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Journal of Internal Medicine

T Sugiyama
In their prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that investigated anti-fracture efficacy of zoledronate in a total of 2000 osteopenic postmenopausal women aged over 65 years, Reid et al. [1, 2] provides crucial evidence that is highly useful for clinical practice; intravenous administration of zoledronate at a dose of 5 mg every 18 months for 6 years reduced fracture risk independently of baseline clinical characteristics including age, dietary calcium intake, and recent falls history...
April 11, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
J A Mossman, A A Pacey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Artur Fedorowski
Not so long time ago, in 1930s, younger and, in particular, female patients presenting with a myriad of such symptoms as palpitations, non-specific chest pain, weakness, insomnia, faintness, dizziness, irritability and flushes were seen as representative of "cardiac neurosis"[1]. The "cardiac neurosis" was believed to be a psychosomatic disorder but the term is largely forgotten by modern cardiology. And there is a good reason for it. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
April 10, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Oscar M P Jolobe
No account of cardiovascular events in patients with pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia(1) would be complete without mention of cardiovascular complications of pneumococcal pneumonia such as pneumococcal pericarditis(2), and pneumococcal endocarditis(3)(4)(5). Also worthy of mention is the coexistence of pneumococcal pericarditis tuberculous pericarditis in the human immune deficiency virus(HIV) infection era(6), and the co-uccurence of endocarditis of presumably pneumococcal origin, and pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pneumococcal meningitis in a patient with coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis, in the era antedating the HIV pandemic...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Mårten Risling, Douglas Smith, Thor D Stein, Eric Peter Thelin, Elisa R Zanier, Maria Ankarcrona, Per Nilsson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by a head impact with a force exceeding regular exposure from normal body movement which the brain normally can accommodate. People affected include, but are not restricted to, sport athletes in American football, ice hockey, boxing as well as military personnel. Both single and repetitive exposures may affect the brain acutely and can lead to chronic neurodegenerative changes including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) associated with the development of dementia...
April 8, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Gunnar C Hansson
This review describes the organization and importance of mucus in the intestine and lungs in relation to the diseases cystic fibrosis, ulcerative colitis and COPD. The inner surfaces of the body are protected by mucus built around polymeric glycoproteins called mucins. In the disease Cystic Fibrosis (CF), the small intestinal mucus is in contrast the normal attached to the epithelium, explaining the intestinal problems at this disease. The inner of the two mucus layers of colon is normally impenetrable to bacteria, keeping the commensals away from and protecting the epithelium...
April 8, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
H Horwitz, K P Dalhoff, J T Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 8, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
M Leggio, C Tiberti, M Armeni, G Limongelli, A Mazza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 8, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Daisuke Kamimura, Masaaki Murakami
The systemic regulation of immune reactions by the nervous system is well studied and depends on the release of hormones. Some regional regulations of immune reactions, on the other hand, depend on specific neural pathways. Better understanding of these regulations will expand therapeutic applications for neuroimmune and organ-to-organ functional interactions. Here we discuss one regional neuroimmune interaction, the gateway reflex, which converts specific neural inputs into local inflammatory outputs in the CNS...
April 7, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Geeti P Arora, Mikael Åkerlund, Charlotte Brøns, Gunn-Helen Moen, Niko S Wasenius, Christine Sommer, Anne K Jenum, Peter Almgren, Richa G Thaman, Marju Orho-Melander, Johan Eriksson, Elisabeth Qvigstad, Kåre Birkeland, Kerstin Berntorp, Allan A Vaag, Leif Groop, Rashmi B Prasad
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a transient form of diabetes characterized by impaired insulin secretion and action during pregnancy. Population-based differences in prevalence exist which could be explained by phenotypic and genetic differences. The aim of this study was to examine these differences in pregnant women from Punjab, India and Scandinavia. METHODS: 85 GDM/T2D loci in European and/or Indian populations from previous studies were assessed for association with GDM based on Swedish GDM criteria in 4018 Punjabi Indian and 507 Swedish pregnant women...
