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Journal of Chemotherapy

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761948/invasive-fungal-infection-in-crtically-ill-patients-hurdles-and-next-challenges
#1
Peral José, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Emilio Maseda, Pedro Olaechea, Javier Pemán, Cruz Soriano, Rafael Zaragoza
A narrative review from a multidisciplinary task force of experts in critical care medicine and clinical mycology was carried out. The multi drug-resistant species Candida auris has emerged simultaneously on several continents, causing hospital outbreaks, especially in critically ill patients. Although there are not enough data to support the routine use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in patients subjected to extracorporeal membrane oxygenator, a clear increase of invasive fungal infection (IFI) has been described with the use of this device...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739598/severe-toxicity-in-adult-patients-with-lung-cancer-under-treatment-with-pemetrexed-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Carolina Vázquez, María Orlova, María Alicia Verzura, José Nicolás Minatta, Paula Scibona, Esteban Gabriel Jáuregui, Heidy Díaz de Arce, María Guadalupe Pallotta, Waldo Horacio Belloso
Pemetrexed is an antimetabolite approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Harbouring interindividual variability in both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic profiles may lead to life-threatening toxicities. A prospective cohort study of adult patients initiating treatment with pemetrexed in combination with platinum between 2013 and 2015 were follow up. Primary exposure were the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) single base polymorphisms in exon 4 and 7 and 5'-UTR- thymidylate synthase (TYMS) VNTR genotypes, in addition to baseline clinical and demographic variables...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739575/short-term-adverse-effects-of-anticancer-drugs-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Agostino Milluzzo, Andrea Tumminia, Veronica Vella, Fiorenza Gianì, Livia Manzella, Lucia Frittitta, Antonino Belfiore, Riccardo Vigneri, Laura Sciacca
The short-term adverse effects of anticancer drugs (AD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are poorly studied and their management still represents an important challenge for clinicians. We carried out a retrospective single-center study in 168 patients with T2D and cancer, evaluating both the short-term effects of first-line AD on glycemic control and chronic diabetes complications. Average glycated hemoglobin significantly increased after AD compared to values before treatment (7.5 vs. 7.1%, p < 0...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689529/antimicrobial-treatment-of-kocuria-kristinae-invasive-infections-systematic-review
#4
Radica S Živković Zarić, Ana V Pejčić, Slobodan M Janković, Marina J Kostić, Miloš N Milosavljević, Marko J Milosavljević, Valentina D Opančina
Objective of this systematic review was to establish whether and what invasive infections in humans were caused by Kocuria kristinae, and to evaluate outcomes of administered antibiotic treatment. MEDLINE, EBSCO, SCOPUS, SCINDEKS and GOOGLE SCHOLAR were systematically searched for primary case reports or case series describing invasive infections with K. kristinae. K. kristinae is a pathogen microorganism that could cause invasive infections of various tissues in patients of any age. Majority of the patients had K...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676292/broad-spectrum-antibiotics-in-newborns-increase-multi-drug-resistant-infections
#5
Almudena Alonso-Ojembarrena, José Vicente Martínez-Díaz, Alfonso María Lechuga-Sancho, Fátima Galán-Sánchez, Simón Pedro Lubián-López
Our objective was to determine if broad spectrum antibiotics (BSA) are associated with multi-resistant bacterial (MRB) infections in neonatal patients. We conducted a case-control study with two groups of patients: those with and without a MRB infection. We included 43 cases and 43 controls. MRB strains were: 21 S. maltophila (49%), 11 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriae (25%), 8 P. aeruginosa (19%) and 3 MRSA (7%). Odds ratio (OR) for MRB after seven days of carbapenems was 4.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661470/first-report-of-polymyxin-b-activity-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-biofilm
#6
Karina Marjorie Silva Herrera, Fernanda Kelen da Silva, Michael Eder de Oliveira, Magna Cristina de Paiva, Adriana Cristina Soares, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira Ferreira
Considering the clinical importance of biofilm in medical devices and chronic infections, this study aimed to investigate the action of polymyxin B on Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) biofilm. The experiments were performed using a biofilm formation assay and the interaction of polysorbate 80 was explored. Both inhibition of biofilm formation and reduction of pre-formed biofilm occurred in a concentration-dependent manner with inhibition as high as 56 and 64%, and reduction of pre-formed biofilm as high as 70 and 66%, with and without polysorbate, respectively...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30646834/microbiota-and-cancer-an-update
#7
Natalia G Vallianou, Fotini Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou
The number of microbes in the human intestine is approximately 1 × 1014 , while the number of eukaryotic cells in the human body is around 1 × 1013 . As a result of co-evolution of the host mucosal immune system and the microbiota, both have developed multiple mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. Nevertheless, when these mechanisms are disturbed by pathogenic bacteria, which invade this fragile environment, the immune system responds to the microbiota and may support tumour growth in the intestine...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30595129/carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Hamid Vaez, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Farzad Khademi
The global emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant (CR)-Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important healthcare concern owing to the limited therapeutic options that are available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of CR K. pneumoniae in different parts of Iran. A comprehensive literature search was performed in national and international databases. After applying predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 36 articles reporting prevalence of CR K. pneumoniae were collected. The pooled prevalence of CR K...
