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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

Marcelo T Moura, Jeferson Badaraco, Regivaldo V Sousa, Carolina M Lucci, Rodolfo Rumpf
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) allows animal cloning but remains technically challenging. This study investigated limitations to functional oocyte enucleation by actinomycin D (AD) as a means of making SCNT easier to perform. Denuding oocytes or inhibiting transcription before AD treatment revealed that the toxicity of this compound during bovine oocyte maturation is mediated by cumulus cells. Exposure of denuded oocytes to higher concentrations of AD (5-20μgmL-1) and stepwise reductions of the incubation period (from 14...
April 16, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Elena Moretti, Giulia Collodel, Giuseppe Belmonte, Daria Noto, Emanuele Giurisato
The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the protein kinase suppressor of Ras1 (KSR1) in spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis in ksr1-/- mice was studied in testicular tissue and epididymal spermatozoa by light and transmission electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence using antibodies to ghrelin and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). Blood testosterone levels were also assessed. ksr1-/- mice showed reduced epididymal sperm concentration and motility as compared with wild-type (wt) mice. Testis tissue from ksr1-/- mice revealed a prevalent spermatogenetic arrest at the spermatocyte stage; the interstitial tissue was hypertrophic and the cytoplasm of the Leydig cells was full of lipid droplets...
April 15, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
J M Connolly, M T Kane, L R Quinlan, A C Hynes
Invitro ovarian follicle culture systems are routinely used to study folliculogenesis and may provide solutions for infertility. Mouse follicles are typically cultured in standard gas-impermeable culture plates under gas phase oxygen concentrations of 5% or 20% (v/v). There is evidence that these conditions may not provide adequate oxygenation for follicles cultured as non-attached intact units in medium supplemented with serum and high levels of FSH. Three different methods of enhancing follicle oxygenation were investigated in this study: increasing the gas phase oxygen concentration, inverting the culture plates and using gas-permeable culture plates...
April 12, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alexander Sirotkin, Richard Alexa, Attila Kádasi, Erika Adamcová, Saleh Alwasel, Abdel Halim Harrath
The objective of our study was to examine the influence of the plant polyphenol resveratrol (R) on the rapamycin signalling pathway (mammalian target of rapamycin; mTOR) and basic ovarian cell functions in mammalian targets, as well as on their response to the physiological hormonal stimulators follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Resveratrol was found to stimulate sirtuin 1 accumulation and apoptosis, inhibit proliferation, suppress P and promote T and E release. Alone, FSH promoted proliferation and had no effect on apoptosis, but had an inhibitory effect on these processes when combined with R...
April 12, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Miluse Vozdova, Svatava Kubickova, Jiri Rubes
Non-invasive molecular sexing methods are useful in captive breeding programs and field studies; these methods enable sex identification without immobilisation or stressful handling of animals. We developed a method enabling fast and reliable sex identification in three species with limited external sexual dimorphism: the brown and spotted hyenas and the aardvark. We used the sex determining region Y (SRY) gene as the male-specific sequence and the c-myc gene, highly conserved among mammals, as the control sequence present in both sexes...
April 11, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kaatje D Ducheyne, Marilena Rizzo, Peter F Daels, Tom A E Stout, Marta de Ruijter-Villani
Vitrified-warmed immature equine oocytes are able to complete the first meiotic division, but their subsequent developmental competence is compromised. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of vitrifying immature horse oocytes on the chromosome and spindle configuration after IVM. Cumulus-oocytes complexes (COCs) were collected and divided into two groups based on mare age (young ≤14 years; old ≥16 years). COCs were then either directly matured invitro or vitrified and warmed before IVM...
April 10, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Li Sun, Siwen Zhang, Qiyuan Chang, Jichun Tan
Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is caused by endometrial damage and leads to the formation of scar fibrosis and repair disorders. We compared four different rat IUA modelling procedures in order to establish a stable animal model suitable for investigating IUA. Twenty female Sprague--Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. IUA was induced on one side of each rat uterus by ethanol instillation, heat stripping, mechanical injury or mechanical injury with infection (dual-injury); the other side of the uterus was left intact as a control...
