Utkarsh Bhardwaj, Sunit K Singh
Zika virus infection has been reported to cause microcephaly in newborns. ZIKV exploits various strategies to cross the blood-brain barrier. ZIKV NS1 may compromise the barrier integrity of endothelial cells by regulating expression of junctional proteins. MicroRNAs play an important role in post-transcriptional gene regulations. We demonstrated that ZIKV-NS1 affected the adherence junction protein in human brain microvascular endothelial cells via hsa-miR-29b-3p/DNMT3b/MMP-9 pathway. The hCMEC/D3 cells were exposed to ZIKV-NS1 with different doses (500 ng/mL and 1000 ng/mL) for 24 h...
March 20, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Liqun Chen, Wei Fang, Weizhi Chen, Yiliu Wei, Jinwang Ding, Jiafeng Li, Jun Lin, Qiaoyi Wu
Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are thought to be responsible for the initiation and progression of glioblastoma (GBM). GBM presents highly invasive growth with a very high recurrence rate, so it has become a clinical problem to be solved urgently. RNAseq demonstrates that thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) acts not only in the angiogenic core of glioma but also with a high degree of invasiveness and infiltration. Nevertheless, defects in the signaling pathway research lead to a poor prognosis in glioma patients. To investigate the relevant molecular mechanism and signal pathway of glioma stem cell behavior mediated by THBS1, U251 astroglioma cells and GSCs were taken as model cells for in vitro experiments...
March 17, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Jianmin Liu, Daoquan Liu, Junchao Zhang, Weixiang He, Yuhang Guo, Yan Li, Ping Chen, Michael E DiSanto, Xinhua Zhang
Prostate volume (PV) differs dramatically among benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Estimation of PV is important to guide the most appropriate pharmacologic or interventional treatment approach. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for the differences in PV remain unknown. We recently found that the myosin II system might participate in the etiology and development of BPH via static and dynamic factors. Our present study aims to explore the expression and functional activities of myosin II isoforms including smooth muscle (SM) myosin II (SMM II) and non-muscle myosin II (NMM II) in hyperplastic prostates with varied PV...
March 17, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Yuxiu Liu, Jianing Zhu, Lin Ding
Keratoconjunctivitis is the most common complication of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). It has always been a hot research topic due to its complex pathogenesis. A further understanding of keratoconjunctiva xerosis can be obtained by studying the primary diseases. 7-Methylguanine (m7G), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C), and N1-methyladenosine (m1A) are newly discovered epigenetic mechanisms involved in the development of SS. This study aimed to investigate the effects of m7G, m6A, m5C, and m1A modifications on the immune microenvironment of SS...
March 17, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Fabiola González-Herrera, Renatto Anfossi, Mabel Catalán, Renata Gutiérrez-Figueroa, Juan Diego Maya, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Raúl Vivar
Cardiac cells respond to various pathophysiological stimuli, synthesizing inflammatory molecules that allow tissue repair and proper functioning of the heart; however, perpetuation of the inflammatory response can lead to cardiac fibrosis and heart dysfunction. High concentration of glucose (HG) induces an inflammatory and fibrotic response in the heart. Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) are resident cells of the heart that respond to deleterious stimuli, increasing the synthesis and secretion of both fibrotic and proinflammatory molecules...
March 16, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Yifan Wang, Yuehong Wang, Zhiguo Zou, Ancai Yuan, Zemeng Xiao, Na Geng, ZhiQing Qiao, Wenli Li, Xiaoying Ying, Xiyuan Lu, Jun Pu
Ferroptosis is a major cause of cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin (DOX). Previous studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) inhibits ferroptosis in cardiomyocytes and myoblasts, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of H2 S in protecting against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro, and elucidated the potential mechanisms involved. We found that DOX downregulated the expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and NFS1, and upregulated the expression of acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) expression level, resulting in increased lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis...
March 14, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Shahnaz Babaei-Abraki, Fereshteh Karamali, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the capacity of self-renewal as well as differentiation towards three germ layer derivatives which makes them as a source of therapeutic application. hESCs are tremendously prone to cell death after dissociation into single cells. Therefore, it technically hinders their applications. Our recent study has revealed that hESCs can be prone to ferroptosis which differs from those in earlier explorations reporting that cellular detachment results in a process cited as anoikis...
