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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

Hamzeh Badeli Sarkala, Mehrdad Jahanshahi, Leila Kamali Dolatabadi, Mohammad Reza Namavar
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability; Memory impairment occurs frequently after stroke and the pattern of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons has important role in the signal transmission and memory forming. G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) is a novel treatment that exhibits neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic in the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of G-CSF on the neurobehavioral outcome and spatial pattern of CA1 pyramidal neurons after focal cerebral ischemia in animals...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Hikmet Kocaman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Atoji Yasuro, Sarkar Sonjoy
In the present study, we investigated the location of mRNA for three types of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in the pigeon cerebellum and then compared the results with those of mammals. The following nine iGluRs subunits were analyzed by in situ hybridization: AMPA receptors (GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4), kainate receptors (GluK1, GluK2, and GluK4), and NMDA receptors (GluN1 and GluN2 A). Subunit hybridization revealed expression in different cell types of the cerebellar cortex: Purkinje cells expressed most subunits, including AMPA receptors (GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3), kainate receptors (GluK1 and GluK4), and NMDA receptors (GluN1); granule cells expressed four subunits of kainate (GluK1 and GluK2) and NMDA receptors (GluN1 and GluN2 A); stellate and basket cells expressed GluK1, GluK2, and GluN1; Golgi cells expressed GluA1, GluA3, and GluN1; and Bergmann glial cells expressed only AMPA receptors (GluA2 and GluA4)...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Wenhui Cao, Yan Dong, Weina Zhao, Xin Lu, Li Sun
Abnormal neuroinflammation and oxidative stress has been shown to cause neuronal loss in the progressive neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease (PD). Mulberrin is the key component of Ramulus Mori that has various biological activities. This study was to investigate the functions and mechanisms of mulberrin in PD. PD models were established by administering 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to Sprague Dawley rats in vivo and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment on microglial BV2 cells in vitro...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Tao Zeng, Yue Wang
Abnormal long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether these two types of noncoding RNAs functionally interact and which factors mediate these interactions in AD. β-secretase 1 (BACE1) is the enzyme responsible for amyloid plaque formation, which is a central pathological feature of AD. The lncRNA BACE1-AS and some miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of BACE1. In this study, we reveal that BACE1-AS shares many miRNA-response elements with BACE1...
April 5, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Gwang-Ho Kim, Kyunghyun Lim, Hae Sung Yang, Ji-Kwang Lee, Yehlim Kim, Sang-Kyu Park, So-Hyeon Kim, Suhyeon Park, Tae-Hee Kim, Jong-Seok Moon, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon, Hyung Seok Seo, Sung Min Nam, Mi-Yeon Kim, Seul Gi Yoon, Je Kyung Seong, Sun Shin Yi
Recently, there have been reports that chronic insomnia acts as an insult in the brain, causing memory loss through the production of ROS, inflammation, and, Alzheimer's disease if persistent. Insomnia remains the leading cause of sleep disturbance and as such has serious implications for public health. Patients with Alzheimer's disease are also known to suffer from severe sleep disturbance. Meanwhile, vitexin is a key ingredient in Passiflora incarnata L (passion flower, PF) extract, which is known to help with sleep...
April 2, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sofía Niño-Rivero, Pablo Torterolo, Patricia Lagos
The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a peptidergic neuromodulator synthesized by neurons of the posterior hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area. These neurons project throughout the central nervous system, including the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In rodents, MCH exerts its biological functions through the MCHR-1 receptor. We previously demonstrated that intra-DRN MCH administration increases REM sleep time and induces a pro-depressive behavior. We also determined that MCH modulates the neuronal firing rate and serotonin release within this nucleus...
March 31, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yutaro Hayashi, Sumiko Mikawa, Chikara Ogawa, Kazuma Masumoto, Fuminori Katou, Kohji Sato
BMP6, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is known to be involved in many diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that BMP6 plays pivotal roles in the central nervous system (CNS), however, there's no information about the distribution of BMP6 in the adult CNS. Therefore, we investigated BMP6 expression in the CNS using immunohistochemistry. BMP6 was intensely expressed in most neurons and their axons. Furthermore, we found that oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and ependymal cells also express BMP6 protein...
March 27, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Tian-Qing Xiong, Ling-Meng Chen, Yue Gui, Tian Jiang, Bai-Hong Tan, Shu-Lei Li, Yan-Chao Li
Disruption of microtubule cytoskeleton plays an important role during the evolution of brain damage after transient cerebral ischemia. However, it is still unclear whether microtubule-stabilizing drugs such as epothilone D (EpoD) have a neuroprotective action against the ischemia-induced brain injury. This study examined the effects of pre- and postischemic treatment with different doses of EpoD on the microtubule damage and the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield on day 2 following reperfusion after 13-min global cerebral ischemia...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Rajeshwari Parida, Sanjay Das, Trichur R Raju, Talakad N Sathyaprabha
Benzo[alpha]Pyrene (B[a]P) causes toxicity via Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) metabolic activity in the brain. Studies have shown that neuronal IL-2 and TNF-α are associated with the hippocampus development and regulation, but their association with the CYP1A1 activity remains unidentified. Limited action of human placental extract (HPE) in the activation of tissue repair and wound healing is known, but their role in B[a]P clearance in the hippocampus is not known so far. Our study has focused on two novel concepts: (1) association of CYP1A1 activity with the inflammatory response in the brain hippocampus and (2) role of HPE in the immunomodulatory mechanisms in the hippocampus upon B[a]P exposure at cytokine receptor and nuclear level...
