journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38608537/structure-function-of-type-i-and-iii-interferons
#1
REVIEW
Nicole A de Weerd, Aleksandra K Kurowska, Juan L Mendoza, Gideon Schreiber
Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are major components in activating the innate immune response. Common to both are two distinct receptor chains (IFNAR1/IFNAR2 and IFNLR1/IL10R2), which form ternary complexes upon binding their respective ligands. This results in close proximity of the intracellularly associated kinases JAK1 and TYK2, which cross phosphorylate each other, the associated receptor chains, and signal transducer and activator of transcriptions, with the latter activating IFN-stimulated genes...
April 10, 2024: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38518661/role-of-type-i-and-type-iii-interferons-in-gastrointestinal-homeostasis-and-pathogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Austin P Wright, Timothy J Nice
Interferon (IFN) was discovered based on interference with virus production, and three types of IFN are now defined. Since its discovery, IFN's roles have expanded beyond viruses to diverse pathogen types, tissue homeostasis, and inflammatory disease. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is arguably the tissue where the roles of IFN types are most distinct, with a particularly prominent role for type-III IFN in antiviral protection of the intestinal epithelium. Current studies continue to deepen our understanding of the type- and tissue-specific roles of IFN...
March 21, 2024: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38428280/editorial-overview-getting-the-house-in-order-cell-intrinsic-mechanisms-of-innate-immune-defence
#3
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth L Hartland, Sunny Shin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 29, 2024: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38237251/differential-induction-of-t-cell-tolerance-by-tumour-fibroblast-subsets
#4
REVIEW
Zoe Mx Chua, Fitsumbhran Tajebe, Mohammed Abuwarwar, Anne L Fletcher
T-cell immunotherapy is now a first-line cancer treatment for metastatic melanoma and some lung cancer subtypes, which is a welcome clinical success. However, the response rates observed in these diseases are not yet replicated across other prominent solid tumour types, particularly stromal-rich subtypes with a complex microenvironment that suppresses infiltrating T cells. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the most abundant and pro-pathogenic players in the tumour microenvironment, promoting tumour neogenesis, persistence and metastasis...
January 17, 2024: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38154421/molecular-mechanisms-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-signalling-via-tnf-receptor-1-and-tnf-receptor-2-in-the-tumour-microenvironment
#5
REVIEW
Louisa F Alim, Colm Keane, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a primary mediator of inflammatory processes by facilitating cell death, immune cell activation and triggering of inflammation. In the cancer context, research has revealed TNF as a multifaceted cytokine that can be both pro- or anti-tumorigenic depending on what context is observed. We explore the plethora of ways that TNF and its receptors manipulate the functional and phenotypic characteristics in the tumour microenvironment (TME) on both tumour cells and immune cells, promoting either tumour elimination or progression...
December 27, 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38128438/editorial-overview-the-march-of-mucosal-vaccines
#6
EDITORIAL
E C Lavelle, Meritxell Genescà
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38118395/differential-signaling-by-type-i-and-type-iii-interferons-in-mucosa
#7
REVIEW
Megan L Stanifer, Steeve Boulant
Mucosal surfaces are barrier sites that protect the body from the outside environment. They have developed mechanisms to handle microbiota-associated triggers while remaining responsive to pathogens. Cells at mucosal surfaces rely on both the type-I and -III interferons (IFNs) as key cytokines to protect the epithelium itself and to prevent systemic spread of viral infections. Type-I and -III IFNs have been shown to use distinct receptors but similar JAK/STAT signaling cascades to elicit the induction of IFN-stimulated genes...
December 19, 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37976963/recent-advances-in-enterotoxin-vaccine-adjuvants
#8
REVIEW
Jessica W Crothers, Elizabeth B Norton
Enterotoxin adjuvants have been researched for their ability to promote immunity to co-delivered antigens. Outside of cholera vaccines, however, these proteins have yet to be included in any currently licensed vaccines. They include molecules derived from the bacterial toxins of Vibrio cholerae, cholera toxin, or Escherichia coli, heat-labile toxin, such as detoxified mutants or subunits. This class of adjuvants is distinguished by their delivery possibilities, which include parenteral injection, skin applications, or direct mucosal administration by oral, sublingual, or nasal routes...
