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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

J Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, S Cronin, E Donnellan, S Fair
The mechanism that causes the detachment of spermatozoa from the oviductal reservoir around the time of ovulation remains to be elucidated. Because the cumulus cells of the bovine oocyte are known to secrete progesterone (P4), and P4 has been shown to act upon cation channels of spermatozoa (CatSper) in human spermatozoa, it was hypothesised that P4 could induce hyperactivation due to an influx of extracellular calcium, and this would facilitate detachment of spermatozoa from oviductal epithelial cells. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of action of P4 in the release of spermatozoa from bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC)...
August 29, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hakan Sağsöz, Narin Liman, Berna Güney Saruhan, Mehmet E Akbalık, Muzaffer A Ketani, Uğur Topaloğlu
The epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB) family and its ligands are essential for the regulation of multiple cellular processes required for mammalian reproduction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression and localisation of ErbB subtypes (ErbB1-4) and selected ligands, namely epidermal growth factor (EGF), amphiregulin (AREG) and neuregulin (NRG), in the cervix and vagina of cycling cows and to determine possible steroid hormone-dependence of their expression using immunohistochemistry...
July 4, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
E S A M Sanches, F Tsuzuki, F Joinhas, G B Figueiras, E G Moreira, M J S Salles
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether paternal exposure to bupropion hydrochloride (BUP), an inhibitor of dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake, would affect the postnatal development of offspring. Male mice were divided into a BUP-treated (40mgkg-1day-1 by gavage, 45 days) or control (saline by gavage, 45 days) group (n=20 in each group). From Day 35 to Day 45 of treatment, males were allowed to mate with drug-naïve female mice. Postnatal development of the offspring (both sexes) was evaluated from Postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND60...
July 4, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Juliana S Maldarine, Bruno D A Sanches, Ágata S Cabral, Maria L D Lima, Luiz H A Guerra, Carolina M B Baraldi, Marília F Calmon, Paula Rahal, Rejane M Góes, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
Finasteride is a drug that is widely used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, hair loss and even as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of prostatic adenocarcinoma. However, its use is known to cause several side effects in adults and it can also cause changes in the embryonic development of the male prostate, which is a cause for concern given the possibility of the accumulation of finasteride in the environment. Nevertheless, no studies have investigated the effects of finasteride on the development of the prostate in females, which occurs in several species of mammals...
June 28, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
M S Lorenzo, A Maruri, P R Cruzans, G M Teplitz, M F Tello, D M Lombardo
Abattoir ovaries, which are the main source of oocytes for reproductive biotechnologies, arrive at the laboratory under ischaemic conditions. Reoxygenation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ischaemic tissues, which could affect oocyte quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of media with dimethylthiourea (DMTU) during the collection and washing of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) on ROS levels, COC apoptosis and oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Thus, the collection (TCM-199) and washing (TCM-199 with 10% porcine follicular fluid, sodium pyruvate and antibiotics) media were supplemented with 1 and 10mM DMTU...
June 27, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Gabriela J Rosales, Edith Perez, Graciela B Rodriguez, Verónica P Filippa, Fabian H Mohamed
Viscachas are native rodents of South America that present a long pregnancy of ~154 days. In this work, we analysed variations in the expression of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen, oestrogen and androgen receptors (ERα and AR) in pituitary pars distalis (PD) and pars tuberalis (PT) in relation to oestradiol and testosterone serum levels in non-pregnant and pregnant viscachas. In PD, cell proliferation increased with pregnancy and lactotrophs proliferated during mid-pregnancy (MP). ERα nuclear-immunoreactive cells (ERαn-ir) were maximal in late pregnancy and AR expression did not vary during pregnancy...
June 27, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Yu Lian, Yu Hu, Lu Gan, Yuan-Nan Huo, Hong-Yan Luo, Xian-Zhong Wang
As an important gram-negative bacterial outer membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in bacterial-induced endometritis in sows. However, how LPS induces endometritis is unclear. We stimulated sow endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) with LPS and detected cell viability and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion. LPS affected EEC viability and TNF-α and IL-1 secretion in a dose-dependent manner. LPS induced differential expression in 10 of 393 miRNAs in the EECs (downregulated, nine; upregulated, one)...
