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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773989/new-method-to-evaluate-three-dimensional-push-off-angle-during-short-track-speed-skating-using-wearable-inertial-measurement-unit-sensors
#1
Kyungsoo Kim, Jun Seok Kim, Tserenchimed Purevsuren, Batbayar Khuyagbaatar, SuKyoung Lee, Yoon Hyuk Kim
The push-off mechanism to generate forward movement in skating has been analyzed by using high-speed cameras and specially designed skates because it is closely related to skater performance. However, using high-speed cameras for such an investigation, it is hard to measure the three-dimensional push-off force, and a skate with strain gauges is difficult to implement in the real competitions. In this study, we provided a new method to evaluate the three-dimensional push-off angle in short-track speed skating based on motion analysis using a wearable motion analysis system with inertial measurement unit sensors to avoid using a special skate or specific equipment insert into the skate for measurement of push-off force...
February 17, 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714470/perforated-h-beam-implant-can-be-used-in-femoral-neck-fracture
#2
Afgan Jafarov, Fatma Kübra Erbay Elibol, Chingiz Alizadeh, Mahir Gülşen, Emre Toğrul, Teyfik Demir
This biomechanical study evaluated comparison osteosynthesis of the femoral neck fracture model by 3 cannulated screw implants and new perforated H beam implants under different loading conditions with 45 third generation right proximal femur bones. A standardized Pauwels Type 3 of the femoral neck fracture was performed in the femur models. For assessing the rigidity and strength of fixation methods, the proximal femur bones after their osteosynthesis were then mechanically tested in axial compression, and torsional and dynamic axial compression loading...
February 3, 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706762/the-lamb-gait-analysis-protocol-definition-and-experimental-assessment-of-operator-related-variability
#3
Marco Rabuffetti, Alberto Marzegan, Alessandro Crippa, Ilaria Carpinella, Tiziana Lencioni, Anna Castagna, Maurizio Ferrarin
Gait analysis has demonstrated to efficaciously support clinical investigations. The patterns of the outcome variables (joint angles, moments and powers) are characterized by an intrinsic and extrinsic variability. Particularly, extrinsic variability is induced by operator-dependent differences in markers' placement, with errors propagating non-linearly to alter outcome variable patterns. The aims of this study are (1) to consider a specific gait analysis protocol named LAMB and provide a description of its procedures, (2) to experimentally assess the between-operator and within-operator variability induced by operator-dependent marking of required anatomical landmarks and (3) to evidence how such inaccuracies propagates to the gait analysis kinematic and kinetic outcome variables...
February 1, 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706756/multifractal-analysis-of-uterine-electromyography-signals-to-differentiate-term-and-preterm-conditions
#4
N Punitha, S Ramakrishnan
In this study, an attempt has been made to identify the origin of multifractality in uterine electromyography signals and to differentiate term (gestational age > 37 weeks) and preterm (gestational age ≤ 37 weeks) conditions by multifractal detrended moving average technique. The signals obtained from a publicly available database, recorded from the abdominal surface during the second trimester, are used in this study. The signals are preprocessed and converted to shuffle and surrogate series to examine the source of multifractality...
February 1, 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700217/biomechanical-comparison-of-screw-based-zones-of-a-spatial-subchondral-support-plate-for-proximal-humerus-fractures
#5
Ali Jabran, Chris Peach, Zhenmin Zou, Lei Ren
Stabilisation of proximal humerus fractures remains a surgical challenge. Spatial subchondral support (S3) plate promises to overcome common complications associated with conventional proximal humerus plates. This study compared the biomechanical performance of S3 plate with a fixed-angle hybrid blade (Equinoxe Fx) plate and a conventional fixed-angle locking plate (PHILOS). The effects of removal of different S3 plate screws on the humeral stability were also investigated. A total of 20 synthetic left humeri were osteotomised transversely at the surgical neck to simulate a two-part fracture and were each treated with an S3 plate...
January 31, 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663509/effects-of-implant-orientation-and-implant-material-on-tibia-bone-strain-implant-bone-micromotion-contact-pressure-and-wear-depth-due-to-total-ankle-replacement
#6
Subrata Mondal, Rajesh Ghosh
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of implant orientation and implant material on tibia bone strain, implant-bone micromotion, maximum contact pressure, and wear depth at the articulating surface due to total ankle replacement. Three-dimensional finite element models of intact and implanted ankle were developed from computed tomography scan data. Four implanted models were developed having varus and valgus orientations of 5° and 10°, respectively. In order to determine the effect of implant material combination on tibia bone strain, micromotion, contact pressure, and wear depth, three other finite element models were developed having a different material combination of the implant...
