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Inhalation Toxicology

Mevlüt Karataş, Meşide Gündüzöz, Murat Büyükşekerci, Osman Gökhan Özakıncı, Türkan Nadir Öziş
OBJECTIVES: This follow-up study set out to evaluate the natural course and radiographic progression of silicosis among ceramic workers and describe the risk factors related with disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of ceramic workers with silicosis who were referred to our hospital between February 2010 and March 2018. A total of 165 ceramic workers followed at least 24 months and with at least two chest radiographs were included in the study...
May 10, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Ning Xu, Yiru Shao, Kaili Ye, Yubei Qu, Obulkasim Memet, Daikun He, Jie Shen
OBJECTIVE: We have previously found that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy can ameliorate phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Moreover, exosomes can be used as a cell-free alternative therapy. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effect of MSC-derived exosomes on phosgene-induced ALI. METHODS: MSC-derived exosomes were isolated from MSCs through ultracentrifugation. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to phosgene at 8.33 g/m3 for 5 min. MSC-derived exosomes were intratracheally administered and rats were sacrificed at the time points of 6, 24 and 48 h...
May 9, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
M E Gerlofs-Nijland, B G H Bokkers, H Sachse, J J E Reijnders, M Gustafsson, A J F Boere, P F H Fokkens, D L A C Leseman, K Augsburg, F R Cassee
OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence that exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) from road traffic is associated with adverse health outcomes. Although it is often assumed to be caused by vehicle exhaust emissions such as soot, other components may also contribute to detrimental effects. The toxicity of fine PM (PM2.5; <2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter) released from brake pads was compared to PM from other sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2...
May 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Abeer M Rababa'h, Raghad W Bsoul, Mohammad J Alkhatatbeh, Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and atherosclerosis in particular. The use of waterpipe smoking (WPS) is increasing due to the misperception that it is less harmful than cigarette smoking due to its flavor and the use of water as a filter. Thus, research that investigates toxic effects of WPS is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WPS on major cardiovascular biomarkers that may develop atherosclerosis in mice...
May 3, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Linda Elfsmark, Lina Ågren, Christine Akfur, Elisabeth Wigenstam, Ulrika Bergström, Sofia Jonasson
OBJECTIVE: To establish a rat model with respiratory and pulmonary responses caused by inhalation exposure to non-lethal concentrations of ammonia (NH3 ) that can be used for evaluation of new medical countermeasure strategies for NH3 -induced acute lung injury (ALI). This is of great value since no specific antidotes of NH3 -induced injuries exist and medical management relies on supportive and symptomatically relieving efforts. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8-9 weeks old, 213g ± 2g) were exposed to NH3 using two different exposure regimens; nose-only inhalation or intratracheal instillation...
April 30, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Gregory J Smith, Leon Walsh, Mark Higuchi, Samir N P Kelada
OBJECTIVE: Complete systems for laboratory-based inhalation toxicology studies are typically not commercially available; therefore, inhalation toxicologists utilize custom-made exposure systems. Here we report on the design, construction, testing, operation and maintenance of a newly developed in vivo rodent ozone inhalation exposure system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Key design requirements for the system included large-capacity exposure chambers to facilitate studies with large sample sizes, automatic and precise control of chamber ozone concentrations, as well as automated data collection on airflow and environmental conditions...
April 25, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Hojat Borna, Seyed Hojjat Hosseini Qale Noe, Asghar Beigi Harchegani, Nima Rahmani Talatappe, Mahdi Ghatrehsamani, Mostafa Ghanei, Alireza Shahriary
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a mutagenic compound that targets various organs. Although it causes a wide range of abnormalities, cellular and molecular mechanisms of its action are not-well-understood. Oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, as well as depletion of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), antioxidants and increase of intracellular calcium are the hypothesized mechanisms of its action at the acute phase of injury. In this review, the proteome analysis of SM toxicity has been considered. We selected articles that considered proteomics analysis of SM toxicity with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by mass spectrometry...
April 23, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Hajime Kawasaki
The distribution of dust particles within the lungs and their excretion are highly associated with their pulmonary toxicity. Literature was reviewed to discern pulmonary translocation pathways for inhaled α-quartz compared to those for inhaled TiO2 . Accordingly, it was hypothesized α-quartz particles in the alveoli were phagocytized by alveolar macrophages but silica-containing macrophages remained in the alveoli for longer time in contrast to the rapid elimination from the alveoli seen for TiO2 -containing macrophages...
April 18, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Mary B Johnson, Rick Kingston, Mark J Utell, J R Wells, Madhuri Singal, William R Troy, Steve Horenziak, Pamela Dalton, Farah K Ahmed, Rachel S Herz, Thomas G Osimitz, Steven Prawer, Shan Yin
Seventy-one percent of US households purchase air care products. Air care products span a diverse range of forms, including scented aerosol sprays, pump sprays, diffusers, gels, candles, and plug-ins. These products are used to eliminate indoor malodors and to provide pleasant scent experiences. The use of air care products can lead to significant benefits as studies have shown that indoor malodor can cause adverse effects, negatively impacting quality of life, hygiene, and the monetary value of homes and cars, while disproportionately affecting lower income populations...
April 18, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Anna M Adetona, William Kyle Martin, Sarah H Warren, Nancy M Hanley, Olorunfemi Adetona, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Christopher Simpson, Mike Paulsen, Stephen Rathbun, Jia-Sheng Wang, David DeMarini, Luke P Naeher
BACKGROUND: Wildland firefighters conducting prescribed burns are exposed to a complex mixture of pollutants, requiring an integrated measure of exposure. OBJECTIVE: We used urinary mutagenicity to assess if systemic exposure to mutagens is higher in firefighters after working at prescribed burns versus after non-burn work days. Other biomarkers of exposure and oxidative stress markers were also measured. METHODS: Using a repeated measures study design, we collected urine before, immediately after, and the morning after a work shift on prescribed burn and non-burn work days from 12 healthy subjects, and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-isoprostane, 1-hydroxypyrene (OH-pyrene), and mutagenicity in Salmonella YG1041 +S9...