December 30, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30595104/efficacy-and-safety-of-nivolumab-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-retrospective-study-in-clinical-practice
#9
Marc Montana, Marie-Eve Garcia, Nathalie Ausias, Marion Jeanpierre, Margaux Meiffren, Roch Giorgi, Patrice Vanelle, Fabrice Barlesi
Nivolumab, a fully human immunoglobulin monoclonal antibody inhibiting the programmed cell death protein-1 receptor, demonstrated robust efficacy and a manageable safety profile across multiple tumor types in clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab for pretreated patients with non-small cell lung cancers in clinical practice. In this observational monocentric retrospective study, 98 patients were enrolled between February 2015 and February 2016. The global median overall survival was 6...
December 30, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30580667/an-observational-study-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-voriconazole-in-a-real-life-clinical-setting
#10
Sara Blanco-Dorado, Cristina Cea-Arestin, Alba González Carballo, Ana Latorre-Pellicer, Olalla Maroñas Amigo, Gema Barbeito Castiñeiras, María Luisa Pérez Del Molino Bernal, Manuel Campos-Toimil, Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro, María J Lamas
An observational retrospective study in patients treated with voriconazole was made to evaluate outcomes, safety, drug interactions and characteristics of the treatment. A total of 96 patients were included. In 78.12%, at least one inducer or enzyme inhibitor was detected. The most frequently observed potential interaction was the simultaneous administration of omeprazole. A large number of patients were concurrently treated with corticosteroids. The simultaneous administration of drugs acting as CYP450 enzyme inhibitors was associated with a higher risk of toxicity while concomitant administration of corticosteroids seemed a protective factor...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30508410/epidemiology-and-microbiology-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-preliminary-results-of-a-national-registry
#11
Esposito Silvano, De Simone Giuseppe, Pan Angelo, Brambilla Paola, Gattuso Gianno, Mastroianni Claudio, Kertusha Blerta, Contini Carlo, Massoli Lorenzo, Francisci Daniela, Priante Giulia, Libanore Marco, Bicocchi Roberto, Borgia Guglielmo, Maraolo Alberto Enrico, Brugnaro Pierluigi, Panese Sandro, Calabresi Alessandra, Amendola Giovanni, Savalli Francesca, Geraci Consuelo, Tedesco Andrea, Fossati Sara, Carretta Anna, Santantonio Teresa, Cenderello Giovanni, Crisalli Maria Paola, Schiaroli Elisabetta, Rovere Pierangelo, Masini Giulia, Ferretto Roberto, Cascio Antonio, Colomba Claudia, Gioè Claudia, Tumbarello Mario, Losito Angela Raffaella, Foti Giuseppe, Prestileo Tullio, Buscemi Calogero, Chiara Iaria, Iacobello Carmelo, Sonia Sofia, Starnini Giulio, Ialungo Anna, Sapienza Mauro
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) represent a wide range of clinical conditions characterized by a considerable variety of clinical presentations and severity. Their aetiology can also vary, with numerous possible causative pathogens. While other authors previously published analyses on several types of SSTI and on restricted types of patients, we conducted a large nationwide surveillance programme on behalf of the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases to assess the clinical and microbiological characteristics of the whole SSTI spectrum, from mild to severe life-threatening infections, in both inpatients and outpatients...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30508403/transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate-are-we-following-the-guidelines-outcomes-from-the-global-prevalence-of-infections-in-urology-gpiu-study
#12
Bela Köves, Peter Tenke, Zafer Tandogdu, Tommaso Cai, Florian Bogenhard, Björn Wullt, Kurt Naber, Riccardo Bartoletti, Mete Cek, Ekaterina Kulchavenya, Tamara Perepanova, Adrian Pilatz, Gernot Bonkat, Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen, Florian Wagenlehner
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is one of the most common urological procedures. With the increasing rate of multiresistant infections including urosepsis, it is essential for all surgeons to adhere to the relevant international guidelines to prevent infectious complications. The aim of this prospective, multinational, multicentre study was to evaluate compliance with recommended infection control measures regarding TURP procedures. The study was performed as a side questionnaire to the annual Global Prevalence Study of Infections in Urology (GPIU) between 2006 and 2009...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30375268/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftaroline-and-ceftobiprole-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-vancomycin-isolated-in-paediatric-patients
#13
Giulia Carnesecchi, Raffaele Lobello, Laura Liggieri, Candida Palmero, Luisa Pescetto, Patrizia Morelli, Elio Castagnola, Roberto Bandettini
Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, mg/l) of ceftaroline and ceftobiprole were evaluated over 70 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with vancomycin MIC ≥1 isolated in a paediatric hospital. The proportion of non-wild-type strains (MIC > epidemiological cut off) was 18% for ceftobiprole and 64% for ceftaroline. Only 1.4% of strains was resistant to ceftobiprole, and none to ceftaroline. These results are worrisome, since show the presence of non-negligible proportions of MRSA strains with high MIC values for ceftaroline and ceftobiprole in a setting where both drugs were never used...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30299215/pulmonary-adverse-events-related-to-idelalisib-therapy-a-single-centre-experience
#14