March 27, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Lina Rydén, Anna Zettergren, Nazib M Seidu, Xinxin Guo, Silke Kern, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Simona Sacuiu, Ingmar Skoog
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation increases risk of stroke, and thus risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Emerging evidence suggests an association also in the absence of stroke. We aimed to examine the association between atrial fibrillation and incident dementia, with and without exclusion of individuals with stroke, and if sex and genetic factors modify the possible association. METHODS: In 2000-2001, a population-based sample of 70-year-olds (N=561) underwent comprehensive somatic and neuropsychiatric examinations, as part of the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Johannes Mofors, Elizabeth V Arkema, Albin Björk, Linnea Westermark, Marika Kvarnström, Helena Forsblad-d'Elia, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Per Eriksson, Thomas Mandl, Gunnel Nordmark, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
OBJECTIVE: Environmental factors have been suggested in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. We here investigated whether infections increase the risk of developing primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS: Patients with pSS in Sweden (n=945) and matched controls from the general population (n=9,048) were included, and data extracted from the National Patient Register to identify infections occurring before pSS diagnosis during a mean observational time of 16...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Bonaventura, S Carbone, D L Dixon, A Abbate, F Montecucco
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) present an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) complications. In addition to improvement in glycaemic control, glucose-lowering therapies, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors, have been shown to significantly reduce CV events. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration mandated that all new glucose-lowering drugs undergo CV outcomes trials (CVOTs) to determine their CV safety...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Ian R Reid, Anne M Horne, Borislav Mihov, Angela Stewart, Elizabeth Garratt, Katy R Wiessing, Mark J Bolland, Sonja Bastin, Gregory D Gamble
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that the administration of zoledronate every 18 months to osteopenic older women reduces the incidence of fractures. OBJECTIVE: Here we present a more detailed analysis of that trial to determine whether baseline clinical characteristics impact on the anti-fracture efficacy of this intervention. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in osteopenic postmenopausal women aged ≥65 years, to determine the anti-fracture efficacy of zoledronate...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Niklas Marklund, Bo-Michael Bellander, Alison Godbolt, Harvey Levin, Paul McCrory, Eric Peter Thelin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired disability globally, and effective treatment methods are scarce. Lately, there has been increasing recognition of the devastating impact of TBI resulting from sports and other recreational activities, ranging from primarily sport-related concussions (SRC) but also more severe brain injuries requiring hospitalization. There are currently no established treatments for the underlying pathophysiology in TBI and while neuro-rehabilitation efforts are promising, there are currently is a lack of consensus regarding rehabilitation following TBI of any severity...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Mantovani, A Ponzetta, A Inforzato, S Jaillon
Components of the cellular and the humoral arm of the immune system are essential elements of the tumour microenvironment (TME). The TME includes tumour-associated macrophages which have served as a paradigm for the cancer-promoting inflammation. Cytokines, IL-1 in particular, and complement have emerged as important players in tumour promotion. On the other hand, myeloid cells, innate lymphoid cells and complement have the potential, if unleashed, to mediate anticancer resistance. Targeting checkpoints restraining innate immunity, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells in particular holds promise as a therapeutic strategy...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
S A Urwyler, C A Blum, M Coslovsky, B Mueller, P Schuetz, M Christ-Crain
BACKGROUND: A previous study found community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with imbalance of high inflammation and discordantly low cortisol levels to benefit most from adjunctive corticosteroid treatment. Our aim was to validate this hypothesis in a preplanned secondary analysis of the randomized controlled STEP trial. METHODS: Patients included in the STEP trial receiving 50 mg prednisone or placebo for 5 days were categorized based on pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-6/8/MCP-1), CRP and cortisol levels on admission into four groups (high/low inflammation and high/low cortisol)...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
T Hendrikx, B Schnabl
Alterations in the bacteria that reside in our gastrointestinal tract play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of many disorders including liver and gastrointestinal diseases. Both qualitative (composition) and quantitative (amount) changes in gut microbes are associated with increased susceptibility to liver disease. Importantly, the intestinal microbiota is involved in the regulation of many host signalling pathways via the generation of different metabolites. Hence, dysbiosis influences disease development and progression by directly affecting the host-bacteria metabolic interaction...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Magnus Tobiasson, Astrid Olsnes Kittang
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is rapidly changing the clinical care of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). NGS can be used for various applications: (i) in the diagnostic process to discriminate between MDS and other diseases such as aplastic anaemia, myeloproliferative disorders and idiopathic cytopenias; (ii) for classification, for example where the presence of SF3B1 mutation is one criterion for the ring sideroblast anaemia subgroups in the World Health Organization 2016 classification; (iii) for identification of patients suitable for targeted therapy (e...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Qu Tian, Susan M Resnick, Christos Davatzikos, Guray Erus, Eleanor M Simonsick, Stephanie A Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci
BACKGROUND: The parallel decline of mobility and cognition with aging is explained in part by shared brain structural changes that are related to fitness. However, the temporal sequence between fitness, brain structural changes, and mobility loss has not been fully evaluated. METHODS: Participants were from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, aged 60 or older, initially free of cognitive and mobility impairments, with repeated measures of fitness(400m time), mobility(6m gait speed), and neuroimaging markers over 4 years(n=332)...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
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