Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke altered kidney function and oxidative stress balance in offspring. However, the effect of prenatal WTS exposure on kidney function parameters, blood pressure and oxidative stress in adult offspring rats were unknown. Methods: Pregnant Wister rats were exposed to either WTS for 2 hours per day utilizing a whole body exposure system or fresh air from day 0 of gestation to day 21. Systolic blood pressure, histological analysis of kidney, kidney function biomarkers [angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin I, angiotensin II, urea nitrogen, creatinine and albumin], and oxidative stress biomarkers (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) were measured in male- and female- offspring rats on week 20...
June 10, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Yong Joo Park, Mi Ho Jeong, In Jae Bang, Ha Ryong Kim, Kyu Hyuck Chung
Abstracts Objective: The major active ingredient of humidifier disinfectant, polyhexamethylene guanidine-phosphate (PHMG-P), caused hundreds of deaths with pulmonary fibrosis. However, structurally similar guanidine-based disinfectants are still in use in various fields. Moreover, as they are precursors of excellent antimicrobial compounds, new chemicals with guanidine-based structures have been synthesized and introduced. In this study, we evaluated pulmonary fibrotic responses induced by PHMG-P, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and oligo(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxyethyl guanidinium chloride (PGH) and their toxicity mechanisms in type II alveolar epithelial A549 cells...
June 10, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Mevlüt Karataş, Meşide Gündüzöz, Murat Büyükşekerci, Osman Gökhan Özakıncı, Türkan Nadir Öziş
OBJECTIVES: This follow-up study set out to evaluate the natural course and radiographic progression of silicosis among ceramic workers and describe the risk factors related with disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of ceramic workers with silicosis who were referred to our hospital between February 2010 and March 2018. A total of 165 ceramic workers followed at least 24 months and with at least two chest radiographs were included in the study...
May 10, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Ning Xu, Yiru Shao, Kaili Ye, Yubei Qu, Obulkasim Memet, Daikun He, Jie Shen
OBJECTIVE: We have previously found that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy can ameliorate phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Moreover, exosomes can be used as a cell-free alternative therapy. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effect of MSC-derived exosomes on phosgene-induced ALI. METHODS: MSC-derived exosomes were isolated from MSCs through ultracentrifugation. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to phosgene at 8.33 g/m3 for 5 min. MSC-derived exosomes were intratracheally administered and rats were sacrificed at the time points of 6, 24 and 48 h...
May 9, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
M E Gerlofs-Nijland, B G H Bokkers, H Sachse, J J E Reijnders, M Gustafsson, A J F Boere, P F H Fokkens, D L A C Leseman, K Augsburg, F R Cassee
OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence that exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) from road traffic is associated with adverse health outcomes. Although it is often assumed to be caused by vehicle exhaust emissions such as soot, other components may also contribute to detrimental effects. The toxicity of fine PM (PM2.5; <2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter) released from brake pads was compared to PM from other sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2...
May 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Abeer M Rababa'h, Raghad W Bsoul, Mohammad J Alkhatatbeh, Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and atherosclerosis in particular. The use of waterpipe smoking (WPS) is increasing due to the misperception that it is less harmful than cigarette smoking due to its flavor and the use of water as a filter. Thus, research that investigates toxic effects of WPS is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WPS on major cardiovascular biomarkers that may develop atherosclerosis in mice...
May 3, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Linda Elfsmark, Lina Ågren, Christine Akfur, Elisabeth Wigenstam, Ulrika Bergström, Sofia Jonasson
OBJECTIVE: To establish a rat model with respiratory and pulmonary responses caused by inhalation exposure to non-lethal concentrations of ammonia (NH3 ) that can be used for evaluation of new medical countermeasure strategies for NH3 -induced acute lung injury (ALI). This is of great value since no specific antidotes of NH3 -induced injuries exist and medical management relies on supportive and symptomatically relieving efforts. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8-9 weeks old, 213g ± 2g) were exposed to NH3 using two different exposure regimens; nose-only inhalation or intratracheal instillation...
April 30, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Gregory J Smith, Leon Walsh, Mark Higuchi, Samir N P Kelada
OBJECTIVE: Complete systems for laboratory-based inhalation toxicology studies are typically not commercially available; therefore, inhalation toxicologists utilize custom-made exposure systems. Here we report on the design, construction, testing, operation and maintenance of a newly developed in vivo rodent ozone inhalation exposure system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Key design requirements for the system included large-capacity exposure chambers to facilitate studies with large sample sizes, automatic and precise control of chamber ozone concentrations, as well as automated data collection on airflow and environmental conditions...
April 25, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Hojat Borna, Seyed Hojjat Hosseini Qale Noe, Asghar Beigi Harchegani, Nima Rahmani Talatappe, Mahdi Ghatrehsamani, Mostafa Ghanei, Alireza Shahriary
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a mutagenic compound that targets various organs. Although it causes a wide range of abnormalities, cellular and molecular mechanisms of its action are not-well-understood. Oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, as well as depletion of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), antioxidants and increase of intracellular calcium are the hypothesized mechanisms of its action at the acute phase of injury. In this review, the proteome analysis of SM toxicity has been considered. We selected articles that considered proteomics analysis of SM toxicity with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by mass spectrometry...
April 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Hajime Kawasaki
The distribution of dust particles within the lungs and their excretion are highly associated with their pulmonary toxicity. Literature was reviewed to discern pulmonary translocation pathways for inhaled α-quartz compared to those for inhaled TiO2 . Accordingly, it was hypothesized α-quartz particles in the alveoli were phagocytized by alveolar macrophages but silica-containing macrophages remained in the alveoli for longer time in contrast to the rapid elimination from the alveoli seen for TiO2 -containing macrophages...
April 18, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
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