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Molecular Reproduction and Development

Bethany R Mordhorst, Joshua A Benne, Raissa F Cecil, Kristin M Whitworth, Melissa S Samuel, Lee D Spate, Clifton N Murphy, Kevin D Wells, Jonathan A Green, Randall S Prather
Genetically engineered pigs serve as excellent biomedical and agricultural models. To date, the most reliable way to generate genetically engineered pigs is via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), however, the efficiency of cloning in pigs is low (1-3%). Somatic cells such as fibroblasts frequently used in nuclear transfer utilize the tricarboxylic acid cycle and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for efficient energy production. The metabolism of somatic cells contrasts with cells within the early embryo, which predominately use glycolysis...
February 19, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Jiao Jiao Zhang, Wei Rong Yang, Yi Wang, Liang Chen, Dong Kee Jeong, Xian Zhong Wang
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in cellular energy homeostasis and cell proliferation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in biological processes. It is unclear to whether miRNAs are involved in AMPK-regulated Sertoli cell (SC) proliferation. To further understand the regulation of miRNAs in the immature boar SC proliferation, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) was added to activate AMPK. By an Illumina small RNA deep sequencing, we obtained sequences and relative expression levels of 272 known mature miRNAs, among which 9 miRNAs were significantly upregulated whereas 16 miRNAs were downregulated following the AICAR treatment...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Hong W Liang, Yan Meng, Li H Cao, Xiang Li, Gui W Zou
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens and is critical in sex differentiation. CYP19 exists as the ovarian type and brain type. Herein, we cloned the full-length ovarian cyp19a gene from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis (pscyp19a). We determined the distribution of pscyp19a in adult tissue and evaluated its expression during embryonic development, following treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) or letrozole (LE). The pscyp19a complementary DNA is 2,285 bp in length and comprises a 1,512 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 503 AA...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Xiaoqiang Sheng, Yanjun Yang, Jianjun Zhou, Guijun Yan, Mengyuan Liu, Lu Xu, Zhongxun Li, Ruiwei Jiang, Zhenyu Diao, Xin Zhen, Lijun Ding, Haixiang Sun
Female fertility declines dramatically over the age of 35 due to age-related decreases in oocyte quality and quantity. Although mitochondrial transfer promises to be a technology that can improve the quality of such age-impaired oocytes, the ideal mitochondrial donor remains elusive. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether aged adipose-derived stem cells constitute an excellent mitochondrial donor that would improve the quality of aged mouse oocytes. We showed that aging significantly impaired the mitochondrial function in mouse oocytes, but did not significantly affect the mitochondrial function of adipose-derived stem cells...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Lea A Rempel, Megan M Krautkramer, John J Parrish, Jeremy R Miles
Epigenetics includes the study of external factors that can influence the expression of genes by altering the accessibility of DNA through methylation. To investigate the epigenetic influence of season, sperm head shape, and semen storage on placental and fetal tissues, pregnancies were generated in the summer or winter using boar semen from either least or most sperm head shape change, collected during cool or warm seasons, and stored as cooled-extended or cryopreserved. The lowest (p < 0.05) ratios of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine activity (5mC:5hmC) in fetal liver were from summer breedings and in placental tissues from winter breedings...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Raffaele Boni
Global warming represents a major stressful environmental condition that compromises the reproductive efficiency of animals and humans via a rise of body temperature above its physiological homeothermic point (heat stress [HS]). The injuries caused by HS on reproductive function involves both male and female components, fertilization mechanisms as well as the early and late stages of embryo-fetal development. This occurrence causes great economic damage in livestock, and, in wild animals creates selective pressure towards the advantages of better-adapted genotypes to the detriment of others...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Ahmed Gad, Lucie Nemcova, Matej Murin, Jiri Kanka, Jozef Laurincik, Michal Benc, Lazo Pendovski, Radek Prochazka
