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Somatosensory & Motor Research

Akiyoshi Matsugi
PURPOSE: The contribution of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic inhibitory neural circuits in the primary motor cortex, as estimated by the cortical silent period, during weak and strong force output has not been defined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cortical silent period is modulated with change from weak to strong force control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven healthy right-handed adults participated in this study. With the aid of visual feedback, participants were asked to control the force of abduction of the right index finger to 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the maximum voluntary contraction...
January 17, 2019: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Nivan Weerakkody, Marcos De Noronha, Peter Wiseman, Peter Sleeth, Lakshmi Jayalath
This study sought to examine the test-retest reliability to measure sense of muscular effort with electromyography (EMG). The EMG activity of the tibialis anterior muscle from 23 participants was recorded. Targets of EMG amplitudes produced at 10 and 20% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were calculated. Participants matched the target EMG level with and without visual feedback (FB). With NFB, the reliability was good to excellent when errors were represented as the average standard deviation (SD) of the error from the target (ICC1,2 = 0...
January 17, 2019: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Tsubasa Kawasaki, Ryosuke Tozawa, Hidefumi Aramaki
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate a more available model for the early phase of motor learning after action observation combined with motor imagery training in elderly people. To address the purpose, we focused on a slow, unskilled model demonstrating an occasional error. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 elderly people participated in the current study and were assigned to either the unskilled or skilled model observation groups (n = 12, respectively), or the control group (n = 12)...
December 28, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hafiz Khuram Raza, Hao Chen, Thitsavanh Chansysouphanthong, Guiyun Cui
Oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) is an important and common clinical diagnosis. Its main features are diplopia and ptosis. Its aetiologies are various and complex. A number of different conditions have been reported to cause ONP, such as diabetes mellitus, aneurysm, tumours, painful ophthalmoplegia, pituitary lesions, cavernous sinus lesions, central nervous system infections, and subarachnoid haemorrhage. A patients needs to undergo several tests in order to establish the correct underlying pathology. In this review, we have summarized the aetiologies of the unilateral ONP, and discussed their relative clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment options, and prognosis...
December 28, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Keller Ricardo Ferreira Sobrinho, Ana Carolina Monteiro Santini, Carlos Leonardo Sacomani Marques, Maicon Gonçalves Gabriel, Eduardo de Moura Neto, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci Sande de Souza, Rodrigo Bazan, Gustavo José Luvizutto
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is the prevalent feature in patients with right-sided stroke. It is diagnosed through the behavior inattention test (BIT) and has a negative impact on patients affecting both their functional capacity and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Here, we aimed to evaluate the impact of USN on the quality of life of patients in the chronic phase of stroke. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with stroke patients with USN...
December 28, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
İlker Şengül, Ayhan Aşkin, Korhan Bayram, Aliye Tosun
Purpose/Aim: There have been conflicting results regarding which muscle contribute most to the elbow spastic flexion deformity. This study aimed to investigate whether flexor spasticity of the elbow changed according to the position of the forearm, and to determine the muscle or muscles that contributed most to the elbow spastic flexion deformity by clinical examination. METHODS: This study is a single group, observational and cross-sectional study. Sixty patients were assessed for elbow flexor spasticity in different forearm positions (pronation, neutral and supination) with Modified Tardieu Scale...
December 28, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Selen Serel Arslan, Numan Demir, Özgü İnal, Aynur A Karaduman
PURPOSE: The frequency of chewing disorders increases with decreasing level of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Besides its frequency, the severity of chewing disorders is also important. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between chewing performance level and gross motor function, and trunk postural control in children with CP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 119 children with CP (age 2-10 years). Chewing performance level was determined by the Karaduman Chewing Performance Scale (KCPS)...
December 28, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Ferran Cuenca-Martínez, Isabel Bartrina-Rodríguez, Luis Suso-Martí, Roy La Touche, Raúl Ferrer-Peña
Cervicogenic dizziness is a musculoskeletal disorder mainly characterized by dizziness associated with neck pain. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatosensory, motor and psychological variables by levels of disability due to dizziness in patients with cervicogenic dizziness. A total of 64 patients were classified into two groups according to the presence of higher and lower levels of disability due to dizziness. The degree of disability due to dizziness, the magnitude of chronic pain, catastrophizing and kinesiophobia were evaluated by self-reports...
December 28, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Junsuk Kim, Isabelle Bülthoff, Heinrich H Bülthoff
The neural substrates of tactile roughness perception have been investigated by many neuroimaging studies, while relatively little effort has been devoted to the investigation of neural representations of visually perceived roughness. In this human fMRI study, we looked for neural activity patterns that could be attributed to five different roughness intensity levels when the stimuli were perceived visually, i.e., in absence of any tactile sensation. During functional image acquisition, participants viewed video clips displaying a right index fingertip actively exploring the sandpapers that had been used for the behavioural experiment...
December 28, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Anastasia Kyvelidou, Nick Stergiou
There are a limited number of studies that have investigated sitting posture during infancy and the contribution of the sensory systems. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of altered visual and somatosensory signals on infant sitting postural control. Thirteen infants (mean age ± SD, 259.69 ± 16.88 days) participated in the study. Initially, a single physical therapist performed the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale to determine typical motor development. Then the child was placed onto a force platform under four randomized conditions: (a) Control (C) - sat independently on the force plate, (b) Somatosensory (SS) - Sat independently on a foam pad (low density), (c) Visual (VS) - sat independently on the force plate while the lights were turned off creating dim lighting, and (d) Combination of b and c (NVSS)...