December 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37952487/animal-models-of-shigellosis-a-historical-overview
#9
REVIEW
Noémie Alphonse, Charlotte Odendall
Shigella spp. are major causative agents of bacillary dysentery, a severe enteric disease characterized by destruction and inflammation of the colonic epithelium accompanied by acute diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Although antibiotics have traditionally been effective, the prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains is increasing, stressing the urgent need for a vaccine. The human-specific nature of shigellosis and the absence of a dependable animal model have posed significant obstacles in understanding Shigella pathogenesis and the host immune response, both of which are crucial for the development of an effective vaccine...
December 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37931499/ap-1-transcription-factors-in-cytotoxic-lymphocyte-development-and-antitumor-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Diana Schnoegl, Angela Hiesinger, Nicholas D Huntington, Dagmar Gotthardt
The proper functioning of cytotoxic lymphocytes, such as natural killer and CD8+ T cells, is essential for effective cancer-immunity and immunotherapy responses. The differentiation of these cells is controlled by several transcription factors (TFs), including members of the activator protein (AP)-1 family. The activity of AP-1 family members is regulated by various immune signaling pathways, which can be triggered by activating or inhibitory receptors as well as cytokines. The target genes controlled by AP-1 TFs are central to generate immunity to pathogens or malignancies...
December 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37806096/the-future-of-vaccination-in-latin-america-learning-from-the-covid-19-pandemic
#11
REVIEW
Fernando E Díaz, Lourdes Arruvito, Jorge Geffner
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused millions of deaths around the world. This dramatic balance requires governments, international organizations, vaccine manufacturers, and the scientific community itself to take stock of what has been done and what could have been done better. In this sense, the tremendous inequity in access to vaccines, the main tool to deal with the pandemic, deserves deep reflection and a set of actions to be carried out by low- and middle-income countries. Among them, the construction of a joint effort to produce their own vaccines and the reconsideration of the bases that govern the intellectual property rights of vaccines and medicines, which harmed equitable access to health, with the consequent loss of many lives that could have been saved...
October 6, 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37738858/the-role-of-interferon-in-the-thymus
#12
REVIEW
Ryan J Martinez, Kristin A Hogquist
Interferons (IFNs) are a family of proteins that are generated in response to viral infection and induce an antiviral response in many cell types. The COVID-19 pandemic revealed that patients with inborn errors of type-I IFN immunity were more prone to severe infections, but also found that many patients with severe COVID-19 had anti-IFN autoantibodies that led to acquired defects in type-I IFN immunity. These findings revealed the previously unappreciated finding that central immune tolerance to IFN is essential to immune health...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37703588/inflammasome-activation-by-sars-cov-2-and-its-participation-in-covid-19-exacerbation
#13
REVIEW
Tamara S Rodrigues, Dario S Zamboni
COVID-19 is an infectious and inflammatory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2) that might progress to severe illness in humans, characterized by excessive pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Exacerbated production of inflammatory cytokines and cell death contributes to disease aggravation and the inflammasomes take a central stage in this process. Activation of the NLRP3 has been demonstrated in macrophages and monocytes infected in vitro, in mouse models of infection, and in cells and lungs of severe cases of COVID-19...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37703587/pharma-manufacturing-the-unappreciated-and-overlooked-indispensable-skill
#14
REVIEW
Jenik Radon, Grace Pan
The process of vaccine production, manufacturing, is time-intensive, complex, expensive, and highly technical, requiring close coordination and collaboration among multiple companies with different inputs, from active pharmaceutical ingredients to glass, and specializations, and with the supply chains spread across many countries. Covid-19 pandemic highlighted that neglecting and ignoring the need for a global effort in vaccine manufacturing and delivery can have alarming, and devastating, repercussions, especially when the world needs a robust healthcare ecosystem to make sure that all of us are safe...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37598549/outer-membrane-vesicle-based-intranasal-vaccines