Oocyte developmental competence is acquired during folliculogenesis and regulated by complex molecular mechanisms. Several molecules are involved in these mechanisms, including microRNAs (miRNAs) that are essential for oocyte-specific processes throughout the development. The objective of this study was to identify the expression profile of miRNAs in porcine oocytes derived from follicles of different sizes using RNA deep sequencing. Oocytes were aspirated from large (LO; 3-6 mm) or small (SO; 1.5-1.9 mm) follicles and tested for developmental competence and chromatin configurations...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Deborah Allouche-Fitoussi, Danit Bakhshi, Haim Breitbart
To fertilize the egg, sperm cells must reside in the female reproductive tract for several hours during which they undergo chemical and motility changes collectively called capacitation. During capacitation, the sperm develop a unique type of motility known as hyperactivated motility (HAM). The semen contains Zn2+ in millimolar concentrations, whereas in the female reproductive tract the concentration is around 1 µM. In this study, we characterize the role of Zn 2+ in human sperm capacitation focusing on its effect on HAM...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Wauranittha Timklay, Sirilug Magerd, Chihiro Sato, Monsicha Somrit, Atthaboon Watthammawut, Thanyaporn Senarai, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Ken Kitajima, Somluk Asuvapongpatana
Glycoconjugates in egg extracellular matrices are known to serve several functions in reproductive processes. Here, the presence of N-linked mannose (Man) glycoconjugates on shrimp thrombospondin ( pmTSP-II) and their physiological functions were investigated in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. A molecular analysis of pmTSP-II demonstrated anchorage sites for N-linked glycans in both the chitin-binding and TSP3 domains. The presence of Man residues was verified by concanavalin A lectin histochemistry on the purified fraction of pmTSP-II (250 kDa with protease inhibitor)...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Lixian Wang, Jian Zhao, Yan Li, Zihe Wang, Shan Kang
Endometriosis is a common chronic gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence and growth of endometrial-like tissue outside of the uterine cavity. Although the exact etiology remains unclear, epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Here, we used the Illumina Human Methylation 450 K BeadChip Array to analyze the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of six endometriotic lesions and six eutopic endometria from patients with ovarian endometriosis and six endometria of women without endometriosis...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Na Li, Feng Yao, Huifang Huang, Hong Zhang, Wan Zhang, Xiangyang Zou, Linlin Sui, Lin Hou
Annexins are highly conserved and ubiquitous in various somatic cell types. They are involved in membrane transport and a range of calcium-regulated activities on the cell membrane surface, including vesicular transport, membrane fusion in exocytosis, signal transduction, and formation of calcium channels. They also regulate inflammatory response, cell differentiation, and interaction between cytoskeletal proteins. In this study, for the first time, an ANX3 gene from Artemia sinica ( As-anx3) was cloned. The As-anx3 full-length complementary DNA comprises 1,024 bp and has a 948 bp open reading frame encoding a 315-amino-acid polypeptide with four ANX domains...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Jianjun Hu, Carl Lessard, Charles Longstaff, Marilyn O'Brien, Kristina Palmer, Laura Reinholdt, John Eppig, John Schimenti, Mary Ann Handel
Given attention to both contraception and treatment of infertility, there is a need to identify genes and sequence variants required for mammalian fertility. Recent unbiased mutagenesis strategies have expanded horizons of genetic control of reproduction. Here we show that male mice homozygous for the ethyl-nitroso-urea-induced ferf1 (fertilization failure 1) mutation are infertile, producing apparently normal sperm that does not fertilize oocytes in standard fertilization in vitro fertilization assays. The ferf1 mutation is a single-base change in the Dnah1 gene, encoding an axoneme-associated dynein heavy chain, and previously associated with male infertility in both mice and humans...
February 8, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Sonia Heras, Isabel Gómez-Redondo, Benjamín Planells, Raúl Fernández-González, Eva Pericuesta, Ricardo Laguna-Barraza, Serafín Pérez-Cerezales, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has led to the birth of millions of babies. In cattle, thousands of embryos are produced annually. However, since the introduction and widespread use of ART, negative effects on embryos and offspring are starting to emerge. Knowledge so far, mostly provided by animal models, indicates that suboptimal conditions during ART can affect embryo viability and quality, and may induce embryonic stress responses. These stress responses take the form of severe gene expression alterations or modifications in critical epigenetic marks established during early developmental stages that can persist after birth...
