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Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)

Allison D Fryer, David B Jacoby, Sarah A Wicher
Introduction: Exposure to ozone induces deleterious responses in the airways that include shortness of breath, inflammation, and bronchoconstriction. People with asthma have increased airway sensitivity to ozone and other irritants. Dr. Allison Fryer and colleagues addressed how exposure to ozone affects the immune and physiological responses in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs are considered a useful animal model for studies of respiratory and physiological responses in humans; their response to airborne allergens is similar to that in humans and shares some features of allergic asthma...
March 2017: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Zhengmin Qian, Bin Zhang, Shengwen Liang, Jing Wang, Shaoping Yang, Ke Hu, Edwin Trevathan, Rong Yang, Qijie Li, Louise H Flick, Ronghua Hu, Zhen Huang, Yimin Zhang, Shixiang Hu, Jing Wang, Longjiao Shen, Yuan Lu, Hui Peng, Yuzhen Yu, Li Yang, Wei Chen, Wenjin Liu, Wei Zhang
Background: Several recent studies have suggested that maternal exposures to air pollution and temperature extremes might contribute to low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and other outcomes that can adversely affect infant health. At the time the current study began, most other studies had been conducted in the United States or Europe. Dr. Zhengmin Qian proposed to extend work he had done on ambient particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Wuhan, China (Qian et al. 2010), as part of the HEIsponsored Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia program, to study adverse birth outcomes...
September 2016: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Jun Wu, Olivier Laurent, Lianfa Li, Jianlin Hu, Michael Kleeman
Introduction: There is growing epidemiologic evidence of associations between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes, such as preterm birth (PTB). Recently, a few studies have also reported that exposure to ambient air pollution may also increase the risk of some common pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Research findings, however, have been mixed. These inconsistent results could reflect genuine differences in the study populations, the study locations, the specific pollutants considered, the designs of the study, its methods of analysis, or random variation...
July 2016: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
David Q Rich, Annette Peters, Alexandra Schneider, Wojciech Zareba, Susanne Breitner, David Oakes, Jelani Wiltshire, Cathleen Kane, Mark W Frampton, Regina Hampel, Philip K Hopke, Josef Cyrys, Mark J Utell
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have examined changes in heart rate variability (HRV*) and repolarization associated with increased particulate matter (PM) concentrations on the same and previous few days. However, few studies have examined whether these health responses to PM occur within a few hours or even less. Moreover, it is not clear whether exposure of subjects to ambient or-controlled PM concentrations both lead to similar health effects or whether any of the subjects' individual characteristics modify any of their responses to PM...
May 2016: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Corwin Matthew Zigler, Chanmin Kim, Christine Choirat, John Barrett Hansen, Yun Wang, Lauren Hund, Jonathan Samet, Gary King, Francesca Dominici
INTRODUCTION: The regulatory and policy environment surrounding air quality management warrants new types of epidemiological evidence. Whereas air pollution epidemiology has typically informed previous policies with estimates of exposure-response relationships between pollution and health outcomes, new types of evidence can inform current debates about the actual health impacts of air quality regulations. Directly evaluating specific regulatory strategies is distinct from and complements estimating exposure-response relationships; increased emphasis on assessing the effectiveness of well-defined regulatory interventions will enhance the evidence supporting policy decisions...
May 2016: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
John Molitor, Eric Coker, Michael Jerrett, Beate Ritz, Arthur Li
The highly intercorrelated nature of air pollutants makes it difficult to examine their combined effects on health. As such, epidemiological studies have traditionally focused on single-pollutant models that use regression-based techniques to examine the marginal association between a pollutant and a health outcome. These relatively simple, additive models are useful for discerning the effect of a single pollutant on a health outcome with all other pollutants held to fixed values. However, pollutants occur in complex mixtures consisting of highly correlated combinations of individual exposures...
April 2016: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Patrick H Ryan, Cole Brokamp, Zhi-Hua Fan, M B Rao
The complex mixture of chemicals and elements that constitute particulate matter (PM*) varies by season and geographic location because source contributors differ over time and place. The composition of PM having an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is hypothesized to be responsible, in part, for its toxicity. Epidemiologic studies have identified specific components and sources of PM2.5 that are associated with adverse health outcomes. The majority of these studies use measures of outdoor concentrations obtained from one or a few central monitoring sites as a surrogate for measures of personal exposure...
December 2015: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Eun Sug Park, Elaine Symanski, Daikwon Han, Clifford Spiegelman
A major difficulty with assessing source-specific health effects is that source-specific exposures cannot be measured directly; rather, they need to be estimated by a source-apportionment method such as multivariate receptor modeling. The uncertainty in source apportionment (uncertainty in source-specific exposure estimates and model uncertainty due to the unknown number of sources and identifiability conditions) has been largely ignored in previous studies. Also, spatial dependence of multipollutant data collected from multiple monitoring sites has not yet been incorporated into multivariate receptor modeling...
June 2015: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Brent A Coull, Jennifer F Bobb, Gregory A Wellenius, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Murray A Mittleman, Petros Koutrakis, John J Godleski
INTRODUCTION: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA*) currently regulates individual air pollutants on a pollutant-by-pollutant basis, adjusted for other pollutants and potential confounders. However, the National Academies of Science concluded that a multipollutant regulatory approach that takes into account the joint effects of multiple constituents is likely to be more protective of human health. Unfortunately, the large majority of existing research had focused on health effects of air pollution for one pollutant or for one pollutant with control for the independent effects of a small number of copollutants...
