Ján Víglaš, Petra Olejníková
The presence of antifungal drugs is prompting the fungal microorganisms to react by mechanisms broader than the resistance. The fungi evolved mechanisms, by which they respond to various stress conditions, including the presence of antifungal compounds. In this work, we studied the response of model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa to azole antifungals in the broader context of the adaptation mechanisms. We demonstrated the increase in expression of filamentous fungi-specific genes encoding cytochrome enzymes of CYP65 clan and plasma membrane-localized ABCC transporters...
March 22, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Noémie Verguet, Lou Mondange, Flora Nolent, Anne Depeille, Annabelle Garnier, Fabienne Neulat-Ripoll, Olivier Gorgé, Jean-Nicolas Tournier
Contamination with microorganisms occurs in laboratories but is also of high concern in the context of bioterrorism. Decontamination is a cornerstone that promotes good laboratory practices and occupational health and safety. Among the most resistant structures formed by microorganisms are spores, produced notably by Clostridium and Bacillus species. Here, we compared six products containing four different molecules (sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and calcium hypochlorite) on B. anthracis Sterne spores...
March 14, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Hsin-Yeh Hsieh, George C Stewart
Bacillus anthracis is the zoonotic causal agent of anthrax. Its infectious form is the spore, which can persist in soil. Herbivores usually acquire the disease from grazing in spore-contaminated sites. There are two schools of thought regarding B. anthracis activities in soil. One contends the bacteria are obligate animal parasites and soil-based spores remain inert until taken up by another animal host. Others contend that spores can germinate in soil and the bacteria replicate and re-sporulate to maintain and/or increase spore numbers...
March 13, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Ruibin Zhang, Yang Luo, Lili Gang, Yanrong Xu, Xin Zhang, Qi Peng, Leyla Slamti, Didier Lereclus, Guirong Wang, Fuping Song
Typical Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces one or more parasporal crystals composed of insecticidal Cry proteins during the sporulation, and the parasporal crystals and spores are produced from the same cell. Strain Bt LM1212 is different from typical Bt strains in that its crystals and spores are produced in different cells. Previous studies have found that the cell differentiation process of Bt LM1212 is related to the transcription factor CpcR which activates the cry-gene promoters. In addition, CpcR could activate the Bt LM1212 cry35-like gene promoter (P35 ) when introduced in the heterologous HD73- strain...
March 10, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Frédérique Julliat, Camille Eicher, Nezha Tourti, Philippe Glaser, Nicolas Cabanel, Joana Coulon, Marion Favier, Hervé Alexandre, Cristina Reguant, Stéphane Guyot, Cosette Grandvalet
Oenococcus oeni is the main lactic acid bacterium associated with malolactic fermentation (MLF) of wines. MLF plays an important role in determining the final quality of wines. Nevertheless, due to the stressful conditions inherent to wine and especially acidity, MLF may be delayed. This study aimed to explore by adaptive evolution improvements in the acid tolerance of starters but also to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in adaptation toward acidity. Four independent populations of the O...
March 7, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Nicolas J Tourasse, Keith A Jolley, Anne-Brit Kolstø, Ole Andreas Økstad
Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) employs a strategy where the set of orthologous genes common to all members of a group of organisms are used for phylogenetic analysis of the group members. The Bacillus cereus group consists of species with pathogenicity towards insect species as well as warm-blooded animals including humans. While B. cereus is an opportunistic pathogen linked to a range of human disease conditions, including emesis and diarrhoea, Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic species with toxicity toward insect larvae, and therefore used as a biological pesticide worldwide...
March 7, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Jesús Pérez-Ortega, Roel M van Harten, Henk P Haagsman, Jan Tommassen
To develop a Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine with reduced endotoxicity, we previously inactivated lpxL1, the gene encoding the enzyme that incorporates a secondary 2-hydroxy-laurate in lipid A. The mutant showed a myriad of phenotypes. Structural analysis showed the expected loss of the acyl chain but also of glucosamine (GlcN) substituents, which decorate the phosphates in lipid A. To determine which structural change causes the various phenotypes, we inactivated here lgmB, which encodes the GlcN transferase, and lpxL1 in an isogenic background and compared the phenotypes...