April 9, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
R Abdoli, S Z Mirhoseini, N Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, P Zamani, M H Ferdosi, C Gondro
Composite reproductive traits are a combination of growth and reproductive traits. They have the advantage of being better attuned to the market drivers since producers are paid on a per kilogram basis and not on a per head basis. In this study, 124 Lori---Bakhtiari ewes were genotyped using the medium-density Illumina Ovine SNP50 array. A genome-wide association study was performed on estimated breeding values of four composite reproductive traits and genetic parameters were also estimated. The traits were litter mean weight at birth, litter mean weight at weaning, total litter weight at birth and total litter weight at weaning...
April 9, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Gabriel Martín Alvarez, María Josefina Barrios Expósito, Evelin Elia, Dante Paz, Sergio Morado, Pablo Daniel Cetica
The combination of gonadotrophins (LH and FSH) and insulin is frequently used in porcine oocyte IVM, but the individual effects of gonadotrophins and insulin have not been completely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in glucose metabolism in the swine cumulus-oocyte complex (COC), analysing the effects of gonadotrophins (10IUmL-1 LH+10IUmL-1 FSH) and 0.4μUmL-1insulin, during 44h of IVM, on glucose transport and consumption, as well as on nuclear maturation and sperm penetration...
April 8, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Shavahn C Loux, Claudia B Fernandes, Pouya Dini, Kai Wang, Xiaogang Wu, David Baxter, Kirsten E Scoggin, Mats H T Troedsson, Edward L Squires, Barry A Ball
Intrauterine infection and inflammation remain a major cause of preterm labour in women and mares, with little known about small RNA (sRNA) expression in tissue or circulation. To better characterise placental inflammation (placentitis), we examined sRNA expression in the endometrium, chorioallantois and serum of mares with and without placentitis. Disease was induced in 10 mares via intracervical inoculation of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus, either with moderate or high levels of inoculum; three uninoculated gestationally matched mares were used as controls...
April 5, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Marina Ilicic, Tamas Zakar, Jonathan W Paul
Progesterone plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy by promoting myometrial quiescence. The withdrawal of progesterone action signals the end of pregnancy and, in most mammalian species, this is achieved by a rapid fall in progesterone concentrations. However, in humans circulating progesterone concentrations remain high up to and during labour. Efforts to understand this phenomenon led to the 'functional progesterone withdrawal' hypothesis, whereby the pro-gestation actions of progesterone are withdrawn, despite circulating concentrations remaining elevated...
April 4, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Marta F Riesco, David G Valcarce, Juan Manuel Martínez-Vázquez, Ignacio Martín, Andrés Ángel Calderón-García, Verónica Gonzalez-Nunez, Vanesa Robles
Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a species with a high commercial value that exhibits a reproductive dysfunction in males born and raised in captivity (F1) that hinders their sustainable culture. The present study evaluates the sperm quality and dopaminergic pathway of males born in the wild environment and of F1 males. Traditional sperm analyses were performed, finding only significant differences in curvilinear velocity (VCL) and no significant differences in viability and total motility. No differences in global sperm methylation were observed either in spermatozoa or brain between the two groups (F1 and wild-born males)...
April 4, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Zhihui Dai, Fei Sheng, Ningxia Sun, Yixuan Ji, Qiuying Liao, Shuhan Sun, Fu Yang, Wen Li
Normal implantation and placental development depend on the appropriate differentiation and invasion of trophoblast cells. Inadequate trophoblast cell invasion results in pregnancy-related disorders, which endanger both mother and fetus; however, the mechanism of early placental development has not been fully explained. In this study we conducted gene expression profile analysis using mouse placental tissues at different developmental stages (embryonic day (E)7.5, E14.5 and E19.5) using series tests of cluster (STC) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses...
April 4, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Ting Yao, Haiyan Hou, Guozhong Liu, Jun Wu, Zhe Qin, Yang Sun, Xiaohan Jin, Jun Chen, Yaqiong Chen, Zhongwei Xu
Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling, alteration of the uterine microenvironment and a reduction in human chorionic gonadotrophin production have been linked with fetal trisomy 16-induced early embryonic death (EED). However, the detailed biological mechanism of EED remains unclear. Using quantitative proteomics we successfully screened differentially expressed proteins in the villous tissues from patients with EED and fetal trisomy 16 (EEDT16), patients with EED but normal fetal chromosomes (EEDNC) and patients undergoing elective abortion with normal fetal chromosomes (EANC) as the reference group...
