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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development | Page 2

Yu Huang, Yige Ding, Yao Liu, Shiwei Zhou, Qiang Ding, Hailong Yan, Baohua Ma, Xiaoe Zhao, Xiaolong Wang, Yulin Chen
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is an efficient method for the production of gene-edited animals. We have successfully generated gene-modified goats and sheep via zygote injection of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) mixtures. However, the delivery system for microinjection largely refers to methods established for mice; optimised injection conditions are urgently required for the generation of large animals. Here, we designed a study to optimise the Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA delivery system for goats...
May 13, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jennifer S Crodian, Bethany M Weldon, Yu-Chun Tseng, Birgit Cabot, Ryan Cabot
In the work presented here, we investigated how bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7), a subunit associated with switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodelling complexes, is trafficked between cellular compartments during embryo development. SWI/SNF complexes are multi-subunit complexes that contain a core catalytic subunit (SWI/SNF related, Matrix associated, Actin dependent Regulator of Chromatin, subfamily A, member 4, or member 2; SMARCA4 or SMARCA2) and a collection of additional subunits that guide the complexes to their appropriate loci; BRD7 is one of these additional subunits...
May 13, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
David Fisher, Faizel Mosaval, Darla L Tharp, Doug K Bowles, Ralf Henkel
The effects of oleanolic acid (OA) on the fertility of male mice were investigated using both invivo and invitro experimental models. The experimental group (n=12) was treated with a daily dose of 30mgOAkg-1 bodyweight (i.p.), while the control group (n=6) received a daily dose of 10% ethanol solution (1mLkg-1 bodyweight). The effect of OA on the permeability status of TM4 Sertoli monolayers was investigated by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), intracellular electrical resistance and semiquantitative RT-PCR...
May 10, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Heiko H W Henning, Julia Batz-Schott, Benita Grünther, Xuyen Le Thi, Dagmar Waberski
Invitro sperm-oviduct binding assays enable assessment of the capacity of spermatozoa to form a 'reservoir' in the oviduct. Competitive approaches, such as experimental set-ups that test multiple males or semen samples simultaneously on the same tissue explants, are desirable because they reduce the likelihood of bias when using material from different females. Therefore, we established a fluorescent labelling technique that allows tagging and storage of spermatozoa before competitive studies of sperm-oviduct binding invitro...
May 10, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
I V Wagner, P Yango, K Svechnikov, N D Tran, O Söder
Reproduction is an important target of obesity complications, including adverse effects on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Adipocytokines are key mediators in various complications of obesity. Our aim was to study the potential of adipocytokines to affect Sertoli cell function, which is crucial for spermatogenesis, and possibly link these findings to the observed attenuation of spermatogenesis in obese males. Testicular biopsies were obtained from healthy donors. Highly purified adult human Sertoli cells (HSCs) were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
May 6, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Holly R Cope, Sarah Peck, Rebecca Hobbs, Tamara Keeley, Stephen Izzard, Wei Yeen-Yap, Peter J White, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine A Herbert
Contraception is increasingly used to manage breeding opportunities in conservation-dependent species. This study aimed to determine the efficacy, duration of effect, optimal dose and potential side effects of Suprelorin contraceptive implants in Tasmanian devils, for use in the conservation breeding program. In our pilot study, Suprelorin was found to effectively suppress oestrous cycles in female devils, yet caused a paradoxical increase in testosterone in males. Therefore, we focussed on females in further trials...
May 3, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Andressa Dalmazzo, João D A Losano, Daniel S R Angrimani, Isabel V A Pereira, Marcelo D Goissis, Maria C P Francischini, Everton Lopes, Claudia K Minazaki, Marcel H Blank, Bruno Cogliati, Ricardo J G Pereira, Valquiria H Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
The aim of this study was to confirm gene and protein expression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in the testis and epididymis of dogs, correlating these data with sperm quality and production and testosterone concentrations. Positive correlations were found between OTR and SHBG expression in both the testis and epididymis. Testicular OTR expression was positively associated with plasma membrane and acrosome integrity in canine spermatozoa, whereas SHBG expression in the testis was positively correlated with various sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity...
May 3, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hongwei Liang, Yan Meng, Lihuan Cao, Xiang Li, Guiwei Zou
Little is known about sex determination and differentiation in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis. R-Spondin 1 (RSPO1), a candidate sex-determining gene, is an important regulator of ovarian differentiation in animals. Exogenous drugs can affect sex differentiation. In this study we cloned the RSPO1 gene from P. sinensis (psRSPO1) and analysed its expression profile. The psRSPO1 gene exhibited sequence identity with RSPO1 genes from other species. RSPO1 protein-based phylogenetic analysis showed that psRSPO1 in P...
May 1, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Di Zhang, Ying Liu, Yan Cui, Sheng Cui
Progesterone (P4) synthesized by the corpus luteum (CL) plays a key role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The LH signal is important for luteinisation and P4 synthesis in pigs. In a previous study, we demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8) regulates P4 synthesis in mouse CL, but whether the function and mechanism of MAP3K8 in the pig is similar to that in the mouse is not known. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of MAP3K8 on porcine CL...
May 1, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Silvana R Ferreira, Leandro M Vélez, Maria F Heber, Giselle A Abruzzese, Alicia B Motta
It is known that androgen excess induces changes in fetal programming that affect several physiological pathways. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α, δ and γ are key mediators of female reproductive functions, in particular in uterine tissues. Thus, we aimed to study the effect of prenatal hyperandrogenisation on the uterine PPAR system. Rats were treated with 2mg testosterone from Day 16 to 19 of pregnancy. Female offspring (PH group) were followed until 90 days of life, when they were killed...