March 3, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Ya Wang, Yanli Teng, Juan Geng, Jinzhao Long, Haiyan Yang, Guangcai Duan, Shuaiyin Chen
The host factor for RNA phage Qβ replicase (Hfq) is a crucial post-transcriptional regulator in many bacterial pathogens, facilitating the interaction between small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) and their target mRNAs. Studies have suggested that Hfq plays a role in antibiotic resistance and virulence in bacteria, although its functions in Shigella are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of Hfq in Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei) by constructing an hfq deletion mutant. Our phenotypic assays showed that the hfq deletion mutant was more sensitivity to antibiotics and had impaired virulence...
March 1, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Ronan F O'Toole, Kelvin W C Leong, Vanessa Cumming, Sebastian J van Hal
Enterococcus faecium is a major cause of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection. New variants of the pathogen have emerged and become dominant in healthcare settings. Two such examples, vanB ST796 and vanA ST1421 sequence types, originally arose in Australia and proceeded to cause VRE outbreaks in other countries. Of concern is the detection of a vancomycin variable enterococcal (VVE) variant of ST1421 in Europe that exhibits a vancomycin-susceptible phenotype but which can revert to resistant in the presence of vancomycin...
February 27, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Kapudeep Karmakar, Sangeeta Chakraborty, Jyothsna R Kumar, Utpal Nath, Karaba N Nataraja, Dipshikha Chakravortty
Salmonella, a foodborne human pathogen, can colonize the members of the kingdom Plantae. However, the basis of the persistence of Salmonella in plants is largely unknown. Plants encounter various biotic and abiotic stress agents in soil. We conjectured that methylglyoxal (MG), one of the common metabolites that accumulate in plants during both biotic and abiotic stress, plays a role in regulating the plant-Salmonella interaction. The interaction of Salmonella Typhimurium with plants under salinity stress was investigated...
February 24, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Julien Lossouarn, Camilla L Nesbø, Nadège Bienvenu, Claire Geslin
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs), such as viruses and plasmids, drive the evolution and adaptation of their cellular hosts from all three domains of life. This includes microorganisms thriving in the most extreme environments, like deep-sea hydrothermal vents. However, our knowledge about MGEs still remains relatively sparse in these abyssal ecosystems. Here we report the isolation, sequencing, assembly, and functional annotation of pMO1, a 28.2 kbp plasmid associated with the reference strain Marinitoga okinawensis...
February 17, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Rita Barssoum, Gabrielle Al Kassis, Rayan Nasseredine, Jihane Saad, Meriem El Ghoul, Joanna Abboud, Nancy Fayad, Stéphanie Dupoiron, Julien Cescut, César Arturo Aceves-Lara, Luc Fillaudeau, Mireille Kallassy Awad
Bacillus thuringiensis, a gram-positive sporulating bacteria found in the environment, produces, during its sporulation phase, crystals responsible for its insecticidal activity, constituted of an assembly of pore-forming δ-endotoxins. This has led to its use as a biopesticide, an eco-friendly alternative to harmful chemical pesticides. To minimize production cost, one endemic Bacillus thuringiensis sv. kurstaki (Btk) strain Lip, isolated from Lebanese soil, was cultivated in a wheat bran (WB) based medium (IPM-4-Citrus project EC n° 734921)...
February 8, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Irene Martín, Juan J Córdoba, Alicia Rodríguez
In this work, the effect of the usual acidic conditions of dry-cured fermented foods (pH values between 4.5 and 6), on the growth and expression of the virulence genes, hly and inlA, of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b, was evaluated. To analyse the expression of the inlA gene, a novel real-time PCR (qPCR) method using SYBR® Green methodology was developed. L. monocytogenes levels increased as the pH did and they were kept constant throughout incubation time at pH 4.5. However, a significant increase in the relative expression of the virulence genes was detected in most of the acidic conditions in all the incubation times...
February 3, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Maria Vittoria, Anella Saggese, Giovanni Di Gregorio Barletta, Stefany Castaldi, Rachele Isticato, Loredana Baccigalupi, Ezio Ricca
Bacteria classified as B. cereus sensu stricto cause two different type of gastrointestinal diseases associated with food poisoning. Outbreaks of this opportunistic pathogen are generally due to the resistance of its spores to heat, pH and desiccation that makes hard their complete inactivation from food products. B. cereus is commonly isolated from a variety of environments, including intestinal samples of infected and healthy people. We report the genomic and physiological characterization of MV19, a human intestinal strain closely related (ANI value of 98...