June 27, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kristina Pogrmic-Majkic, Gordana Kosanin, Dragana Samardzija Nenadov, Svetlana Fa, Bojana Stanic, Aleksandra Trninic Pjevic, Nebojsa Andric
The mechanism by which rosiglitazone (ROSI: a thiazolidinedione (TZD)) affects steroid production in undifferentiated human granulosa cells is not known. In this study, cultured human cumulus granulosa cells were exposed to ROSI and pharmacological inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) signalling pathways. Expression of progesterone biosynthetic enzymes, PPARγ and PPARα, progesterone production and ERK1/2 activation were analysed...
June 25, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Arya P Panda, Sudhir C Roy, Deepak T Sakhare, Sharanabasav Badami, Bannur C Divyashree, Vijayasaraswathy S Gurupriya, Arindam Dhali
The motility and fertility of mammalian spermatozoa are compromised when they are cryopreserved. Sperm mitochondrial proteins play a vital role in conferring motility. However, the effects of cryopreservation on mitochondria-specific proteins remain primarily unexplored in domestic animals, including buffaloes, so the present study aimed to evaluate this issue. Mitochondria were isolated from both non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa by sonication followed by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation...
June 25, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alexander V Sirotkin, Andrej Benčo, Jan Kotwica, Saleh H Alwasel, Abdel H Harrath
The involvement of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-related signalling pathway in the control of reproduction is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of ASK-1 in the control of basic ovarian functions (proliferation, apoptosis and hormone release) and its response to ovarian hormonal regulators (leptin and FSH). We compared the accumulation of ASK-1, proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), apoptosis marker Bax and apoptosis and proliferation regulating transcription factor p53 and the release of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and prostaglandins F (PGF) and E (PGE) using cultured porcine ovarian granulosa cells transfected with ASK-1 cDNA and cultured with leptin or FSH...
June 20, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Aram Akbarzadeh, Maral Kianmanesh, Kiarad Fendereski, Maryam Ebadi, Seyedeh Sima Daryabari, Ahmad Masoomi, Fereshteh Ghazisaeedi, Reza Seyyed Hossein Beigi, Reyhaneh Sheikh, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
The aim of this study was to determine an efficient whole-organ decellularisation protocol of a human-sized testis by perfusion through the testicular arteries. In the first step of this study, we determined the most efficient detergent agent, whereas the second phase delineated the optimal time required for the decellularisation process. Initially sheep testes were decellularised by one of three different detergent agents: sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), Triton X-100 and trypsin-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions, each perfused for 6h...
June 20, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Monika Saini, Naresh L Selokar, Rasika Rajendran, Dharmendra Kumar, Pradeep Kumar, Prem Singh Yadav
The aim of the present study was to isolate somatic cells from semen, a non-invasive source of donor somatic cells, for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) experiments. The study had two parts: (1) isolation and culture of somatic cells from semen, which was stored at 4°C; and (2) investigating the SCNT competence of semen-derived somatic cells. We successfully cultured somatic cells from freshly ejaculated semen, which was stored for different times (0, 4, 12, 24, 72 and 144h after semen collection) at 4°C, using a Percoll gradient method...
June 13, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Lucía Martínez-Fresneda, Emma O'Brien, Rosario Velázquez, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz, Carlos M Martínez-Cáceres, Dawit Tesfaye, Karl Schellander, Francisco A García-Vázquez, Julian Santiago-Moreno
The aim of this study was to examine ovine sperm cryoresistance during the rutting season (RS) and its association with sperm head area and seminiferous epithelium proliferation. Small ruminants show fluctuating testosterone levels throughout the year, which could interfere with spermatogenesis and sperm cryopreservation. Ejaculates, testicular biopsies and blood were collected during the middle and at the end of the RS (Middle-RS vs End-RS) during periods of high and low testosterone levels in Merino and Mouflon rams...