December 28, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Yoshibumi Bunno
PURPOSE: Motor imagery, the process of imagining a physical action, has been shown to facilitate the excitability of spinal anterior horn cells. In the acute phase after a stroke, the excitability of spinal anterior horn cells is significantly reduced, which leads to motor deficits. This loss of movement can be prevented by increasing the excitability of spinal anterior horn cells immediately following an injury. Motor imagery is an effective method for facilitating the excitability of spinal anterior horn cells in patients with impaired movement; however, the optimal duration for motor imagery is unclear...
November 21, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Stefanie F Bunk, Stefan Lautenbacher, Jascha Rüsseler, Karin Müller, Jana Schultz, Miriam Kunz
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have tried to investigate pain by studying brain responses. One method used to investigate pain-related brain responses is continuous electroencephalography (EEG). The objective of the current study is to add on to our understanding of EEG responses during pain, by differentiation between EEG patterns indicative of (i) the noxious stimulus intensity and (ii) the subjective pain sensation. METHODS: EEG was recorded during the administration of tonic experimental pain, consisting of six minutes of contact heat applied to the leg via a thermode...
November 21, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
T D Dissanayaka, M Farrell, M Zoghi, G F Egan, S Jaberzadeh
BACKGROUND: Supra-threshold scaling of multiple pressure-pain sensations involves delivery of varied stimulus intensities, either via stimulus-dependent or response-dependent manner, and recording of subjective pain ratings by participants. The focus of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-session reliability of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness ratings related to pressure-pain thresholds (PPTs) of just noticeable pain (JNP), weak pain (WP) and moderate pain (MP) among healthy individuals...
October 9, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Maria Moreira, João Abrantes, Aurélio Faria
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the foot contact time differences between obese and non-obese subjects during walking when crossing obstacles. METHODS: Ninety-eight postmenopausal women were assigned to four groups, and their plantar pressure temporal data were collected using a two-step protocol during walking when crossing an obstacle set at 30% height of lower limb length of each subject. The initial, final, and duration of contact of 10 foot areas were measured...
October 9, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Roy La Touche, Alberto Pérez-González, Luis Suso-Martí, Alba Paris-Alemany, Ferran Cuenca-Martínez
The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the sympathetic-excitatory nervous system in patients with chronic neck pain compared with a control group of asymptomatic subjects who underwent an intervention of watching activities involving movements in the neck region. Thirty participants were divided into two groups: patients with chronic neck pain (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The patients' neck disability, fear of movement and catastrophism were assessed with a self-report...
October 9, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Augusta Silva, Julie Vaughan-Graham, Claudia Silva, Andreia Sousa, Christine Cunha, Rosália Ferreira, Pedro Maciel Barbosa
A cerebrovascular accident, otherwise known as stroke, has the potential to damage multiple areas within the brain affecting descending motor control via a multitude of pathways resulting in a wide variety of movement problems. The cortico-reticulospinal system, one of the largest motor systems, is frequently affected, compromising its output, resulting in postural control deficits. The identification of clinically relevant instruments and scales to document and evaluate recovery in post-stroke patients is vital...
June 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hye-Kyoung Kim, Mee-Eun Kim
Purpose/Aim: To gain a better understanding of the psychophysics of thermal pain perception in a clinical setting, this study investigated whether thermal thresholds of unpleasantness are different from pain thresholds of cold and heat stimuli. Of particular interest was the relationship between unpleasantness and pain thresholds for cold vs heat stimuli. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty healthy male volunteers (mean age 26.1 years, range 23 to 32 years) participated. Thermal detection, cold pain (CPT) and heat pain (HPT) thresholds were measured at 5 trigeminal sites by the method of limits using quantitative sensory testing (QST), followed by cold unpleasant (CUT) and heat unpleasant (HUT) thresholds...
June 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hao Chen, Hengyu Li, Yuncheng Li, Jia Jing, Hafiz Khuram Raza, Zuohui Zhang, Liguo Dong, Xinchun Ye, Fang Hua, Guiyun Cui
PURPOSE: To report five cases of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) with brain involvement and explore its clinical and imaging characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on the clinical data and brain MRI of five patients with subacute combined degeneration with brain involvement (out of 107 cases with SCD in total). White matter lesions (WML) assessment was performed qualitatively using Fazekas scale score. RESULTS: The main symptoms in four patients were weakness in both lower extremities and unstable walking (limb weakness in three patients, dizziness in three patients, and blurred vision in one patient)...
June 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Narjes Soltani, Ali Roohbakhsh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Elham Salari, Vahid Sheibani, Iman Fatemi, Ali Shamsizadeh
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most studied neuropeptides in the brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of CCK-8s and LY225910 (CCK2 receptor antagonist) on properties of neuronal response to natural stimuli (whisker deflection) in deep layers of rat barrel cortex. This study was done on 20 male Wistar rats, weighing 230-260 g. CCK-8s (300 nmol/rat) and LY225910 (1 µmol/rat) were administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV). Neuronal responses to deflection of principal (PW) and adjacent (AW) whiskers were recorded in the barrel cortex using tungsten microelectrodes...
June 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Cláudia F Silva, Soraia Pereira, Cláudia C Silva, Sílvia Ferreira, Nuno Oliveira, Rubim Santos
After a stroke in middle cerebral artery territory, there is a high probability of dysfunction of the ventromedial pathways, mainly related with postural control mechanisms such as the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). According to neuroanatomical knowledge, these pathways have a predominant ipsilesional disposition, which justifies a bilateral postural control dysfunction, often neglected in rehabilitation. In order to assess this bilateral postural control dysfunction, electromyography activity was assessed in eight post-stroke and 10 healthy individuals in the anterior deltoids, the superior and lower trapezius, and the latissimus dorsi as they reached for a bottle with both upper limbs separately at a self-selected velocity and fast velocity while standing associated with trunk kinematics analysis...
June 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
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