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Kristen Deschamps, Keith Owen Yeates, Taryn B Fay-McClymont, Marinka Twilt, Robyn Westmacott, Anastasia Dropol, Brian L Brooks, Adam Kirton, Peter Gowdie, Shehla Sheikh, Susanne M Benseler
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical cognitive phenotypes and severity of cognitive burden according to disease subtype in children with primary central nervous system vasculitis (cPACNS). METHOD: This retrospective multicenter inflammatory brain disease database study examined the neuropsychological outcomes of 80 children (44 male; mean age = 7.89 years, SD = 4.17) consecutively diagnosed with primary CNS vasculitis between 1992 and 2016. Twenty-one children had small-vessel disease (AN_cPACNS), and 59 had large-vessel disease (including 49 nonprogressive [APNP_cPACNS] and 10 progressive [APP_cPACNS])...
February 14, 2019: Neuropsychology
Antonella Di Vita, Liana Palermo, Maddalena Boccia, Cecilia Guariglia
OBJECTIVE: It has been repeatedly hypothesized that at least 3 distinct types of body representations do exist: body schema , a representation derived from multiple sensory and motor inputs; topological map of the body , a structural description of spatial relations among the body parts; and body semantics , a lexical-semantic representation. Although several studies have assessed neural correlates of the topological map of the body in healthy participants, a systematic investigation of neural underpinnings of the topological map of the body in brain-damaged patients is still lacking...
February 7, 2019: Neuropsychology
Emilie T Reas, Gail A Laughlin, Jaclyn Bergstrom, Donna Kritz-Silverstein, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Linda K McEvoy
OBJECTIVE: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is an established risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease, with elevated risk for ε4-carriers and reduced risk for ε2-carriers. However, it is unclear whether APOE modifies risk for cognitive decline in normal aging. The objective of this study was to determine whether ε2 and ε4 are associated with rates of normal cognitive aging, and whether associations of ε4 with cognitive decline are modified by sex, education or health behaviors (exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking)...
February 7, 2019: Neuropsychology
Gabriella Santangelo, Manuela Altieri, Christian Enzinger, Antonio Gallo, Luigi Trojano
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction is frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS), and its relationship with cognitive reserve (CR) has been investigated in several studies with conflicting results. In this meta-analysis, we here sought to determine the relationship between CR and cognition in MS patients and to ascertain whether demographic or clinical variables could moderate the above-mentioned relationship. METHOD: We searched three electronic databases for studies assessing the relationship between CR and performance in 6 cognitive domains or processes (verbal and spatial memory, attention, processing speed, verbal fluency, inhibitory control)...
January 31, 2019: Neuropsychology
Kamber L Hart, Hannah E Brown, Joshua L Roffman, Roy H Perlis
OBJECTIVE: Change in risk tolerance is a feature of multiple psychiatric disorders and may contribute to adverse outcomes. We used a probability discounting (PD) task to measure risk-taking behavior among individuals with bipolar disorder (BPAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), schizoaffective disorder (SCAD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). METHOD: A PD task was administered to 117 patients and 88 healthy controls (HCs), along with a cognitive battery using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, and relevant symptomatology scales...
January 28, 2019: Neuropsychology
Connor H G Patros, Stephanie J Tarle, R Matt Alderson, Sarah E Lea, Elaine F Arrington
OBJECTIVE: Deficient planning is commonly observed among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with several adverse outcomes. The current meta-analysis expands on previous reviews by examining performance and latency metrics across five tower planning task variants, in addition to applying metaregression techniques to examine potential moderating effects. METHOD: Forty-one studies (NADHD = 2,051; NTD = 2,766) provided sufficient information to calculate between-group effect sizes and were included in the current study...
