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Pediatric Exercise Science

Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D Faigenbaum, Kathleen F Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T Pianosi, Matthew B Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland, Alex V Rowlands
This commentary highlights 23 noteworthy publications from 2018, selected by leading scientists in pediatric exercise science. These publications have been deemed as significant or exciting in the field as they (a) reveal a new mechanism, (b) highlight a new measurement tool, (c) discuss a new concept or interpretation/application of an existing concept, or (d) describe a new therapeutic approach or clinical tool in youth. In some cases, findings in adults are highlighted, as they may have important implications in youth...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Cristian Alvarez, Felipe García-Pinillos, Paulo Gentil, Jason Moran, Lucas A Pereira, Irineu Loturco
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of plyometric drop jump (DJ) training against those induced by regular soccer training and assess the transference effect coefficient (TEC) of DJs ("trained exercises") performed from 20- (DJ20) and 40-cm (DJ40) height boxes with respect to different physical qualities (jumping, linear and change of direction speed, kicking, endurance, and maximal strength) in youth male soccer players. METHODS: Participants were randomly divided into a control group (n = 20; age: 13...
February 8, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Marco Van Brussel, Bart C Bongers, Erik H J Hulzebos, Marcella Burghard, Tim Takken
The use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in pediatrics provides critical insights into potential physiological causes of unexplained exercise-related complaints or symptoms, as well as specific pathophysiological patterns based on physiological responses or abnormalities. Clinical interpretation of the results of a cardiopulmonary exercise test in pediatrics requires specific knowledge with regard to pathophysiological responses and interpretative strategies that can be adapted to address concerns specific to the child's medical condition or disability...
January 28, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Kathryn L Weston, Nicoleta Pasecinic, Laura Basterfield
PURPOSE: Despite recent updates to international normative values for physical fitness in young people, contemporary data sets from England are sparse with no published data available from the North East. We compared physical fitness in children from one primary school in North East England to International and European reference data, and other English regions. METHODS: Eighty participants (mean age [SD]: 9.1 [0.6] y) completed a testing battery of 20-m shuttle run test, handgrip strength, standing broad jump, and sit-and-reach...
January 17, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Livia Victorino Souza, Franciele De Meneck, Vanessa Oliveira, Elisa Mieko Higa, Eliana Hiromi Akamine, Maria do Carmo Franco
PURPOSE: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) appear to interact with physical training. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the relationship of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with both angiogenic factors and EPC function in healthy children. METHODS: Forty children (22 boys and 18 girls) aged 7 to 11 years participated in a 10-week MVPA program (duration: 45 min; intensity: 75%-85% of heart rate reserve; frequency: 4 sessions/wk)...
January 15, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Chelsea L Kracht, Susan B Sisson, Emily Hill Guseman, Laura Hubbs-Tait, Sandra H Arnold, Jennifer Graef, Allen Knehans
Background/Context: Children without siblings (singletons) have higher rates of obesity than do children with siblings (nonsingletons). Higher moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) and less sedentary behavior (SB) are associated with lower childhood obesity. PURPOSE: To examine the difference in PA and SB between singleton and nonsingleton children. METHODS: Mothers of children ages 5.0-7.9 years old who were singletons or nonsingletons with a sibling between the ages of 2...
January 15, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Andrew O Agbaje, Eero A Haapala, Niina Lintu, Anna Viitasalo, Juuso Väistö, Sohaib Khan, Aapo Veijalainen, Tuomo Tompuri, Tomi Laitinen, Timo A Lakka
PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of directly measured peak oxygen uptake ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mover> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>V</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>˙</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:mover> <mml:msub> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>O</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> </mml:msub> <mml:mi>peak</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> ) and body fat percentage (BF%) with arterial stiffness and arterial dilatation capacity in children...
January 9, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Jade L Morris, Andy Daly-Smith, Margaret A Defeyter, Jim McKenna, Steve Zwolinsky, Scott Lloyd, Melissa Fothergill, Pamela L Graham
PURPOSE: To assess physical activity outcomes of a pedometer-based physically active learning (PAL) intervention in primary school children. METHODS: Six paired schools were randomly allocated to either a 6-week teacher-led pedometer-based physically active learning intervention or a control (n = 154, female = 60%, age = 9.9 [0.3] y). Accelerometers assessed total daily sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)...
January 6, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Paweł Cięszczyk, Kazimierz Kochanowicz
PURPOSE: To determine neuromuscular and torque kinetic changes after 10 months of explosive sport training in the elbow of prepubertal gymnasts compared with untrained age-matched controls. METHODS: In 15 young gymnasts (9.02 [0.41] y) and 15 age-matched untrained males (8.76 [0.51] y), the rate of torque development (RTD) using the Biodex System 4 and the coactivation index were evaluated using electromyography. Explosive strength variables were normalized to the peak torque...
January 3, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Stacy N Scott, Cary M Springer, Jennifer F Oody, Michael S McClanahan, Brittany D Wiseman, Tyler J Kybartas, Dawn P Coe
Previous progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER) equations were developed to estimate peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) from data collected during treadmill running. No equation has been developed using VO2 peak assessed during the PACER. PURPOSE: To develop and validate a prediction equation to estimate VO2 peak from the PACER in 10- to 15-year-olds. METHODS: A sample of 163 youth were recruited to develop (n = 101) and validate (n = 62) a prediction equation...