June 2015: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Daniel J Conklin, Maiying Kong
Although epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that chronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE*) emissions causes adverse cardiovascular effects, neither the specific components of DE nor the mechanisms by which DE exposure could induce cardiovascular dysfunction and exacerbate cardiovascular disease (CVD) are known. Because advances in new technologies have resulted in cleaner fuels and decreased engine emissions, uncertainty about the relationship between DE exposure and human cardiovascular health effects has increased...
January 2015: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Lance M Hallberg, Jonathan B Ward, Caterina Hernandez, Bill T Ameredes, Jeffrey K Wickliffe
In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted new standards for diesel fuel and emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. By 2007, diesel engines were required to meet these new standards for particulate matter (PM), with other standards to follow. Through a combination of advanced compression-ignition engine technology, development of exhaust aftertreatment systems, and reformulated fuels, stringent standards were introduced. Before the 2007 standards were put in place by the EPA, human health effects linked to diesel exhaust (DE) exposure had been associated with diesel-fuel solvent and combustion components...
January 2015: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Jeffrey C Bemis, Dorothea K Torous, Stephen D Dertinger
The formation of micronuclei (MN*) is a well-established endpoint in genetic toxicology; studies designed to examine MN formation in vivo have been conducted for decades. Conditions that cause double-strand breaks or disrupt the proper segregation of chromosomes during division result in increases in MN formation frequency. This endpoint is therefore commonly used in preclinical studies designed to assess the potential risks to humans of exposure to a myriad of chemical and physical agents, including inhaled diesel exhaust (DE)...
January 2015: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Jacob D McDonald, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, JeanClare Seagrave, Andrew P Gigliotti, Judith Chow, Barbara Zielinska, Joe L Mauderly, Steven K Seilkop, Rodney A Miller
The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to 2007-compliant new-technology diesel exhaust (NTDE*). The a priori hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions "... will not cause an increase in tumor formation or substantial toxic effects in rats and mice at the highest concentration of exhaust that can be used ...
January 2015: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Thomas H Barker, Marilyn M Dysart, Ashley C Brown, Alison M Douglas, Vincent F Fiore, Armistead G Russell
Dysfunctional pulmonary homeostasis and repair, including diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD*), and tumorigenesis, have been increasing steadily over the past decade, a fact that heavily implicates environmental influences. Several investigations have suggested that the lung "precursor cell"--the alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cell--is central in the initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. Specifically, ATII cells have been shown (Iwano et al. 2002) to be capable of undergoing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
November 2014: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Stuart Batterman, Feng-Chiao Su, Shi Li, Bhramar Mukherjee, Chunrong Jia
INTRODUCTION: Emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs*) are numerous and widespread in both indoor and outdoor environments. Concentrations of VOCs indoors typically exceed outdoor levels, and most people spend nearly 90% of their time indoors. Thus, indoor sources generally contribute the majority of VOC exposures for most people. VOC exposure has been associated with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects; for example, asthma, respiratory diseases, liver and kidney dysfunction, neurologic impairment, and cancer...
June 2014: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Charles O Stanier, Sang-Rin Lee
Predictive models of vehicular ultrafine particles less than 0.1 microm in diameter (UFPs*) and other urban pollutants with high spatial and temporal variation are useful and important in applications such as (1) decision support for infrastructure projects, emissions controls, and transportation-mode shifts; (2) the interpretation and enhancement of observations (e.g., source apportionment, extrapolation, interpolation, and gap-filling in space and time); and (3) the generation of spatially and temporally resolved exposure estimates where monitoring is unfeasible...
June 2014: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Yifang Zhu, Qunfang Zhang
Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP*, diameter < 100 nm). Children are particularly at risk because of their immature respiratory systems and higher breathing rates per body mass. This study aimed to characterize UFP, PM2.5 (particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and other vehicular-emitted pollutants in and around school buses. Four sub-studies were conducted, including: 1. On-road tests to measure in-cabin air pollutant levels while school buses were being driven; 2...
March 2014: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
James M Robins, Peng Zhang, Rajeev Ayyagari, Roger Logan, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Lingling Li, Thomas Lumley, Aad van der Vaart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2013: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Sverre Vedal, Matthew J Campen, Jacob D McDonald, Timothy V Larson, Paul D Sampson, Lianne Sheppard, Christopher D Simpson, Adam A Szpiro
Epidemiologic and toxicologic studies were carried out in concert to provide complementary insights into the compositional features of ambient particulate matter (PM*) that produce cardiovascular effects. In the epidemiologic studies, we made use of cohort data from two ongoing studies--the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Women's Health Initiative--Observational Study (WHI-OS)--to investigate subclinical markers of atherosclerosis and clinical cardiovascular events. In the toxicologic study, we used the apolipoprotein E null (ApoE(-/-)) hypercholesterolemic mouse model to assess cardiovascular effects of inhalation exposure to various atmospheres containing laboratory-generated pollutants...
October 2013: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
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