#15
REVIEW
Peter Van der Ley, Virgil Ejc Schijns
Delivery of vaccines via the mucosal route is regarded as the most effective mode of immunization to counteract infectious diseases that enter via mucosal tissues, including oral, nasal, pulmonary, intestinal, and urogenital surfaces. Mucosal vaccines not only induce local immune effector elements, such as secretory Immunoglobulin A (IgA) reaching the luminal site of the mucosa, but also systemic immunity. Moreover, mucosal vaccines may trigger immunity in distant mucosal tissues because of the homing of primed antigen-specific immune cells toward local and distant mucosal tissue via the common mucosal immune system...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37562076/the-role-of-the-antigen-processing-machinery-in-the-regulation-and-trafficking-of-intracellular-toll-like-receptor-molecules
#16
REVIEW
Moïse de Lavergne, Lucie Maisonneuve, Katrina Podsypanina, Bénédicte Manoury
Intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system. Their expression in antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and in particular dendritic cells (DCs), makes them critical in the induction of the adaptive immune response. In DCs, they interact with the chaperone UNC93B1 that mediates their trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endosomes where they are cleaved by proteases and activated. All these different steps are also shared by major histocompatibility complex class-II (MHCII) molecules...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37562075/an-easy-pill-to-swallow-oral-recombinant-vaccines-for-the-21st-century
#17
REVIEW
Molly R Braun, Becca A Flitter, William Sun, Sean N Tucker
Oral vaccines have a distinctive advantage of stimulating immune responses in the mucosa, where numerous pathogens gain entry and cause disease. Although various efforts have been attempted to create recombinant mucosal vaccines that provoke strong immunogenicity, the outcomes in clinical trials have been weak or inconsistent. Therefore, next-generation mucosal vaccines are needed that are more immunogenic. Here, we discuss oral vaccines with an emphasis on a next-generation mucosal vaccine that utilizes a nonreplicating human recombinant adenovirus type-5 (rAd5) vector...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37536111/human-guanylate-binding-proteins-in-intracellular-pathogen-detection-destruction-and-host-cell-death-induction
#18
REVIEW
Yolanda Rivera-Cuevas, Barbara Clough, Eva-Maria Frickel
Cell-intrinsic defense is an essential part of the immune response against intracellular pathogens regulated by cytokine-induced proteins and pathways. One of the most upregulated families of proteins in this defense system are the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), large GTPases of the dynamin family, induced in response to interferon gamma. Human GBPs (hGBPs) exert their antimicrobial activity through detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and/or damage-associated molecular patterns to execute control mechanisms directed at the pathogen itself as well as the vacuolar compartments in which it resides...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451128/ubiquitination-and-cell-autonomous-immunity
#19
REVIEW
João Mello-Vieira, Tobias Bopp, Ivan Dikic
Cell-autonomous immunity is the first line of defense by which cells recognize and contribute to eliminating invasive pathogens. It is composed of immune signaling networks that sense microbial pathogens, promote pathogen restriction, and stimulate their elimination, including host cell death. Ubiquitination is a pivotal orchestrator of these pathways, by changing the activity of signal transducers and effector proteins in an efficient way. In this review, we will focus on how ubiquitin connects the pathways that sense pathogens to the cellular responses to invaders and shed light on how ubiquitination impacts the microenvironment around the infected cell, stimulating the appropriate immune response...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37307651/nasal-vaccines-for-pertussis
#20
REVIEW
Pauline Schmitt, Lisa Borkner, Seyed Davoud Jazayeri, Karen N McCarthy, Kingston Hg Mills
Whooping cough, caused by Bordetella pertussis, is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines induce potent circulating IgG and prevent severe disease in children/adults and in infants born to vaccinated mothers. However, they do not prevent nasal infection, allowing asymptomatic transmission of B. pertussis. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that, unlike natural infection, immunization with aP vaccines fails to induce secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) or interleukin-17 (IL-17)-secreting tissue-resident memory CD4 T (TRM ) cells, required for sustained sterilizing immunity in the nasal mucosa...
October 2023: Current Opinion in Immunology
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