February 4, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yuan Ma, Yefei Ma, Liang Wen, Hui Lei, Shuqiang Chen, Xiaohong Wang
Vitrification is increasingly used in assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratories worldwide, and potential vitrification-induced risks require further exploration. The effect of vitrification on changes in DNA methylation and imprinting disorders was investigated in E9.5 mouse fetuses and placentas. Fetus and placental tissues were collected from the natural mating (NC) group, in vitro culture (IVC) group and vitrified embryo transfer (VET) group. The fetal crown-rump length at E9.5 in both the IVC (0...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Donatella Carbone, Caterina Faggio
Environmental health has always been threatened by the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystem, affecting its quality and safety. The aim of this review has been to investigate the effects of heavy metals soil contamination, using the land snail Helix aspersa as a bioindicator. Helix aspersa, a common species of land snail present in the area, was long tested as a bioindicator of metal contamination and represents a promising ecological indicator. Various land snails species have become popular in microcosm studies because they accumulate high concentration of certain trace metals...
January 19, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yves Jr Menezo, Brian Dale, Kay Elder
Life expectancy has increased since World War II and this may be attributed to several aspects of modern lifestyles. However, now we are faced with a downturn, which seems to be the result of environmental issues. This paradigm is paralleled with a reduction in human fertility: decreased sperm quality and increased premature ovarian failure and diminished ovarian reserve syndromes. Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) and other toxic chemicals: herbicides, pesticides, plasticizers, to mention a few, are a rising concern in today environment...
January 17, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Mami Watabe, Kenta Izaki, Shohei Fujino, Mei Maruyama, Chiho Kojima, Azusa Hiraiwa, Shuichi Ueno, Yasuhiro Iwao
Polyspermy blocking, to ensure monospermic fertilization, is necessary for normal diploid development in most animals. We have demonstrated here that monospermy in the clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, as well as in X. laevis, is ensured by a fast, electrical block to polyspermy on the egg plasma membrane after entry of the first sperm, which is mediated by the positive-going fertilization potential. An intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) at the sperm entry site was propagated as a Ca2+ wave over the whole egg cytoplasm...
January 15, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Gennaro Lettieri, Velia Mollo, Alessia Ambrosino, Filomena Caccavale, Jacopo Troisi, Ferdinando Febbraio, Marina Piscopo
This work aims to assess the effects induced by 24 h exposure to a sub-toxic copper concentration on reproductive system (gonads, spermatozoa and protamine-like proteins) of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry indicated accumulation of this metal in gonads, spermatozoa and protamine-like proteins of exposed mussels. Further, RT-qPCR analyses showed altered expression levels of mt10 and protamine-like proteins genes in spermatozoa and gonads, respectively of exposed mussels...
January 15, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
XueXia Liu, Xiong Wang, FuJun Liu
Heat shock protein A4L (HSPA4L), which is highly expressed in the testis, is correlated with male fertility. However, the relationship between HSPA4L expression and sperm quality remains unknown. In the present study, a systematic characterization of HSPA4L expression on spermatozoa was performed. HSPA4L is highly expressed in the human testis, characterized by abundant localization in testicular spermatocytes and round spermatids. Compared with the testis from young adults (aged 27-36 years old), down-regulated expression of HSPA4L in the testis from elderly adults (aged 78-82 years old) was observed...
January 13, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Adele Fabbrocini, Elena Coccia, Raffaele D'Adamo, Caterina Faggio, Marina Paolucci
Drugs such as oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies are known to find their way into rivers, lakes and seas, and have the potential to affect reproduction and development of the wildlife. The knowledge of the reproductive mechanisms and their regulation in aquatic species is of fundamental importance for predicting and preventing damage by the increasing release of such chemicals in the environment. Mifepristone, a synthetic steroid used as a drug for chemical abortion, works by blocking the effects of progesterone...
January 13, 2019: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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