March 9, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Xin Yu, Binkui Yang, Bin Chen, Qi Wu, Zhengrong Ren, Dongsheng Wang, Tao Yuan, Hao Ding, Chao Ding, Yang Liu, Lei Zhang, Zhongyang Sun, Jianning Zhao
Wear particle-induced osteoclast over-activation is a major contributor to periprosthetic osteolysis and aseptic loosening, which can cause pathological bone loss and destruction. Hence, inhibiting excessive osteoclast-resorbing activity is an important strategy for preventing periprosthetic osteolysis. Formononetin (FMN) has been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis, but no previous study has evaluated the effects of FMN on wear particle-induced osteolysis. In this study, we found that FMN alleviated CoCrMo alloy particles (CoPs)-induced bone loss in vivo and inhibited the formation and bone-resorptive function of osteoclasts in vitro...
March 7, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Jun Chen, Fuqiang Liu, Jiao Wu, Yichun Yang, Jin He, Fan Wu, Kun Yang, Junfeng Li, Zhongxiang Jiang, Zheng Jiang
Pancreatic cancer, as a malignant tumor with a very poor prognosis, has a high mortality. It is imperative to clarify the mechanism of pancreatic cancer development and find suitable targets for diagnosis and treatment. Serine/threonine kinase 3 (STK3) is one of the core kinases of the Hippo pathway and has the ability to inhibit tumor growth. But the biological function of STK3 in pancreatic cancer remains unknown. Here, we confirmed that STK3 has an impact on the growth, apoptosis, and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells and investigated the related molecular mechanisms...
March 3, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Bartosz Szymczak, Joanna Czarnecka, Sylwia Czach, Wiesław Nowak, Katarzyna Roszek
The purinergic signaling pathway is the oldest evolutionary transmitter system that regulates a wide array of physiological and pathophysiological processes in central nervous system. However, the question of how the purinergic compounds interact with administrated drugs is rarely addressed. We aimed to clarify the interplay between purinergic signaling and chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide (TMZ) in human glioma cell line. We applied an initial retinoic acid-induced differentiation of A172 glioma cells and tested the P2X7 receptor expression in undifferentiated and differentiated gliomas...
February 27, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Qianqian Wang, Chao Huang, Deqiang Wang, Zhixin Tao, Hao Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Mei Wang, Chenglin Zhou, Juan Xu, Bo Shen, Wei Zhu
Chemotherapy resistance in advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients has largely limited the effectiveness of therapy, resulting in disease recurrence and poor prognosis. Gastric cancer derived mesenchymal stem cells (GCMSC) are widely believed to promote GC invasion, metastasis and immune escape via up-regulating programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). However, the mechanism by which PD-L1 mediated by GCMSC might regulate the chemoresistance is unknown in GC. Herein, higher half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) and less apoptotic rate were observed in GCMSC conditioned medium (GCMSC-CM) treated GC cells exposed to cisplatin (DDP), along with high expression of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) and DNA repair related genes such as Rad51...
February 24, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Hazik Asif, Scott D Barnett, Dylan Saxon, Hazar Younis, Iain L O Buxton
Preterm labor, delivery prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. β3 adrenergic receptor protein expression is increased in the myometrium during pregnancy, and the agonist, mirabegron, relaxes the myometrium making the β3 adrenergic receptor a potential therapeutic target in PTL. β3 adrenergic receptor has been shown to activate the tyrosine kinase, Src, which can down regulate connexin 43, a contractile associated protein which promotes the formation of gap junctions that create an electrical syncytium...
February 23, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Alexandra Kollara, Brian D Burt, Maurice J Ringuette, Theodore J Brown
Upregulation of ERBB2 and activating mutations in downstream KRAS/BRAF and PIK3CA are found in several ovarian cancer histotypes. ERBB2 enhances signaling by the ERBB family of EGF receptors, and contains docking positions for proteins that transduce signaling through multiple pathways. We identified the adaptor protein ventricular zone-expressed pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein 1 (VEPH1) as a potential interacting partner of ERBB2 in a screen of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with VEPH1. In this study, we confirm a VEPH1 - ERBB2 interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and biotin proximity labelling and show that VEPH1 interacts with the juxtamembrane-kinase domain of ERBB2...