April 15, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Fadia Mayyas, Karem H Alzoubi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a very common habit worldwide contributing to risk of kidney dysfunction and diabetes (DM). However, the mechanisms are unclear. AIM: The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of cigarette smoking on kidney oxidative stress, inflammation, and remodeling in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of diabetes. METHODS: Rats were randomized into control (intraperitoneal (i.p.) citrate buffer injection and exposure to fresh air), cigarette smoking (1 h daily for 6 d/week, citrate buffer), DM (single dose STZ 35 mg/kg i...
April 4, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
K Monica Lee, Julia Hoeng, Sam Harbo, Ulrike Kogel, William Gardner, Michael Oldham, Eric Benson, Marja Talikka, Athanasios Kondylis, Florian Martin, Bjoern Titz, Sam Ansari, Keyur Trivedi, Emmanuel Guedj, Ashraf Elamin, Nikolai V Ivanov, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch, Willie J McKinney
We compared early biological changes in mice after inhalation exposures to cigarette smoke or e-vapor aerosols (MarkTen® cartridge with Carrier, Test-1, or Test-2 formulations; 4% nicotine). Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3R4F cigarette smoke or e-vapor aerosols by nose-only inhalation for up to 4 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. The 3R4F and e-vapor exposures were set to match the target nose port aerosol nicotine concentration (∼41 µg/L). Only the 3R4F group showed postexposure clinical signs such as tremors and lethargy...
March 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Sussan Kaboudanian Ardestani, Ali Taravati, Zahra Kianmehr, Arash Hajizadeh Dastjerdi, Shahryar Pourfarzam, Mohammad Reza Soroush, Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh, Tooba Ghazanfari
CONTEXT: Sulfur mustard (SM) as a cytotoxic and blistering agent can alkylate a variety of cellular components, causing the incidence of ongoing oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to assess oxidative stress index (OSI) in SM-exposed veterans with long-term pulmonary complications. METHODS: Participants consisted of 289 SM-exposed individuals with pulmonary complications (classified into three groups: mild, moderate and severe) and 66 healthy individuals as the control group...
March 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Keiki Ogino, Kenjiro Nagaoka, Tatsuo Ito, Kei Takemoto, Tomoaki Okuda, Shoji F Nakayama, Noriyoshi Ogino, Yuka Seki, Hiroki Hamada, Shogo Takashiba, Yoshihisa Fujikura
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the protein and trace element components of PM2.5 and their contribution to the allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. METHODS: PM2.5, treated at high temperature and with a strong acid to hydrolyze any protein content and remove trace elements, was administered to BALB/c mice. Allergic airway inflammation was compared between the three groups (saline, pure PM2.5 and treated PM2.5) by evaluating airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells, serum IgE, the mRNA of various cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin-1 and CXCL3), mucus protein mRNA (MUC5ac and MUC5b) and the filtration of inflammatory cells in the lung...
March 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Dan Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Richard C Pleus, Gretchen Bruce, Heather Klintworth, Dennis Sullivan, William Johnson, Narayanan Rajendran, James Keenan
Cellulose insulation (CI), a common building material, is a mixture of cellulose fibers and borates. Borates are approximately 20% of the product weight and act as a flame retardant. Given possible exposure to workers and consumers, an inhalation toxicity study was conducted following Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 414 for Prenatal Development Toxicity to evaluate if CI is a developmental toxicant. Pregnant female rats were exposed by nose-only inhalation to CI aerosols containing 20% boric acid for six h/day, from gestational day (GD) 6-19, and fetuses were evaluated for developmental parameters...
March 4, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Halina Milnerowicz, Marta Wrześniak, Małgorzata Królik, Katarzyna Kowalska
Pregnancy and tobacco smoking (TS) each can cause increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; this, in turn, can lead to disorders in iron management and disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of TS and Cd on Fe, Zn, and anti-oxidant levels (i.e. glutathione [GSH], metallothionein [MT]) in the blood of pregnant women. The study reported here evaluated 110 blood samples from pregnant women in their 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. Concentrations of ferritin and transferrin were measured in the serum; Zn, Fe and cotinine in the plasma, that of Cd in whole blood, that for glutathione in red blood cell lysates, and levels of metallothionein both in the plasma and in lysates prepared from isolated erythrocytes...
February 22, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Wei-Chung Su, Yi Chen, Jinxiang Xi
Ultrafine particles (UFPs) in workplaces have been and continue to be an important occupational health concern. The inhalation and the consequent deposition of UFPs in workers' lower airways can lead to many adverse health effects. Therefore, it is vital to study the deposition of UFPs in the human respiratory tract from the viewpoint of occupational health. In this study, a set of physiologically representative human tracheobronchial airway replicas were made using high-resolution 3D printers, and a new approach that was distinct from the traditional methods was developed to apply these airway replicas in estimating UFP respiratory deposition...
February 20, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Dinelia Rivera-Burgos, Michael C Babin, Jillian M Staugler, Thomas Vinci, Mark R Perry
Cyanides are highly toxic compounds that have been used as weapons of terrorism throughout history. Cyanide (CN) is acutely toxic by all routes of administration; however, inhalation is the main exposure route. To adequately test effective countermeasures against inhalational CN threats, robust and well-characterized animal models are needed. This paper describes the initial development of a hydrogen cyanide (HCN) exposure swine model for documenting the physiological effects and toxicological profile during and after HCN inhalation exposure...
February 13, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
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