January 28, 2019: Neuropsychology
Agnieszka Pluta, Tomasz Wolak, Marta Sobańska, Natalia Gawron, Anna R Egbert, Bogna Szymańska, Andrzej Horban, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Anna Ścińska-Bieńkowska, Adela Desowska, Mateusz Rusiniak, Bharat B Biswal, Stephen Rao, Robert Bornstein, Henryk Skarżyński, Emilia Łojek
OBJECTIVE: Findings on the influence of age and HIV on brain and cognition remain equivocal, particularly in aviremic subjects without other age or HIV-related comorbidities. We aimed to (a) examine the effect of HIV status and age on structural brain measurements and cognition, and (b) apply the machine learning technique to identify brain morphometric and cognitive features that are most discriminative between aviremic subjects with HIV on stable combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and healthy controls...
January 28, 2019: Neuropsychology
Benedetta Basagni, Antonino Errante, Chiara Pinardi, Katia De Gaetano, Girolamo Crisi, Antonio De Tanti, Leonardo Fogassi
OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of visuospatial neglect occur frequently after unilateral brain damage. Neglect hampers general rehabilitation progress and is associated with reduced quality of life. Some of the rehabilitation programs developed to treat neglect have demonstrated behavioral improvements. However, only a few of them have addressed specifically the anatomo-functional correlates associated behavioral improvement. METHOD: Here we describe the case of a patient (GV) with a severe left neglect disorder as a consequence of a right hemisphere stroke...
January 28, 2019: Neuropsychology
Susan A Rose, Sam Wass, Jeffery J Jankowski, Judith F Feldman, Aleksandra Djukic
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to deepen our understanding of attention (a core cognitive ability) in Rett syndrome (RTT), an x-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. We focused on 2 key aspects of visual orienting-shifting and disengaging attention-both of which are critical for exploring the visual world. We used gaze-based measures and eye-tracking technology to minimize demands on the limited verbal and motor abilities associated with RTT...
January 28, 2019: Neuropsychology
Danfeng Li, Tongran Liu, Jiannong Shi
OBJECTIVE: This study explored behavioral and electrophysiological age-related changes in conflict adaptation to emotional stimuli among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHOD: Children (N = 35, Mage = 10.72 years), adolescents (N = 35, Mage = 13.34 years), and young adults (N = 30, Mage = 21.82 years) were administered cognitive control tasks on emotional stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict and stimulus-response (S-R) conflict while event-related potential (ERP) signals were recorded...
January 21, 2019: Neuropsychology
Christina M Young, Renee C Folsom, Lynn K Paul, Judy Su, Ryan W Mangum, Warren S Brown
OBJECTIVE: Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) in individuals with general intelligence within the normal range results in a syndrome of mild to moderate deficiencies in cognitive, emotional, and social functioning that are still being explored. Anecdotal accounts from families suggest that these cognitive and psychosocial deficiencies affect the ability of these individuals to anticipate the consequences of their decisions and behaviors. This research was designed to clarify the nature of social and emotional cognition in AgCC with respect to imagination of the consequences of decisions by assessing responses from the Awareness of Consequences Scale (AOCS)...
January 21, 2019: Neuropsychology
Diego Rivera, Laiene Olabarrieta-Landa, Wim Van der Elst, Isabel Gonzalez, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Adriana Aguayo Arelis, Walter Rodriguez-Irizarry, Claudia García de la Cadena, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the verbal fluency tests (VFT-letter M, fruits, and occupations categories) in Spanish-speaking adult populations, with country-specific adjustments for age, education, and sex when appropriate. METHOD: The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults from 11 countries in Latin America (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico; sample size per country ranged between n = 184 and n = 1,300)...
January 21, 2019: Neuropsychology
Marc Baertschi, João Flores Alves Dos Santos, Pierre Burkhard, Kerstin Weber, Alessandra Canuto, Nicolas Favez
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a well-established treatment that significantly improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients may nevertheless experience psychosocial maladjustment after surgery, as reported by an increasing body of research. Yet, no comprehensive theoretical approach has been proposed to account for this. Initially conceptualized for postsurgical epilepsy, the burden of normality (BoN) may be viewed as a model that is potentially applicable to psychosocial maladjustment after PD-DBS...