February 22, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Anil Kumar Mavi, Sonal Gaur, Gauri Gaur, Babita, Neelesh Kumar, Umesh Kumar
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy is a game changer in cancer treatment. Although CAR-T cell therapy has achieved significant clinical responses in specific subgroups of B cell leukaemia or lymphoma, various difficulties restrict CAR-T cell therapy's therapeutic effectiveness in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. Severe life-threatening toxicities, poor anti-tumour effectiveness, antigen escape, restricted trafficking, and limited tumour penetration are all barriers to successful CAR-T cell treatment...
February 21, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Ya Wu, Yu Jiang, Jia-Qi Guo, Zi-Wei Yang, Abdlay Carvalho, Ling-Lin Qian, Jing-Jing Ji, Zhen-Jun Ji, Gen-Shan Ma, Yu-Yu Yao
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue remodeling is a dynamic process that is pathologically expedited in the obese state and is closely related to obesity-associated disease progression. This study aimed to explore the effects of human kallistatin (HKS) on adipose tissue remodeling and obesity-related metabolic disorders in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Adenovirus-mediated HKS cDNA (Ad.HKS) and a blank adenovirus (Ad.Null) were constructed and injected into the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) of 8-weeks-old male C57B/L mice...
February 20, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Lei Ren, Qiang Ren, Jianmei Wang, Yongqiang He, Hong Deng, Xing Wang, Chunfeng Liu
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (GC), however, the underlying mechanisms of PM occurrence remain unclear. METHOD: The roles of DDR2 were investigated in GC and its potential relationship to PM, and orthotopic implants into nude mice were performed to assess the biological effects of DDR2 on PM. RESULTS: Herein, DDR2 level is more significantly observed to elevate in PM lesion than the primary lesion...
February 20, 2023: Cellular Signalling
S Prabhu, Nanthakumar Nagarajan, Sagayamercy Mariaraj, Ravikumar Vilwanathan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sirtuin proteins (1-7) are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases and ADP-ribosyl transferases (class III histone deacetylase enzymes (HDAC)) mainly involved in the removal of the acetyl group from histone proteins. SIRT6, one of the sirtuins, plays a major role in cancer progression in many types of cancer conditions. We recently reported that SIRT6 acts as an oncogene in NSCLC; thus, silencing of SIRT6 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines...
February 20, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Lihong He, Jiaxin Guo, Zhaona Fan, Shiwen Yang, Chi Zhang, Bin Cheng, Juan Xia
OBJECTIVES: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are vital constituents of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and play a predominant role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression. We aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of exosomal miR-146b-5p derived from CAFs on the malignant biological behavior of OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Illumina small RNA (sRNA) sequencing was conducted to determine the differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes derived from CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs)...
February 20, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Elizabeth M Connelly, Karling S Frankel, Gary S Shaw
Aging, toxic chemicals and changes to the cellular environment are sources of oxidative damage to mitochondria which contribute to neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson's disease. To counteract this, cells have developed signalling mechanisms to identify and remove select proteins and unhealthy mitochondria to maintain homeostasis. Two important proteins that work in concert to control mitochondrial damage are the protein kinase PINK1 and the E3 ligase parkin. In response to oxidative stress, PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin present on proteins at the mitochondrial surface...
February 17, 2023: Cellular Signalling
Xiao-Juan Zhan, Rui Wang, Xiong-Ri Kuang, Jue-Yu Zhou, Xiao-Lei Hu
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignancies occurring in women worldwide, and its incidence is increasing each year. Accumulating evidence indicated that Myosin VI (MYO6) functions as a gene associated with tumor progression in several cancers. However, the potential role of MYO6 and its underlying mechanisms in the development and progression of BC remains unknown. Herein, we examined the expression levels of MYO6 in BC cells and tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Loss- and gain-of-function investigations in vitro were performed to determine the biological functions of MYO6...
February 17, 2023: Cellular Signalling
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