January 20, 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30638135/efficiency-of-nanoparticle-reinforcement-using-finite-element-analysis-of-titanium-alloy-mandible-plate
#7
Prashant Jindal, Frank Worcester, Anand Gupta, Philip Breedon
Nanoparticles in the form nanotubes and nanoplatelets have been compared for von Mises stresses by using them as low-composition reinforcements in titanium alloy-based mandible plate for different compositions and orientations. A finite element model has been designed to reconstruct a fractured human mandible with a titanium alloy mandible plate. A 500 N compressive force was applied on the mandible, and stress distribution across the plate sections was analysed for aligned two-dimensional random and three-dimensional random orientations for both tubes and platelets...
January 12, 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30599811/modeling-the-central-nervous-system-functionality-in-controlling-the-calf-muscle-activity-during-running-with-sport-shoes
#8
Peyman Jalali, Mohammad-Reza Sayyed Noorani, Reza Hassannejad, Mir Mohammad Ettefagh
Biological findings show that the activity of the calf muscle group is controlled by the central nervous system during running. The central nervous system tries to retain the peak values of the ground reaction force at constant levels as well as to minimize the vibration amplitude of soft tissues of the lower leg. Furthermore, these objectives are functions of stiffness and damping (compliance properties) of the calf muscle-tendon unit, especially gastrocnemius-Achilles. In this article, a new model for the calf muscle-tendon unit activity is presented in which the coefficients of stiffness and damping are exponential functions of the force produced at the Achilles tendon in the duration of stance phase, that is, they are time variant instead of having constant values...
January 1, 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30599790/investigation-into-reducing-anthropomorphic-hand-degrees-of-freedom-while-maintaining-human-hand-grasping-functions
#9
Mohamed Zarzoura, Pablo Del Moral, Mohammed I Awad, Farid A Tolbah
Underactuation is widely used when designing anthropomorphic hand, which involves fewer degrees of actuation than degrees of freedom. However, the similarities between coordinated joint movements and movement variances across different grasp tasks have not been suitably examined. This work suggests a systematic approach to identify the actuation strategy with the minimum number for degrees of actuation for anthropomorphic hands. This work evaluates the correlations of coordinated movements in human hands during 23 grasp tasks to suggest actuation strategies for anthropomorphic hands...
January 1, 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30595086/a-wearable-vibrotactile-system-for-distributed-guidance-in-teleoperation-and-virtual-environments
#10
Dongming Bai, Feng Ju, Fei Qi, Yanfei Cao, Yaoyao Wang, Bai Chen
A novel wearable vibrotactile system is proposed in this article to enhance the performance of teleoperation robot systems. Using a wearable vibrotactile glove, the proposed system guides the operator in the master-slave control through a vibrotactile-visual guidance method. Based on sensory substitution, the vibrotactile-visual combined guidance method combines vibration stimuli and visual feedback to substitute the virtual guidance force. A vibrotactile potential field is constructed in the workspace of the master-operator to calculate the frequency of the vibration stimulus...
December 29, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30572787/drilling-of-bone-effect-of-drill-bit-geometries-on-thermal-osteonecrosis-risk-regions
#11
Mohd Faizal Ali Akhbar, Ahmad Razlan Yusoff
Bone-drilling operation necessitates an accurate and efficient surgical drill bit to minimize thermal damage to the bone. This article provides a methodology for predicting the bone temperature elevation during surgical bone drilling and to gain a better understanding on the influences of the point angle, helix angle and web thickness of the drill bit. The proposed approach utilized the normalized Cockroft-Latham damage criterion to predict material cracking in the drilling process. Drilling simulation software DEFORM-3D is used to approximate the bone temperature elevation corresponding to different drill bit geometries...
December 20, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30565502/studies-on-the-performance-of-selective-laser-melting-porous-dental-implant-by-finite-element-model-simulation-fatigue-testing-and-in-vivo-experiments
#12
Yaling Wang, Xianshuai Chen, Chunyu Zhang, Wei Feng, Peng Zhang, Yang Chen, Jiaming Huang, Yuanxin Luo, Jianyu Chen
Biomaterials have been widely used for stomatological reconstructive surgery in recent years. Many studies have demonstrated that the porous structure of an implant promotes bone ingrowth and its stiffness can be controlled via the design of the porosity. Although some researchers have paid attention to investigating the porous structure for dental implants, the biomechanical properties and osseointegration have not been well studied. In this study, finite element analysis and experiments have been used to evaluate the biomechanical performance and osseointegration of dental implants with porous/solid structures fabricated by selective laser melting using commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti, Grade 2)...
December 19, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30565501/uncertainty-optimization-of-dental-implant-based-on-finite-element-method-global-sensitivity-analysis-and-support-vector-regression
#13
Hongyou Li, Maolin Shi, Xiaomei Liu, Yuying Shi
In this work, an uncertainty optimization approach for dental implant is proposed to reduce the stress at implant-bone interface. Finite element method is utilized to calculate the stress at implant-bone interface, and support vector regression is used to replace finite element method to ease the computational cost. Deterministic optimization based on support vector regression is conducted, which demonstrates that the method using support vector regression replacing finite element method in dental implant optimization is efficient and reliable...
