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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

J Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, S Cronin, E Donnellan, S Fair
The mechanism that causes the detachment of spermatozoa from the oviductal reservoir around the time of ovulation remains to be elucidated. Because the cumulus cells of the bovine oocyte are known to secrete progesterone (P4), and P4 has been shown to act upon cation channels of spermatozoa (CatSper) in human spermatozoa, it was hypothesised that P4 could induce hyperactivation due to an influx of extracellular calcium, and this would facilitate detachment of spermatozoa from oviductal epithelial cells. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of action of P4 in the release of spermatozoa from bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC)...
August 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Mei-Fu Xuan, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Qing Guo, Sheng-Zhong Han, Song-Shan Jin, Jin-Dan Kang, Xi-Jun Yin
Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle development. A lack of MSTN induces muscle hypertrophy and increases formation of fast-twitch (Type II) muscle fibres. This study investigated muscle development in newborn heterozygous (MSTN+/-) and homozygous (MSTN-/-) MSTN-knockout piglets. Detailed morphological and gene and protein expression analyses were performed of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and diaphragm of MSTN+/-, MSTN-/- and wild-type (WT) piglets...
May 20, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Luis H Melo, Rafael M C Melo, Ronald K Luz, Nilo Bazzoli, Elizete Rizzo
Sexual differentiation and early gonadal development are critical events in vertebrate reproduction. In this study, the initial testis development and expression of the Vasa, Nanos2 and Sox9 proteins were examined in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus submitted to induced sex reversal. To that end, 150O. niloticus larvae at 5 days post-hatching (dph) were kept in nurseries with no hormonal addition (control group) and 150 larvae were kept with feed containing 17α-methyltestosterone to induce male sex reversal (treated group)...
May 17, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Igor F Canisso, Shavahn Loux, Kirsten E Scoggin, Edward L Squires, Mats H Troedsson, Barry A Ball
Characterisation of fetal fluids in healthy and disease states of pregnant mares can help to unravel the pathophysiology and to identify putative markers of disease. Thus, this study aimed to compare the protein composition of: (1) amniotic and allantoic fluids of healthy mares obtained immediately after euthanasia and (2) allantoic fluid harvested via centesis before and after experimental induction of placentitis via transcervical inoculation of Streptococcus equi ssp zooepidemicus in healthy mares. Fetal fluids were analysed with a high-throughput proteomic technique after in-gel digestion...
May 16, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Núria Arcarons, Meritxell Vendrell-Flotats, Marc Yeste, Elena Mercade, Manel López-Béjar, Teresa Mogas
Biological molecules isolated from organisms that live under subzero conditions could be used to protect oocytes from cryoinjuries suffered during cryopreservation. This study examined the cryoprotectant role of exopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas sp. ID1 (EPS ID1) in the vitrification of prepubertal and adult cow oocytes. IVM oocytes were vitrified and warmed in media supplemented with 0, 1, 10, 100 or 1000µgmL-1 EPS ID1. After warming, oocytes were fertilised and embryo development, spindle morphology and the expression of several genes in Day 8 blastocysts were assessed...
May 16, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Yu Huang, Yige Ding, Yao Liu, Shiwei Zhou, Qiang Ding, Hailong Yan, Baohua Ma, Xiaoe Zhao, Xiaolong Wang, Yulin Chen
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is an efficient method for the production of gene-edited animals. We have successfully generated gene-modified goats and sheep via zygote injection of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) mixtures. However, the delivery system for microinjection largely refers to methods established for mice; optimised injection conditions are urgently required for the generation of large animals. Here, we designed a study to optimise the Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA delivery system for goats...