March 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Federica Cavalera, Milena Simovic, Mario Zanoni, Valeria Merico, Silvia Garagna, Maurizio Zuccotti
In the ovary, acquisition of oocyte developmental competence depends on a bidirectional exchange between the gamete and its companion cumulus cells (CCs). In this study we investigated the contribution of CCs surrounding oocytes of known developmental competence or incompetence to the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence. To this end, feeder layers of CCs (FL-CCs) were prepared using CCs isolated either from: (1) developmentally competent mouse oocytes whose nucleolus was surrounded by a chromatin ring (FL-SN-CCs); or (2) developmentally incompetent mouse oocytes whose nucleolus was not surrounded by a chromatin ring (FL-NSN-CCs)...
March 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Chooi Yeng Lee, ShengYun Li, Xiao Feng Li, Daniel A E Stalker, Claire Cooke, Bei Shao, Haluk Kelestimur, Belinda A Henry, Gregory Conductier, Kevin T O'Byrne, Iain J Clarke
RFamide-related peptide (RFRP)-3 reduces luteinising hormone (LH) secretion in rodents. Stress has been shown to upregulate the expression of the RFRP gene (Rfrp) with a concomitant reduction in LH secretion, but an effect on expression of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene (Gnrh1) has not been shown. We hypothesised that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress affects expression of Rfrp, the gene for kisspeptin (Kiss1) and/or Gnrh1, leading to suppression of LH levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular injections of RFRP-3 (0...
March 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
A Vitorino Carvalho, C Eozenou, C Richard, N Forde, G D Healey, C Giraud-Delville, N Mansouri-Attia, P Lonergan, I M Sheldon, O Sandra
In mammals, tight regulation of maternal endometrial function is critical for pregnancy success. In bovine species, endometrial expression of members of the scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) has been listed in high-throughput analyses, but very little is known about the involvement of these immune factors during implantation in mammals. To provide first insights into the contribution of SR-A to endometrial physiology, we analysed the expression and regulation of all members of SR-A (SR-A1, SR-A3-SR-A6) during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy in cattle...
March 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Vahid Ehsani, Maryam Mortazavi, Khodayar Ghorban, Maryam Dadmanesh, Reza Bahramabadi, Mohammad-Taghi Rezayati, Esmat Javadi-Moghadam, Zahra Rezaei, Zahra Sabzali, Iman Fatemi, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Cytokines are the main factors involved in the normal functions of the placenta and delivery process. The aim of this project was to compare serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in term and prolonged-pregnancy mothers and their neonates. This study was performed on 240 participants including 60 term and prolonged-pregnancy neonates and their corresponding mothers. Serum levels of IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and TGF-β were evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique...
March 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Dale Goss, Bashir Ayad, Gerhard van der Horst, Bongekile Skosana, Stefan S du Plessis
Various studies have sought to determine the typical v. optimal abstinence period after which semen samples should be collected, with many contradictory results reported. Several factors influence the semen microenvironment, and thus sperm parameters. In this study we focused on the secretions of the prostate, seminal vesicles and the epididymis. Semen samples were obtained from healthy normozoospermic males (n=16) after 4-day and 4-h periods of ejaculatory abstinence, and standard semen analysis was performed using computer-aided sperm analysis, whereas seminal plasma citric acid, neutral α-glucosidase and fructose concentrations were measured using assay kits...
March 26, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Quanwei Wei, Guoyun Wu, Jun Xing, Dagan Mao, Reinhold J Hutz, Fangxiong Shi
3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is known to be a mitochondrial toxin produced by plants and fungi, which may produce DNA damage in cells. However, studies of its reproductive toxicology are lacking. We know that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays an important role in a large variety of physiological processes and is involved in DNA repair pathways. The present study was therefore aimed at exploring the involvement of PARP-1 activation and cleavage after 3-NPA stimulation in female mice. We observed an increased number of atretic follicles and multi-oocyte follicles (MOFs) after treatment with 3-NPA and serum concentrations of 17β-oestradiol and progesterone were significantly reduced...
March 6, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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