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Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786269/circular-rna-biogenesis-is-decreased-in-postmortem-cortical-gray-matter-in-schizophrenia-and-may-alter-the-bioavailability-of-associated-mirna
#1
E Mahmoudi, C Fitzsimmons, M Geaghan, C Shannon Weickert, Jr Atkins, X Wang, M J Cairns
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a covalently closed subclass of lncRNA molecules formed by back splicing of linear precursor RNA. These molecules are relatively stable and particularly abundant in the mammalian brain and therefore may participate in neural development and function. With the emergence of circRNAs activity in gene regulation, these molecules have been implicated in several biological processes, including synaptic plasticity, and we therefore suspect they may have a role in neurobehavioral disorders...
February 20, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30780151/cannabis-use-in-youth-is-associated-with-limited-alterations-in-brain-structure
#2
J Cobb Scott, Adon F G Rosen, Tyler M Moore, David R Roalf, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Monica E Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur
Frequent cannabis use during adolescence has been associated with alterations in brain structure. However, studies have featured relatively inconsistent results, predominantly from small samples, and few studies have examined less frequent users to shed light on potential brain structure differences across levels of cannabis use. In this study, high-resolution T1-weighted MRIs were obtained from 781 youth aged 14-22 years who were studied as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. This sample included 147 cannabis users (109 occasional [≤1-2 times per week] and 38 frequent [≥3 times per week] users) and 634 cannabis non-users...
February 19, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771789/integration-of-gwas-and-brain-eqtl-identifies-flot1-as-a-risk-gene-for-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Jingmei Zhong, Shiwu Li, Wanli Zeng, Xiaoyan Li, Chunjie Gu, Jiewei Liu, Xiong-Jian Luo
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent mental disorder that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple risk variants that show robust association with MDD. Nevertheless, how the identified risk variants confer risk of MDD remains largely unknown. To identify risk variants that are associated with gene expression in human brain and to identify genes whose expression change may contribute to the susceptibility of MDD, we systematically integrated the genetic associations from a large-scale MDD GWAS (N = 480,359) and brain expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data (N = 494) using a Bayesian statistical framework (Sherlock)...
February 16, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771788/integrative-analyses-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-loci-in-the-genome-wide-association-studies-of-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Huijuan Li, Hong Chang, Xueqin Song, Weipeng Liu, Lingyi Li, Lu Wang, Yongfeng Yang, Luwen Zhang, Wenqiang Li, Yan Zhang, Dong-Sheng Zhou, Xingxing Li, Chen Zhang, Yiru Fang, Yan Sun, Jia-Pei Dai, Xiong-Jian Luo, Yong-Gang Yao, Xiao Xiao, Luxian Lv, Ming Li
Recent European genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed strong statistical correlations between MDD and numerous zero-to-high linked variants in the genomic region containing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes (MHC region), but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. To better understand the roles of this genomic region in the neurobiology of MDD, we applied a convergent functional genomics approach to integrate GWAS data of MDD relevant biological phenotypes, gene-expression analyses results obtained from brain samples, and genetic analyses of independent Chinese MDD samples...
February 16, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770891/kainate-receptor-auxiliary-subunit-neto2-is-required-for-normal-fear-expression-and-extinction
#5
Marie Mennesson, Emilie Rydgren, Tatiana Lipina, Ewa Sokolowska, Natalia Kulesskaya, Francesca Morello, Evgueni Ivakine, Vootele Voikar, Victoria Risbrough, Juha Partanen, Iiris Hovatta
NETO1 and NETO2 are auxiliary subunits of kainate receptors (KARs). They interact with native KAR subunits to modulate multiple aspects of receptor function. Variation in KAR genes has been associated with psychiatric disorders in humans, and in mice, knockouts of the Grik1 gene have increased, while Grik2 and Grik4 knockouts have reduced anxiety-like behavior. To determine whether the NETO proteins regulate anxiety and fear through modulation of KARs, we undertook a comprehensive behavioral analysis of adult Neto1-/- and Neto2-/- mice...
February 15, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770890/the-myeloarchitecture-of-impulsivity-premature-responding-in-youth-is-associated-with-decreased-myelination-of-ventral-putamen
#6
Camilla L Nord, Seung-Goo Kim, Mette Buhl Callesen, Timo L Kvamme, Mads Jensen, Mads Uffe Pedersen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Valerie Voon
Impulsivity has been suggested as a neurocognitive endophenotype conferring risk across a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including substance and behavioural addictions, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We used a paradigm with interspecies translation validity (the four-choice serial reaction time task, 4CSRTT) to assess 'waiting' impulsivity in a youth sample (N = 99, aged 16-26 years). We collected magnetization prepared two rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) scans, which enabled us to measure R1, the longitudinal relaxation rate, a parameter closely related to tissue myelin content, as well as quantify grey matter volume...