May 13, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jennifer S Crodian, Bethany M Weldon, Yu-Chun Tseng, Birgit Cabot, Ryan Cabot
In the work presented here, we investigated how bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7), a subunit associated with switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodelling complexes, is trafficked between cellular compartments during embryo development. SWI/SNF complexes are multi-subunit complexes that contain a core catalytic subunit (SWI/SNF related, Matrix associated, Actin dependent Regulator of Chromatin, subfamily A, member 4, or member 2; SMARCA4 or SMARCA2) and a collection of additional subunits that guide the complexes to their appropriate loci; BRD7 is one of these additional subunits...
May 13, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
David Fisher, Faizel Mosaval, Darla L Tharp, Doug K Bowles, Ralf Henkel
The effects of oleanolic acid (OA) on the fertility of male mice were investigated using both invivo and invitro experimental models. The experimental group (n=12) was treated with a daily dose of 30mgOAkg-1 bodyweight (i.p.), while the control group (n=6) received a daily dose of 10% ethanol solution (1mLkg-1 bodyweight). The effect of OA on the permeability status of TM4 Sertoli monolayers was investigated by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), intracellular electrical resistance and semiquantitative RT-PCR...
May 10, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Heiko H W Henning, Julia Batz-Schott, Benita Grünther, Xuyen Le Thi, Dagmar Waberski
Invitro sperm-oviduct binding assays enable assessment of the capacity of spermatozoa to form a 'reservoir' in the oviduct. Competitive approaches, such as experimental set-ups that test multiple males or semen samples simultaneously on the same tissue explants, are desirable because they reduce the likelihood of bias when using material from different females. Therefore, we established a fluorescent labelling technique that allows tagging and storage of spermatozoa before competitive studies of sperm-oviduct binding invitro...
May 10, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
I V Wagner, P Yango, K Svechnikov, N D Tran, O Söder
Reproduction is an important target of obesity complications, including adverse effects on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Adipocytokines are key mediators in various complications of obesity. Our aim was to study the potential of adipocytokines to affect Sertoli cell function, which is crucial for spermatogenesis, and possibly link these findings to the observed attenuation of spermatogenesis in obese males. Testicular biopsies were obtained from healthy donors. Highly purified adult human Sertoli cells (HSCs) were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
May 6, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Holly R Cope, Sarah Peck, Rebecca Hobbs, Tamara Keeley, Stephen Izzard, Wei Yeen-Yap, Peter J White, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine A Herbert
Contraception is increasingly used to manage breeding opportunities in conservation-dependent species. This study aimed to determine the efficacy, duration of effect, optimal dose and potential side effects of Suprelorin contraceptive implants in Tasmanian devils, for use in the conservation breeding program. In our pilot study, Suprelorin was found to effectively suppress oestrous cycles in female devils, yet caused a paradoxical increase in testosterone in males. Therefore, we focussed on females in further trials...
May 3, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Andressa Dalmazzo, João D A Losano, Daniel S R Angrimani, Isabel V A Pereira, Marcelo D Goissis, Maria C P Francischini, Everton Lopes, Claudia K Minazaki, Marcel H Blank, Bruno Cogliati, Ricardo J G Pereira, Valquiria H Barnabe, Marcilio Nichi
The aim of this study was to confirm gene and protein expression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in the testis and epididymis of dogs, correlating these data with sperm quality and production and testosterone concentrations. Positive correlations were found between OTR and SHBG expression in both the testis and epididymis. Testicular OTR expression was positively associated with plasma membrane and acrosome integrity in canine spermatozoa, whereas SHBG expression in the testis was positively correlated with various sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity...
May 3, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hongwei Liang, Yan Meng, Lihuan Cao, Xiang Li, Guiwei Zou
Little is known about sex determination and differentiation in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis. R-Spondin 1 (RSPO1), a candidate sex-determining gene, is an important regulator of ovarian differentiation in animals. Exogenous drugs can affect sex differentiation. In this study we cloned the RSPO1 gene from P. sinensis (psRSPO1) and analysed its expression profile. The psRSPO1 gene exhibited sequence identity with RSPO1 genes from other species. RSPO1 protein-based phylogenetic analysis showed that psRSPO1 in P...