Caroline Migault, Delphine Lebrun, Olivier Toubas, Yohan Nguyen, Aurélien Giltat, Gautier Julien, Dominique Toubas, François Lebargy, Alain Delmer, Firouzé Bani-Sadr
Idelalisib is a potent and selective inhibitor of the PI3Kδ approved since September 2014 for the treatment of several types of B cell malignancies. Pulmonary adverse events related to idelalisib are an emerging serious adverse event. We report here a single centre cohort of 16 patients who initiated idelalisib as routine treatment. Five of them experienced severe pulmonary adverse events related to idelalisib therapy. Comparison of the 5 patients with severe pulmonary events versus the 11 patients without identified no predisposing factors...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663555/in-vitro-activities-of-imipenem-colistin-imipenem-tigecycline-and-tigecycline-colistin-combinations-against-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#15
Devrim Dundar, Zehra Duymaz, Serpil Genc, Doganhan Kadir Er, Arzu İrvem, Neslisah Kandemir
The aim of the study is to determine in-vitro effects of imipenem-tigecycline, imipenem-colistin and tigecycline-colistin against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates. A total of 25 CRE isolates were included to the study. The minimum inhibition concentrations of imipenem, colistin-sulphate and tigecycline were determined with broth dilution method. Synergistic effects of imipenem-tigecycline, imipenem-colistin and tigecycline-colistin were investigated by microdilution checkerboard technique...
October 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663554/common-microbial-causes-of-significant-bacteriuria-and-their-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-in-the-isfahan-province-of-iran
#16
Maryam Pezeshki Najafabadi, Afsaneh Dagoohian, Soheila Rajaie, Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, Masoud Edalati
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered the most common community-acquired infections worldwide, which have possible complications along with significant economic impact on national healthcare systems. The aim of this study was to identify the most common causes of significant bacteriuria and to assess their antimicrobial resistance pattern in the Isfahan province of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 11,678 urine samples of the patients referred to Mahdieh Medical Diagnostic Centre Charity were examined over a period of 10 months (from September 2015 to June 2016)...
October 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663553/comparative-in-vitro-antimicrobial-activities-of-csa-142-and-csa-192-second-generation-ceragenins-with-csa-13-against-various-microorganisms
#17
Cagla Bozkurt Guzel, Ozlem Oyardi, Paul B Savage
Ceragenins, a novel family of antibiotics, are cationic derivatives of cholic acid and display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Multiple ceragenins have been synthesized and studied, and most published data are with ceragenin CSA-13. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of second-generation ceragenins, CSA-142 and CSA-192, and compare them to CSA-13. The antimicrobial activities of CSA-13, CSA-142 and CSA-192 were studied against 20 strains of Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans...
October 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663552/relationship-between-antibiotic-resistance-efflux-pumps-and-biofilm-formation-in-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#18
İbrahim Türkel, Tuba Yıldırım, Burak Yazgan, Melek Bilgin, Eşe Başbulut
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important pathogen both in community and hospital environment. In this study, we aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities, expression levels of AcrA, ketM, kdeA, kpnEF, and kexD genes related to efflux pump and biofilm formation in 100 extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The relative expression levels of AcrA, ketM, kdeA, kpnEF, and kexD were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and biofilm formation was screened by microtiter plate assay...
October 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663551/concentration-dependent-enrichment-of-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-exposed-to-linezolid-in-an-in-vitro-dynamic-model
#19
Kamilla N Alieva, Maria V Golikova, Yury A Portnoy, Svetlana A Dovzhenko, Mikhail B Kobrin, Stephen H Zinner, Alexander A Firsov
To explore the relationship between pharmacokinetic variables and enterococcal resistance to linezolid, a vancomycin-resistant strain whose mutant prevention concentration (MPC) exceeded the MIC by two fold was selected among six clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium. The selected strain was exposed to simulated pharmacokinetics of twice-daily linezolid for five days. Mutants resistant to 2 × MIC of the antibiotic were enriched at ratios of the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24 ) to the MIC of 15 and 30 h but not at 60 and 120 h...
October 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663550/fatigue-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-cancer-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Jing Li, Wenxia Sun
We conducted this systematic review to fully investigate the fatigue of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in cancer patients. The approved and clinical used EGFR-TKIs were selected for the present meta-analysis. The relevant studies of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKIs were retrieved and the systematic evaluation was conducted. EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed were searched for articles published till July 2017. Eighteen randomized controlled trials and 14088 patients were included...
October 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
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