January 3, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Yan Shi, Wendy Yajun Huang, Jane Jie Yu, Sinead Sheridan, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Stephen Heung-Sang Wong
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the factors that influence compliance and practical utility of a continuous wear protocols for activPAL™ among adolescents. METHODS: Seven hundred and fifty-five (11-18 y; 50.6% girls) students wore the waterproof activPAL™ for 7 consecutive days. The effects of factors such as weather and practical strategies on compliance were assessed. Students were asked to note reasons for removing it in a log. After the 7-day period, students anonymously completed a practical utility questionnaire...
January 3, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Verity Booth, Alex Rowlands, James Dollman
PURPOSE: To assess trends in South Australian children's physical activity between 1985 and 2003 and 2013 in the contexts of school active transport, organized sport, physical education, and school break times. METHOD: The 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey was administered in South Australian schools in 2004 (8 schools) and 2013 (9 schools) and was demographically matched to the 10 South Australian schools in the Australian Health and Fitness Survey. Ordinal logistic modeling was used to identify trends, stratified by older children (10-12 y) and early adolescent (13-15 y) subgroups...
January 3, 2019: Pediatric Exercise Science
Rhona Martin-Smith, Duncan S Buchan, Julien S Baker, Mhairi J Macdonald, Nicholas F Sculthorpe, Chris Easton, Allan Knox, Fergal M Grace
BACKGROUND: This study examined the impact of a 4-week school-based sprint interval training program on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), daily physical activity (PA) behavior, and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) outcomes in adolescents. METHODS: A total of 56 adolescents (22 females) were allocated to either an intervention (n = 22; 17.0 [0.3] y) or control group (n = 30; 16.8 [0.5] y). Intervention group performed 5 to 6, 30 second "all out" running sprints, interspersed with 30-second rest intervals, 3 times per week, for 4 consecutive weeks, whereas control group performed their normal physical education lessons...
December 30, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Mostafa Yaghoubi, Philip W Fink, Wyatt H Page, Ali Heydari, Sarah P Shultz
PURPOSE: This study examined lower extremity kinematics in healthy weight (HW) and overweight (OW) children during water- and land-based stationary exercises (stationary running, frontal kick, and butt kick) at light submaximal intensity. METHODS: Participants included OW (N = 10; body fat percentage: 34.97 [8.60]) and HW (N = 15; body fat percentage: 18.33 [4.87]) children, aged 10 to 13 years. Spatiotemporal data, lower extremity joint kinematics, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected during water- and land-based stationary exercises...
December 30, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Bareket Falk, Raffy Dotan
The assessment of maximal aerobic power ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:msub> <mml:mrow> <mml:mover> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>V</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>˙</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:mover> <mml:mi>O</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> </mml:msub> <mml:mi>max</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> ) in both children and adults is an invaluable tool for the evaluation of exercise performance capacity and general physical fitness in clinical, athletic, public health, and research applications...
December 19, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Heita Goto, James A King
PURPOSE: The purposes of the present study were to examine high-intensity running distance during 6-a-side small-sided games (SSGs) and 11-a-side matches (11M) in youth soccer players using speed and metabolic power approaches and the magnitude of difference between the high-intensity running distance calculated with the 2 approaches. METHOD: A total of 11 outfield players (age = 16.3 [0.6] y) performed SSGs with 3 pitch sizes (small SSG [SSGS], medium SSG, and large SSG [SSGL]) and 11M...
November 30, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
André O Werneck, Evelyn C A Silva, Maria R O Bueno, Lidyane Z Vignadelli, Adewale L Oyeyemi, Catiana L P Romanzini, Enio R V Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between patterns of sedentary behavior and obesity indicators among adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 389 adolescents (186 boys) aged 10-14 years. Body mass index, body fat (skinfolds), and waist circumference were adopted as outcomes. Sedentary behavior patterns (total time, bouts, and breaks) measured through accelerometry (GT3X and GT3X+; ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL) were adopted as exposures...
November 30, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Melitta A McNarry
Pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics, which describes the aerobic response to near instantaneous changes in metabolic demand, provides a valuable insight into the control and coordination of oxidative phosphorylation during exercise. Despite their applicability to the highly sporadic habitual physical activity and exercise patterns of children, relatively little is known regarding the influence of internal and external stimuli on the dynamic [Formula: see text] response. Although insufficient evidence is available during moderate-intensity exercise, an age-related slowing of the phase 2 time constant (τ) and augmentation of the [Formula: see text] slow component appears to manifest during heavy-intensity exercise, which may be related to changes in the muscle phosphate controllers of oxidative phosphorylation, muscle oxygen delivery and utilization, and/or muscle fiber type recruitment patterns...
November 21, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Neil Armstrong, Jo Welsman
PURPOSE: To investigate peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) in relation to sex, age, body mass, fat-free mass (FFM), maturity, and overweight status. METHODS: Multiplicative, allometric models of 10- to 18-year-olds were founded on 1057 determinations of peak [Formula: see text] supported by anthropometry and estimates of maturity status. RESULTS: Baseline models with body mass controlled for showed age to exert a positive effect on peak [Formula: see text], with negative estimates for age2 , sex, and a sex-by-age interaction...
November 18, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Martin Svehlik, Markus Tilp
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of functional progressive resistance training (PRT) and high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on the mechano-morphological properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon unit in children with spastic cerebral palsy. METHODS: Twenty-two children (12.8 [2.6] y old, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I/II = 19/3) were randomly assigned to either a PRT group or an HICT group. The interventions consisted of functional lower limb exercises, which were performed at home 3 times per week for 8 weeks...
November 14, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
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