June 11, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
S D Johnston, C López-Fernández, F Arroyo, R Roy, W V Holt, J Gosálvez
To investigate differences in the post-thaw DNA stability of koala and wombat spermatozoa, protamine amino acid sequences were compared and it was found that there were three more arginine residues for the wombat. Koala and wombat spermatozoa, cryopreserved using identical protocols, were examined for changes in sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) dynamics over 24h of post-thaw incubation. Following validation of a wombat sperm chromatin dispersion test, wombat DNA showed a rate of SDF that was 6-fold higher than for koala spermatozoa (P=0...
June 6, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Tahlia Perry, Deborah Toledo-Flores, Wan X Kang, Arthur Ferguson, Belinda Laming, Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush, Shu L Lim, Frank Grützner
Identifying male and female echidnas is challenging due to the lack of external genitalia or any other differing morphological features. This limits studies of wild populations and is a major problem for echidna captive management and breeding. Non-invasive genetic approaches to determine sex minimise the need for handling animals and are used extensively in other mammals. However, currently available approaches cannot be applied to monotremes because their sex chromosomes share no homology with sex chromosomes in other mammals...
June 4, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Li-Feng Sun, Ya-Li Yang, Tian-Xia Xiao, Meng-Xia Li, Jian V Zhang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder with a high prevalence in women of childbearing age. To date, there is no method of efficiently diagnosing PCOS and curing it completely because its pathomechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether metabolic abnormalities maintain the hyperandrogenism and PCOS-like ovaries and whether the symptoms induced by excess androgen are treatable. We ceased the abnormal dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulation to determine changes in PCOS-like mice...
May 30, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Mei-Fu Xuan, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Qing Guo, Sheng-Zhong Han, Song-Shan Jin, Jin-Dan Kang, Xi-Jun Yin
Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle development. A lack of MSTN induces muscle hypertrophy and increases formation of fast-twitch (Type II) muscle fibres. This study investigated muscle development in newborn heterozygous (MSTN+/-) and homozygous (MSTN-/-) MSTN-knockout piglets. Detailed morphological and gene and protein expression analyses were performed of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and diaphragm of MSTN+/-, MSTN-/- and wild-type (WT) piglets...
May 20, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Luis H Melo, Rafael M C Melo, Ronald K Luz, Nilo Bazzoli, Elizete Rizzo
Sexual differentiation and early gonadal development are critical events in vertebrate reproduction. In this study, the initial testis development and expression of the Vasa, Nanos2 and Sox9 proteins were examined in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus submitted to induced sex reversal. To that end, 150O. niloticus larvae at 5 days post-hatching (dph) were kept in nurseries with no hormonal addition (control group) and 150 larvae were kept with feed containing 17α-methyltestosterone to induce male sex reversal (treated group)...
May 17, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Igor F Canisso, Shavahn Loux, Kirsten E Scoggin, Edward L Squires, Mats H Troedsson, Barry A Ball
Characterisation of fetal fluids in healthy and disease states of pregnant mares can help to unravel the pathophysiology and to identify putative markers of disease. Thus, this study aimed to compare the protein composition of: (1) amniotic and allantoic fluids of healthy mares obtained immediately after euthanasia and (2) allantoic fluid harvested via centesis before and after experimental induction of placentitis via transcervical inoculation of Streptococcus equi ssp zooepidemicus in healthy mares. Fetal fluids were analysed with a high-throughput proteomic technique after in-gel digestion...
May 16, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Núria Arcarons, Meritxell Vendrell-Flotats, Marc Yeste, Elena Mercade, Manel López-Béjar, Teresa Mogas
Biological molecules isolated from organisms that live under subzero conditions could be used to protect oocytes from cryoinjuries suffered during cryopreservation. This study examined the cryoprotectant role of exopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas sp. ID1 (EPS ID1) in the vitrification of prepubertal and adult cow oocytes. IVM oocytes were vitrified and warmed in media supplemented with 0, 1, 10, 100 or 1000µgmL-1 EPS ID1. After warming, oocytes were fertilised and embryo development, spindle morphology and the expression of several genes in Day 8 blastocysts were assessed...
May 16, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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