December 19, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30565500/experimentally-validated-structural-finite-element-method-analysis-of-a-tibial-intramedullary-nail-optimal-choice-of-the-contact-settings
#14
D Croccolo, M De Agostinis, S Fini, S Funaioli, G Olmi, F Robusto
This article focuses on the static structural analysis of a tibial intramedullary nail, carried out by the finite element method. The investigated subject is concerned with the issue of frictional contacts that, generating a non-linear problem, play an important role in numerical analyses. Experimental tests were also developed on tibial intramedullary nail specimens. The experimental results, in terms of force-displacement, were used to calibrate and validate the finite element analysis, by tuning the contact parameters available in the software...
December 19, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30547735/alterations-in-muscle-activation-patterns-during-robot-assisted-bilateral-training-a-pilot-study
#15
Bo Sheng, Lihua Tang, Shengquan Xie, Chao Deng, Yanxin Zhang
Robot-assisted bilateral training is being developed as a new rehabilitation approach for stroke patients. However, there is still a lack of understanding of muscle functions when performing robot-assisted synchronous movements. The aim of this work is to explore the muscle activation patterns and the voluntary effort of participants during different robot-assisted bilateral training protocols. To this end, 10 healthy participants were recruited to take part in a 60-minute experiment. The experiment included two different bilateral exercises, and each exercise contained four different training protocols...
December 14, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30526304/comparative-investigation-into-effects-of-zro-2-and-al-2-o-3-addition-in-fluorapatite-laser-clad-composite-coatings-on-ti6al4v-alloy
#16
Tsung-Yuan Kuo, Chi-Sheng Chien, Cheng-Wei Liu, Tzer-Min Lee
Composite coatings consisting of fluorapatite mixed with 20 wt% yttria (3 mol%) stabilized cubic phase zirconia (c-ZrO2 , 3Y-TZP) or 20 wt% alumina (α-Al2 O3 ) were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates using a Nd:YAG laser cladding system. The interface morphology, phase composition, micro-hardness and biological properties of the two coatings were examined and compared. The results showed that the fluorapatite/Al2 O3 specimen underwent a greater inter-diffusion at the interface between the coating layer and the transition layer than the fluorapatite/ZrO2 specimen...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30518308/comparative-study-of-the-circumferential-and-volumetric-analysis-between-conventional-casting-and-three-dimensional-scanning-methods-for-transtibial-socket-a-preliminary-study
#17
W Mehmood, N A Abd Razak, M S Lau, T Y Chung, H Gholizadeh, N A Abu Osman
Transtibial prosthetic sockets can be fabricated either by the conventional way, which involve using plaster of Paris bandages for casting. This will include modifications through hand, scanning and digital imaging of software. The aim of this study is to determine the circumferential profiles and conduct a volumetric analysis of a conventional socket that has fabrication using biosculptor technology. In doing this, a male transtibial amputee, age 28 years old with stable health condition was studied, where circumferential measurements were taken at intervals of 1 cm from the distal end of the residual limb to the medial tibial plateau level...
December 6, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479176/the-effect-of-saddle-height-and-saddle-position-changes-from-pedal-on-muscles-and-joints-behaviors-in-ergometer-a-parametric-study
#18
Elham Hazrati, Mahmood Reza Azghani
The physical activities such as pedaling can affect the lower limb muscles strength and rehabilitation. Improper pedaling can cause injury. In this study, we would investigate the effects of saddle place (saddle position and saddle height) on the behavior of muscles and joints. Moreover, we would try to reveal the relationship between the muscles activity (Act) and the joints reaction forces ( F) and saddle position and saddle height. To this end, the pedaling conditions are obtained from the biomechanical model of the human movement system presented in AnyBody software...
November 27, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760162/preliminary-evaluation-of-a-predictive-controller-for-a-rotary-blood-pump-based-on-pulmonary-oxygen-gas-exchange
#19
Feng Huang, Zhe Gou, Yang Fu
Physiological control of rotary blood pumps is becoming increasingly necessary for clinical use. In this study, the mean oxygen partial pressure in the upper airway was first quantitatively evaluated as a control objective for a rotary blood pump. A model-free predictive controller was designed based on this control objective. Then, the quantitative evaluation of the controller was implemented with a rotary blood pump model on a complete cardiovascular model incorporated with airway mechanics and gas exchange models...
February 2019: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30458669/initial-balance-in-human-standing-postures-roles-of-the-joint-mechanisms
#20
Mohammed N Ashtiani, Mahmood-Reza Azghani, Mohamad Parnianpour
The static initial postures of standing before applying perturbations may affect the maintenance of postural balance. The goal of this article was to find the stable set of postures and then determine the roles of joint mechanisms. The set of posture was defined in a biomechanical model based on three joint angles of the lower limbs. Optimized inverse dynamics method was used to solve for muscle forces in a precise model of the human musculoskeletal system posed in 4096 static sets of posture using AnyBody software...
December 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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