May 1, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Xinwei Shi, Guoqiang Zheng, Hao Liu, Jing Cao, Wanlu Liu, Yuqi Li, Fuyuan Qiao, Dongrui Deng, Yuanyuan Wu
Mammary serine protease inhibitor (maspin; also known as serpin family B member 5 (SERPINB5)) plays a vital role in regulating the biological functions of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells, but the mechanism remains unclear. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C is a signature angiogenic molecule expressed and secreted by first-trimester trophoblasts, and bioinformatics analyses has revealed upregulation of VEGFC in pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study was to explore whether maspin regulates EVT cells by regulating the expression of VEGFC...
April 30, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
M L Gould, H D Nicholson
In normal prostate cells, cell membrane receptors are located within signalling microdomains called caveolae. During cancer progression, caveolae are lost and sequestered receptors move out onto lipid rafts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in the localisation of receptors out of caveolae and onto the cell membrane increased cell proliferation invitro, and to determine whether this is related to changes in the cell signalling pathways. Normal human prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and androgen-independent (PC3) cancer cells were cultured with 10nM dihydrotestosterone (DHT)...
April 30, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Misa Hosoe, Tadashi Furusawa, Ken-Go Hayashi, Toru Takahashi, Yutaka Hashiyada, Keiichiro Kizaki, Kazuyoshi Hashizume, Tomoyuki Tokunaga, Shuichi Matsuyama, Ryosuke Sakumoto
In order to help elucidate the process of epiblast and trophoblast cell differentiation in bovine embryos invitro, we attempted to develop a suitable culture medium to allow extended embryo culture. Day 7 bovine blastocysts developed in conventional medium were cultured further in embryonic stem cell medium with or without leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) until Day 23. At Day 14, the expression of octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (OCT3/4) and VIMENTIN was significantly higher in embryos cultured with than without LIF, but embryonic disc formation was not observed...
April 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jennifer A Hetz, Brandon R Menzies, Geoffrey Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Maturation of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) axis is a critical developmental event that becomes functional over the peripartum period in precocial eutherian mammals such as sheep. In mice and marsupials that give birth to altricial young, the GH/IGF1 axis matures well after birth, suggesting that functional maturation is associated with developmental stage, not parturition. Recent foster-forward studies in one marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), have corroborated this hypothesis...
April 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Fatma Uysal, Gokhan Akkoyunlu, Saffet Ozturk
DNA methylation plays key roles in epigenetic regulation during mammalian spermatogenesis. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) function in de novo and maintenance methylation processes by adding a methyl group to the fifth carbon atom of the cytosine residues within cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and non-CpG dinucleotide sites. Azoospermia is one of the main causes of male infertility, and is classified as obstructive (OA) or non-obstructive (NOA) azoospermia based on histopathological characteristics. The molecular background of NOA is still largely unknown...
April 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
William G Breed, Eleanor J Peirce, Chris M Leigh
The organisation of the ovarian interstitial tissue in the southern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus latifrons was investigated. Unlike in most other marsupials, the outer cortical region of the ovary contains abundant luteinised interstitial tissue that largely occurs in discrete lobules, many of which contain a localised area of non-cellular, highly eosinophilic and periodic acid-Schiff-positive material. The findings suggest that the latter arises from the zona pellucida that surrounded the oocyte in growing follicles and that the luteinised interstitial tissue thus developed from transformed theca interna of degenerated atretic follicles...
April 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Christophe Lefèvre, Pooja Venkat, Amit Kumar, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Kevin R Nicholas
Milk is a complex secretion that has an important role in mammalian reproduction. It is only recently that sequencing technologies have allowed the identification and quantification of microRNA (miRNA) in milk of a growing number of mammalian species. This provides a novel window on the study of the evolution and functionality of milk through the comparative analysis of milk miRNA content. Here, milk miRNA sequencing data from five species (one marsupial (tammar wallaby) and four eutherians (human, mouse, cow and pig)) have been retrieved from public depositories and integrated in order to perform a comparison of milk miRNA profiles...
April 24, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Daguia Zambe John Clotaire, Yudong Wei, Xiuwei Yu, Tamgue Ousman, Jinlian Hua
Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (Plzf), also known as zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16) or zinc-finger protein 145 (ZFP145), is a critical zinc finger protein of male germline stem cells (mGSCs). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Plzf has a central role in the development, differentiation and maintenance of many stem cells, including mGSCs, and Plzf has been validated as an essential transcription factor for mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis. This review summarises current literature focusing on the significance of Plzf in maintaining and regulating self-renewal and differentiation of mGSCs, especially goat mGSCs...
April 23, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Stephen Johnston
This reflective review describes how a research model, which was originally established for the successful AI of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), is currently being developed and extended to the wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons and Vombatus ursinus) and short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). The research model centres around the establishment of an AI program and involves: (1) semen collection, evaluation and preservation, requiring an understanding of male reproductive physiology and gamete biology; (2) timing of insemination, based on a knowledge of oestrous cycle and gestation physiology and oestrous behaviour; and (3) the appropriate placement of semen, which relies on an accurate description of female reproductive anatomy...
April 17, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Marcelo T Moura, Jeferson Badaraco, Regivaldo V Sousa, Carolina M Lucci, Rodolfo Rumpf
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) allows animal cloning but remains technically challenging. This study investigated limitations to functional oocyte enucleation by actinomycin D (AD) as a means of making SCNT easier to perform. Denuding oocytes or inhibiting transcription before AD treatment revealed that the toxicity of this compound during bovine oocyte maturation is mediated by cumulus cells. Exposure of denuded oocytes to higher concentrations of AD (5-20μgmL-1) and stepwise reductions of the incubation period (from 14...
April 16, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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