February 2, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Purnendu Bhowmik, Nagakumar Bharatham, Satoshi Murakami, Vasanthi Ramachandran, Santanu Datta
OqxB belongs to the RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Division) efflux pump family, recognized widely as a major contributor towards enhancing antimicrobial resistance. It is known to be predominantly present in all Klebsiella spp. and is attributed for its role in increasing resistance against an array of antibiotics like nitrofurantoin, quinolones, β-lactams and colistin. However, the presence of oqxB encoding this efflux pump is not limited only to Klebsiella spp., but is also found to occur via horizontal gene transfer in other bacterial genera like Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Salmonella spp...
February 2, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Zoë R Barandongo, Amelie C Dolfi, Spencer A Bruce, Kristyna Rysava, Yen-Hua Huang, Hendrina Joel, Ayesha Hassim, Pauline L Kamath, Henriette van Heerden, Wendy C Turner
Anthrax is a lethal bacterial zoonosis primarily affecting herbivorous wildlife and livestock. Upon host death Bacillus anthracis vegetative cells form spores capable of surviving for years in soil. Anthrax transmission requires host exposure to large spore doses. Thus, conditions that facilitate higher spore concentrations or promote spore survival will increase the probability that a pathogen reservoir infects future hosts. We investigated abiotic and pathogen genomic variation in relation to spore concentrations in surface soils (0-1cm depth) at 40 plains zebra (Equus quagga) anthrax carcass sites in Namibia...
January 28, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Aditi Mishra, Shreya Kesarwani, Tameshwar Prasad Jaiswal, Samujjal Bhattacharjee, Sindhunath Chakraborty, Arun Kumar Mishra, Satya Shila Singh
A moderately thermophilic, gram-positive genomospecies Anoxybacillus rupiensis TPH1 was isolated from Tatapani hot spring, Chhattisgarh, India. Genome of 3.70 Mb with 42.3% GC subsumed 4131 CDSs, 65 tRNA, 5 rRNA, 35 AMR and 19 drug target genes. Further, comparative genomics of 19 Anoxybacillus spp. exhibited an open pan genome of 13102 genes along with core (10.62%), unique (43.5%) and accessory (45.9%) genes. Moreover, phylogenomic tree displayed clustering of Anoxybacillus spp. into two distinct clades where clade A species harbored larger genomes, more unique genes, CDS and hypothetical proteins than clade B species...
January 13, 2023: Research in Microbiology
So Young Oh, Alice Chateau, Anastasia Tomatsidou, Derek Elli, Haley Gula, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas
Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming microbe that persists in soil and causes anthrax disease. The most natural route of infection is ingestion by grazing animals. Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax also occurs in their monogastric predators, including humans. Exposure of carcasses to oxygen triggers sporulation and contamination of the surrounding soil completing the unusual life cycle of this microbe. The pathogenesis of GI anthrax is poorly characterized. Here, we use B. anthracis carrying the virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, to model gastrointestinal disease in Guinea pigs and mice...
January 13, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Pablo E Antezana, Verónica L Colin, Natalia Bourguignon, Claudia S Benimeli, María S Fuentes
Global industrialization and natural resources extraction have left cocktails of environmental pollutants. Thus, this work focuses on developing a defined actinobacteria consortium able to restore systems co-contaminated with pollutants occurring in Argentinian environments. In this context, five actinobacteria were tested in solid medium to evaluate antagonistic interactions and tolerance against lindane (LIN), Reactive Black B-V (RBV), phenanthrene (Ph) and Cr(VI). The strains showed absence of antagonism, and most of them tolerated the presence of individual pollutants and their mixtures, except Micromonospora sp...
January 10, 2023: Research in Microbiology
Murielle Chauvel, Sophie Bachellier-Bassi, Anne-Marie Guérout, Keunsook K Lee, Corinne Maufrais, Emmanuelle Permal, Juliana Pipoli Da Fonseca, Sadri Znaidi, Didier Mazel, Carol A Munro, Christophe d'Enfert, Melanie Legrand
Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. Although its genome has been sequenced more than two decades ago, there are still over 4,300 uncharacterized C. albicans genes. We previously generated an ORFeome as well as a collection of destination vectors to facilitate overexpression of C. albicans ORFs. Here, we report the construction of ∼2,500 overexpression mutants and their evaluation by in vitro spotting on rich medium and in a liquid pool experiment in rich medium, allowing the identification of genes whose overexpression has a fitness cost...
December 29, 2022: Research in Microbiology
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