May 1, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Di Zhang, Ying Liu, Yan Cui, Sheng Cui
Progesterone (P4) synthesized by the corpus luteum (CL) plays a key role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The LH signal is important for luteinisation and P4 synthesis in pigs. In a previous study, we demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8) regulates P4 synthesis in mouse CL, but whether the function and mechanism of MAP3K8 in the pig is similar to that in the mouse is not known. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of MAP3K8 on porcine CL...
May 1, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Silvana R Ferreira, Leandro M Vélez, Maria F Heber, Giselle A Abruzzese, Alicia B Motta
It is known that androgen excess induces changes in fetal programming that affect several physiological pathways. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α, δ and γ are key mediators of female reproductive functions, in particular in uterine tissues. Thus, we aimed to study the effect of prenatal hyperandrogenisation on the uterine PPAR system. Rats were treated with 2mg testosterone from Day 16 to 19 of pregnancy. Female offspring (PH group) were followed until 90 days of life, when they were killed...
May 1, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Xinwei Shi, Guoqiang Zheng, Hao Liu, Jing Cao, Wanlu Liu, Yuqi Li, Fuyuan Qiao, Dongrui Deng, Yuanyuan Wu
Mammary serine protease inhibitor (maspin; also known as serpin family B member 5 (SERPINB5)) plays a vital role in regulating the biological functions of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells, but the mechanism remains unclear. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C is a signature angiogenic molecule expressed and secreted by first-trimester trophoblasts, and bioinformatics analyses has revealed upregulation of VEGFC in pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study was to explore whether maspin regulates EVT cells by regulating the expression of VEGFC...
April 30, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
M L Gould, H D Nicholson
In normal prostate cells, cell membrane receptors are located within signalling microdomains called caveolae. During cancer progression, caveolae are lost and sequestered receptors move out onto lipid rafts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in the localisation of receptors out of caveolae and onto the cell membrane increased cell proliferation invitro, and to determine whether this is related to changes in the cell signalling pathways. Normal human prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and androgen-independent (PC3) cancer cells were cultured with 10nM dihydrotestosterone (DHT)...
April 30, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Misa Hosoe, Tadashi Furusawa, Ken-Go Hayashi, Toru Takahashi, Yutaka Hashiyada, Keiichiro Kizaki, Kazuyoshi Hashizume, Tomoyuki Tokunaga, Shuichi Matsuyama, Ryosuke Sakumoto
In order to help elucidate the process of epiblast and trophoblast cell differentiation in bovine embryos invitro, we attempted to develop a suitable culture medium to allow extended embryo culture. Day 7 bovine blastocysts developed in conventional medium were cultured further in embryonic stem cell medium with or without leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) until Day 23. At Day 14, the expression of octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (OCT3/4) and VIMENTIN was significantly higher in embryos cultured with than without LIF, but embryonic disc formation was not observed...
April 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jennifer A Hetz, Brandon R Menzies, Geoffrey Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Maturation of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) axis is a critical developmental event that becomes functional over the peripartum period in precocial eutherian mammals such as sheep. In mice and marsupials that give birth to altricial young, the GH/IGF1 axis matures well after birth, suggesting that functional maturation is associated with developmental stage, not parturition. Recent foster-forward studies in one marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), have corroborated this hypothesis...
April 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Fatma Uysal, Gokhan Akkoyunlu, Saffet Ozturk
DNA methylation plays key roles in epigenetic regulation during mammalian spermatogenesis. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) function in de novo and maintenance methylation processes by adding a methyl group to the fifth carbon atom of the cytosine residues within cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and non-CpG dinucleotide sites. Azoospermia is one of the main causes of male infertility, and is classified as obstructive (OA) or non-obstructive (NOA) azoospermia based on histopathological characteristics. The molecular background of NOA is still largely unknown...
April 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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