March 9, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Dmitry Goldgof, Lawrence O Hall, Peter R Mouton
Collection of unbiased stereology data currently relies on relatively simple, low throughput technology developed in the mid-1990s. In an effort to improve the accuracy and efficiency of these integrated hardware-software-digital microscopy systems, we have developed an automatic segmentation algorithm (ASA) for automatic stereology counts using the unbiased optical fractionator method. Here we report on a series of validation experiments in which immunostained neurons (NeuN) and microglia (Iba1) were automatically counted in tissue sections through a mouse neocortex...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
H J Waldvogel, F M Biggins, A Singh, C J Arasaratnam, R L M Faull
The hypoglossal nucleus, the nucleus of the twelfth cranial nerve, is located dorsally in the midline of the medulla oblongata. The hypoglossal nucleus contains lower motor neurons which innervate the tongue muscles that control tongue movements involved in speech production, swallowing, mastication and associated respiratory movements. GABAA and glycine receptors are heteropentameric ionotropic receptors that facilitate fast-response, inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian brain and spinal cord. We investigated the immunohistochemical distribution of the GABAA receptor α1 , α2 , β2,3 subunits and glycine receptors as well as their relationship to the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the human hypoglossal nucleus at the light and confocal laser scanning microscope levels...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Abdellatif Abbaoui, Lahcen Tamegart, Radouane El Fari, Halima Gamrani
Metal neurotoxicity is a universal health preoccupation. Previous data revealed an obvious neurochemical impairment induced by metal elements as copper. This investigation was conducted to study the subcommissural organ (SCO) response to acute and subchronic Cu exposure as well as its serotoninergic innervation in Wistar rats, and the probable protective potential of curcumin in these toxicological circumstances. By mean of immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Reissner's fiber (RF) and serotonin (5 H T) in acute model (10 mg/kg i...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Nahid Aboutaleb, Masoumeh Faezi, Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Donya Nazarinia, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Razavi Tousi, Narjes Hashemirad
Previous studies have shown that conditioned medium (CM) obtained from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might exert neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study was conducted to investigate if CM obtained from MSCs gives rise to neuroprotection by targeting neurogenesis. To induce focal cerebral ischemia in rats, middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 1 h and the amniotic mesenchymal stem cells-conditioned medium (AMSC-CM) at the dose of 0.5 μl was administered 30 min after reperfusion by stereotactic intracerebral infusion...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Aditi Naskar, Anita Mahadevan, Mariamma Philip, Phalguni Anand Alladi
The protein α-synuclein, a major component of Lewy bodies in nigral neurons of aged and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, normally co-localizes with synaptophysin and regulates the pool of synaptic vesicles. Our earlier study on substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in an Asian-Indian population, demonstrated an age-associated linear but non-logarithmic increase in soluble α-synuclein without any loss of nigral neurons. Another distinctive finding was the presence of activated microglia in the ventrolateral region of the aged nigra, suggesting sub-threshold neurodegeneration...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Zahra Hassannejad, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Yaser Azizi, Shayan Abdollah Zadegan, Kiavash Sajadi, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini, Aida Shakouri-Motlagh, Mona Mokhatab, Motahareh Rezvan, Farhad Shokraneh, Mostafa Hosseini, Alexander R Vaccaro, James S Harrop, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) related processes of axonal degeneration and demyelination are poorly understood. The present systematic review and meta-analysis were performed such to establish quantitative results of animal studies regarding the role of injury severity, SCI models and level of injury on the pathophysiology of axon and myelin sheath degeneration. 39 related articles were included in the analysis. The compiled data showed that the total number of axons, number of myelinated axons, myelin sheath thickness, axonal conduction velocity, and internode length steadily decreased as time elapsed from the injury (Pfor trend <0...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Silvana da Silva Pacheco, Tatiane Araujo Rondini, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carol Fuzeti Elias
The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is a brainstem site involved in distinct autonomic and behavioral responses. Among them, the motor control of female sexual behavior, including lordosis, is well described. Lordosis reflex is highly dependent on increasing levels of estradiol that occur in the afternoon of the proestrus day in normally cycling females. This effect is thought to be mediated primarily via actions in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). By binding to estrogen receptor α (ERα), estradiol changes the activity of VMH neurons that project to the PAG...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yousef Mohamadi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Noori Moghahi, Mahboubeh Mousavi, Maryam Borhani-Haghighi, Farid Abolhassani, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh
After spinal cord injury (SCI) local inflammation is induced following secretion of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-18. It has been described that the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 is mediated by a cytoplasmic multiprotein complex, termed inflammasome. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively used for treating inflammatory diseases in which they showed immunomodulation characteristics. We utilized the anti-inflammatory potential of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) to target inflammasome complex in rat SCI model...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yubao Fan, Yuxin Ma, Weiling Huang, Xiaohui Cheng, Ningxin Gao, Guoying Li, Sumin Tian
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a robust inflammatory response elicited by the accumulation and subsequently deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) within the brain. The immune cells of brain migrate to and invest their processes within Aβ plaques and clear plaques from the brain. Previous studies have shown that treatment of myeloid cell with nuclear factor inhibitor increases expression of phagocytesis-related genes, such as triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2). In myeloid cells, TREM2 has been involved in the regulation of phagocytosis, cell proliferation as well as inflammatory response in vitro...
April 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yan Wu, Lianmei Zhong, Jia Geng
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) have garnered attention due to their high pathogenicity, high risk of relapse, and poor prognosis as an inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) syndrome. There is a consensus that the anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-IgG) is the main pathogen detectable in majority of NMOSD patients, including traditional NMO and AQP4-IgG-positive optic neuritis. In serum-negative NMOSD patients, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies are considered pathogenic factors...
April 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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