February 15, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760826/anxiety-the-chicken-or-the-egg-of-addiction-targeting-g9a-for-the-treatment-of-comorbid-anxiety-and-cocaine-addiction
#7
Charlotte C Bavley, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Treating cocaine addiction is a major challenge and currently no FDA approved pharmacotherapies exist. One complicating factor is a high rate of comorbidity between cocaine and neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety. The relationship between anxiety symptoms and cocaine addiction is complicated; anxiety can be both a predisposing factor and a consequence of cocaine use as anxiety symptoms often emerge during drug use and withdrawal. Identifying and understanding the shared biological mechanisms that lead to comorbid anxiety and cocaine addiction, irrespective of which comes first, is critical for the identification of new treatments...
February 13, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759453/prefrontal-amygdala-plasticity-enabled-by-observational-fear
#8
Wataru Ito, Alexei Morozov
Observing fear in others (OF) is a form of social stress. In mice, it enhances inhibitory avoidance learning and causes the formation of silent synapses in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway. Here, we report that OF made that pathway prone to facilitation both ex vivo and in vivo. Ex vivo, OF enabled induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), expressed mostly postsynaptically and occluded by inhibitory avoidance training. In vivo, OF enabled facilitation of the dmPFC-BLA pathway by inhibitory avoidance training...
February 13, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758322/trkb-dependent-disinhibition-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-enhanced-by-ethanol
#9
Mary H Patton, Katherine E Padgett, Paige N McKeon, Houman Qadir, Michael S Patton, Chaoqi Mu, Bradley M Roberts, Brian N Mathur
The nucleus accumbens is a critical integration center for reward-related circuitry and is comprised primarily of medium spiny projection neurons. The dynamic balance of excitation and inhibition onto medium spiny neurons determines the output of this structure. While nucleus accumbens excitatory synaptic plasticity is well-characterized, inhibitory synaptic plasticity mechanisms and their potential relevance to shaping motivated behaviors is poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the mouse nucleus accumbens core...
February 13, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758321/neurobiology-of-maternal-regulation-of-infant-fear-the-role-of-mesolimbic-dopamine-and-its-disruption-by-maltreatment
#10
Maya Opendak, Patrese Robinson-Drummer, Anna Blomkvist, Roseanna M Zanca, Kira Wood, Lily Jacobs, Stephanie Chan, Stephen Tan, Joyce Woo, Gayatri Venkataraman, Emma Kirschner, Johan N Lundström, Donald A Wilson, Peter A Serrano, Regina M Sullivan
Child development research highlights caregiver regulation of infant physiology and behavior as a key feature of early life attachment, although mechanisms for maternal control of infant neural circuits remain elusive. Here we explored the neurobiology of maternal regulation of infant fear using neural network and molecular levels of analysis in a rodent model. Previous research has shown maternal suppression of amygdala-dependent fear learning during a sensitive period. Here we characterize changes in neural networks engaged during maternal regulation and the transition to infant self-regulation...
February 13, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755725/baseline-and-follow-up-activity-and-functional-connectivity-in-reward-neural-circuitries-in-offspring-at-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#11
Heather E Acuff, Amelia Versace, Michele A Bertocci, Cecile D Ladouceur, Lindsay C Hanford, Anna Manelis, Kelly Monk, Lisa Bonar, Alicia McCaffrey, Benjamin I Goldstein, Tina R Goldstein, Dara Sakolsky, David Axelson, Boris Birmaher, Mary L Phillips
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious psychiatric illness with demonstrated abnormalities in reward processing circuitry. Examining this circuitry in youth at familial risk for BD may provide further insight into the underlying mechanisms of BD development. In this study, we compared offspring of bipolar parents (OBP, n = 32), offspring of comparison parents with non-BD psychopathology (OCP, n = 36), and offspring of healthy parents (OHP, n = 39) during a functional magnetic resonance imaging reward processing task...
February 13, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739125/testing-the-10-most-wanted-a-preclinical-algorithm-to-screen-candidate-opioid-use-disorder-medications
#12
REVIEW
Matthew L Banks, E Andrew Townsend, S Stevens Negus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758331/context-and-topography-determine-the-role-of-basolateral-amygdala-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-in-appetitive-pavlovian-responding
#13
Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo, Mandy Rita LeCocq, Ghislaine E Deyab, Nadia Chaudhri
Preclinical data have shown that the excitatory metabotropic Gαq -coupled glutamate receptor, mGluR5, has a role in substance abuse and relapse. However, little is known about the contribution of mGluR5 to the expression of conditioned responding elicited by appetitive Pavlovian cues. We investigated this question in rats that were trained to associate a discrete, auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with a fructose-glucose solution (5.5% fructose/4.5% glucose; "sugar"). In subsequent tests for the expression of conditioned responding without sugar delivery, CS-elicited fluid port entries were elevated in a context associated with sugar, relative to an equally familiar, neutral context...