January 21, 2019: Neuropsychology
G Nathzidy Rivera-Urbina, María Fernanda Mendez Joya, Michael A Nitsche, Andrés Molero-Chamizo
BACKGROUND: Wernicke's area is a key component of the cortical language network, and it is functionally related to the comprehension of oral and written language. In addition to its main role in the perception of language, some other functions related to verbal learning also seem to involve the activity of this cortical region. It is unknown whether different degrees of neuromodulation on this area determine its effect on word learning. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the influence of the application of anodal transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) over Wernicke's area at two different intensities on word learning...
January 21, 2019: Neuropsychology
Rebecca M Foerster, Christian H Poth, Christian Behler, Mario Botsch, Werner X Schneider
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological patients often suffer from impairments in visual selective attention and processing capacity components. Their assessment demands a high standardization of testing conditions, which is difficult to achieve across institutions. Head-mounted displays (HMDs) provide a solution. These virtual reality devices cover the entire visual field in a shielded way and thus keep visual stimulation constant. For neuropsychological assessment with HMDs, sufficient reliability is required...
January 17, 2019: Neuropsychology
Barbara Treccani, Roberto Cubelli
OBJECTIVE: The Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test is one of the most used tasks for the assessment of visuospatial perception. However, JLO items show a left-right structural asymmetry that interacts with the ipsilesional attentional biases of brain-damaged patients, that is, the main target population for which the test is intended, and undermines the test's validity. Left hemisphere-damaged patients are favored by the way the stimulus lines are distributed in the original items, whereas right hemisphere-damaged patients are favored by the opposite distribution, obtained by mirror reversing the items (Treccani, Torri, & Cubelli, 2005)...
December 27, 2018: Neuropsychology
Bradley W Reynolds, Michael R Basso, Ashley K Miller, Douglas M Whiteside, Dennis Combs
OBJECTIVE: Among patients with brain damage, executive function deficits and impulsivity correspond with propensity to engage in risky behaviors. Less research has addressed this issue in healthy adults, and fewer still have simultaneously evaluated the importance of executive function and impulsive personality. Additionally, most research has focused exclusively on substance use while ignoring other domains of risky behavior such as sexual activity and antisocial practices. Toward this end, we examined the association of risky behaviors with executive function and self-reported impulsivity...
December 20, 2018: Neuropsychology
Jet M J Vonk, Roxanna J Flores, Dayanara Rosado, Carolyn Qian, Raquel Cabo, Josina Habegger, Karmen Louie, Elizabeth Allocco, Adam M Brickman, Jennifer J Manly
OBJECTIVE: Accurate identification of the earliest cognitive changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critically needed. Item-level information within tests of category fluency, such as lexical frequency, harbors valuable information about the integrity of semantic networks affected early in AD. To determine the potential of lexical frequency as a cognitive marker of AD risk, we investigated whether lexical frequency of animal fluency output differentiated APOE ε4 carriers from noncarriers in a cross-sectional design among older African-American adults without dementia...
November 29, 2018: Neuropsychology
Chun-Hao Wang, David Moreau, Cheng-Ta Yang, Jui-Tang Lin, Yun-Yen Tsai, Chia-Liang Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Extensive evidence has demonstrated the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive function in early adulthood. Little is known, however, about whether the cognitive benefits of aerobic fitness are related to the modulation of top-down or bottom-up mechanisms in the control of executive attention. The present study aimed to shed light on this question by evaluating the phase-locking factor (PLF) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during cognitive control. METHOD: Higher fit and lower fit young adults performed a neuropsychological test of cognitive control (i...
November 29, 2018: Neuropsychology
Wouter De Baene, Sophie J M Rijnen, Karin Gehring, Ikram Meskal, Geert-Jan M Rutten, Margriet M Sitskoorn
OBJECTIVE: The majority of meningioma patients suffer from presurgical cognitive deficits. Since meningiomas do not directly damage the brain, this is presumably caused by a functional integrity reduction of the surrounding brain tissue through perilesional edema and/or mass effect of the tumor. Tumor location is a key feature in determining neurological symptoms in brain tumor patients, but the relationship between meningioma location and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study aimed to identify brain areas where the presence of a meningioma forms a potential risk factor for worse cognitive performance as compared to meningiomas at other locations...
November 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
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