February 8, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758330/%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-mediate-plasma-acyl-ghrelin-elevation-and-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-chronic-psychosocial-stress
#14
Deepali Gupta, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Bharath K Mani, Kripa Shankar, Juan A Rodriguez, Sherri Osborne-Lawrence, Nathan P Metzger, Jeffrey M Zigman
The ghrelin system is a key component of the mood and metabolic responses to chronic psychosocial stress. For example, circulating acyl-ghrelin rises in several rodent and human stress models, administered acyl-ghrelin induces antidepressant-like behavioral responses in mice, and mice with deleted ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) exhibit exaggerated depressive-like behaviors, changed eating behaviors, and altered metabolism in response to chronic stress. However, the mechanisms mediating stress-induced rises in ghrelin are unknown and ghrelin's antidepressant-like efficacy in the setting of chronic stress is incompletely characterized...
February 8, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733568/alcohol-intake-enhances-glutamatergic-transmission-from-d2-receptor-expressing-afferents-onto-d1-receptor-expressing-medium-spiny-neurons-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum
#15
Jiayi Lu, Yifeng Cheng, Xuehua Wang, Kayla Woodson, Craig Kemper, Emily Disney, Jun Wang
Dopaminergic modulation of corticostriatal transmission is critically involved in reward-driven behaviors. This modulation is mainly mediated by dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) and D2Rs, which are highly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), a brain region essential for goal-directed behaviors and addiction. D1Rs and D2Rs are also present at presynaptic cortical terminals within the DMS. However, it is not known how addictive substances alter the glutamatergic strength of striatal synapses expressing presynaptic dopamine receptors...
February 7, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758329/effects-of-cannabidiol-on-brain-excitation-and-inhibition-systems-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-single-dose-trial-during-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-adults-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Charlotte Marie Pretzsch, Jan Freyberg, Bogdan Voinescu, David Lythgoe, Jamie Horder, Maria Andreina Mendez, Robert Wichers, Laura Ajram, Glynis Ivin, Martin Heasman, Richard A E Edden, Steven Williams, Declan G M Murphy, Eileen Daly, Gráinne M McAlonan
There is increasing interest in the use of cannabis and its major non-intoxicating component cannabidiol (CBD) as a treatment for mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, before launching large-scale clinical trials, better understanding of the effects of CBD on brain would be desirable. Preclinical evidence suggests that one aspect of the polypharmacy of CBD is that it modulates brain excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels, including in brain regions linked to ASD, such as the basal ganglia (BG) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC)...
February 6, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758328/impact-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-medication-status-on-sleep-wake-behavior-and-molecular-circadian-rhythms
#17
A N Coogan, M Schenk, D Palm, A Uzoni, J Grube, A H Tsang, I Kolbe, N M McGowan, R Wandschneider, M Colla, H Oster, J Thome, F Faltraco
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric condition that has been strongly associated with changes in sleep and circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are near 24-h cycles that are primarily generated by an endogenous circadian timekeeping system, encoded at the molecular level by a panel of clock genes. Stimulant and non-stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD has been shown to potentially impact on circadian processes and their behavioral outputs. In the current study, we have analyzed circadian rhythms in daily activity and sleep, and the circadian gene expression in a cohort of healthy controls (N = 22), ADHD participants not using ADHD-medication (N = 17), and participants with ADHD and current use of ADHD medication (N = 17)...
February 6, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758327/reduced-auditory-evoked-gamma-band-response-and-schizophrenia-like-clinical-symptoms-under-subanesthetic-ketamine
#18
Stjepan Curic, Gregor Leicht, Stephanie Thiebes, Christina Andreou, Nenad Polomac, Iris-Carola Eichler, Lars Eichler, Christian Zöllner, Jürgen Gallinat, Saskia Steinmann, Christoph Mulert
Abnormal gamma-band oscillations (GBO) have been frequently associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. GBO are modulated by glutamate, a neurotransmitter, which is continuously discussed to shape the complex symptom spectrum in schizophrenia. The current study examined the effects of ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, on the auditory-evoked gamma-band response (aeGBR) and psychopathological outcomes in healthy volunteers to investigate neuronal mechanisms of psychotic behavior...
February 6, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718705/herbert-d-kleber
#19
Frances R Levin, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Herbert Pardes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737481/early-life-alcohol-exposure-primes-hypothalamic-microglia-to-later-life-hypersensitivity-to-immune-stress-possible-epigenetic-mechanism
#20
Lucy G Chastain, Tina Franklin, Omkaram Gangisetty, Miguel A Cabrera, Sayani Mukherjee, Pallavi Shrivastava, Shaima Jabbar, Dipak K Sarkar
Growing evidence has shown that developmental alcohol exposure induces central nervous system inflammation and microglia activation, which may contribute to long-term health conditions, such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These studies sought to investigate whether neonatal alcohol exposure during postnatal days (PND) 2-6 in rats (third trimester human equivalent) leads to long-term disruption of the neuroimmune response by microglia. Exposure to neonatal alcohol resulted in acute increases in activation and inflammatory gene expression in hypothalamic microglia including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
January 30, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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