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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Alexander Harkness, Emma Goldberg, Yaniv Brandvain
Isolation allows populations to diverge and to fix different alleles. Deleterious alleles that reach locally high frequencies contribute to genetic load, especially in inbred or selfing populations, in which selection is relaxed. In the event of secondary contact, the recessive portion of the genetic load is masked in the hybrid offspring, producing heterosis. This advantage, only attainable through outcrossing, should favor evolution of greater outcrossing even if inbreeding depression has been purged from the contributing populations...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Andrés G de la Filia, Gyda Fenn-Moltu, Laura Ross
Genomic conflicts arising during reproduction might play an important role in shaping the striking diversity of reproductive strategies across life. Among these is paternal genome elimination (PGE), a form of haplodiploidy which has independently evolved several times in arthropods. PGE males are diploid but transmit maternally-inherited chromosomes only, while paternal homologues are excluded from sperm. Mothers thereby effectively monopolize the parentage of sons, at the cost of the father's reproductive success...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Patrick T Rohner, Jeannine Roy, Martin A Schäfer, Wolf U Blanckenhorn, David Berger
Although genetic and plastic responses are sometimes considered as unrelated processes, their phenotypic effects may often align because genetic adaptation is expected to mirror phenotypic plasticity if adaptive, but run counter to it when maladaptive. The magnitude and direction of this alignment has further consequences for both the tempo and mode of adaptation. To better understand the interplay between phenotypic plasticity and genetic change in mediating adaptive phenotypic variation to climate variability, we here quantified genetic latitudinal variation and thermal plasticity in wing loading and wing shape in two closely related and widespread sepsid flies...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Kathryn B McNamara, Liam R Dougherty, Nina Wedell, Leigh W Simmons
The rapid evolutionary divergence of male genital structures under sexual selection is well documented. However, variation in female genital traits and the potential for sexual conflict to drive the coevolution between male and female traits has only recently received attention. In many lepidopterans females possess genital teeth (collectively, signa). Comparative studies suggest these teeth, involved in the deflation of spermatophores, may have coevolved with male spermatophore thickness via sexually antagonistic coevolution in a contest over the rate of deflation of spermatophores within the reproductive tract...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Hui Tang, Michael E Hood, Zong-Xin Ren, Hai-Dong Li, Yan-Hui Zhao, Lorne M Wolfe, De-Zhu Li, Hong Wang
Host sympatry provides opportunities for cross-species disease transmission and compounded disease effects on host population and community structure. Using the Silene-Microbotryum interaction (the castrating "anther-smut" disease), eleven Himalayan Silene species were assessed in regions of high host diversity to ascertain levels of pathogen specificity. We also investigated disease prevalence, seasonal dynamics of infection and flowering patterns in five co-blooming Silene species. We identified several new Microbotryum lineages with varying degrees of specialization that is likely influenced by degrees of host divergence and ecological similarities (i...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Connor R Fitzpatrick, Zainab Mustafa, Joani Viliunas
Plants exist across varying biotic and abiotic environments, including variation in the composition of soil microbial communities. The ecological effects of soil microbes on plant communities are well known, whereas less is known about their importance for plant evolutionary processes. In particular, the net effects of soil microbes on plant fitness may vary across environmental contexts and among plant genotypes, setting the stage for microbially mediated plant evolution. Here we assess the effects of soil microbes on plant fitness and natural selection on flowering time in different environments...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Christina M May, Joost van den Heuvel, Agnieszka Doroszuk, Katja M Hoedjes, Thomas Flatt, Bas J Zwaan
Experimental evolution (EE) is a powerful tool for addressing how environmental factors influence life-history evolution. While in nature different selection pressures experienced across the lifespan shape life histories, EE studies typically apply selection pressures one at a time. Here we assess the consequences of adaptation to three different developmental diets in combination with classical selection for early or late reproduction in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We find that the response to each selection pressure is similar to that observed when they are applied independently, but the overall magnitude of the response depends on the selection regime experienced in the other life stage...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Shelley S Langton-Myers, Gregory I Holwell, Thomas R Buckley
Documenting natural hybrid systems builds our understanding of mate choice, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The stick insect species Clitarchus hookeri and C. tepaki differ in their genital morphology and hybridize along a narrow peninsula in northern New Zealand. We utilize three lines of evidence to understand the role of premating isolation and species boundaries: (1) genetic differentiation using microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA; (2) variation in 3D surface topology of male claspers and 2D morphometrics of female opercular organs; and (3) behavioral reproductive isolation among parental and hybrid populations through mating crosses...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tobias Wechsler, Rolf Kümmerli, Akos Dobay
Policing occurs in insect, animal and human societies, where it evolved as a mechanism maintaining cooperation. Recently, it has been suggested that policing might even be relevant in enforcing cooperation in much simpler organisms such as bacteria. Here, we used individual-based modelling to develop an evolutionary concept for policing in bacteria, and identify the conditions under which it can be adaptive. We modelled interactions between cooperators, producing a beneficial public good, cheaters exploiting the public good without contributing to it, and public good producing policers that secrete a toxin to selectively target cheaters...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Juhan Javoiš, Robert Barry Davis, Toomas Tammaru
Diet breadth and the degree of capital breeding have been established as major determinants of species-specific ecology of herbivorous insects. Both these variables are related to resource foraging and therefore can be expected to have effects on sensory capacity. However, such effects have remained poorly studied, let alone in phylogenetically explicit multi-species comparisons. We contribute to filling this gap in a study of 60 species of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), using adult head measures (eye size, antennal length and shape, forehead width) as indices of sensory capacity...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Emilien Luquet, Patrik Rödin Mörch, Maria Cortazar-Chinarro, Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Jacob Höglund, Anssi Laurila
While adaptive divergence along environmental gradients has repeatedly been demonstrated, the role of postglacial colonization routes in determining phenotypic variation along gradients has received little attention. Here we used a hierarchical QST -FST approach to separate the roles of adaptive and neutral processes in shaping phenotypic variation in moor frog (Rana arvalis) larval life-histories along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient across northern Europe. This species has colonized Scandinavia via two routes with a contact zone in northern Sweden...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Andrew Armstrong, Nathan W Anderson, Heath Blackmon
Genetic architecture fundamentally affects the way that traits evolve. However, the mapping of genotype to phenotype includes complex interactions with the environment or even the sex of an organism that can modulate the expressed phenotype. Line cross analysis is a powerful quantitative genetics method to infer genetic architecture by analyzing the mean phenotype value of two diverged strains and a series of subsequent crosses and backcrosses. However, it has been difficult to account for complex interactions with the environment or sex within this framework...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Felix Feyertag, Patricia M Berninsone, David Alvarez-Ponce
The different proteins of any proteome evolve at enormously different rates. One of the primary factors influencing rates of protein evolution is expression level, with highly expressed proteins tending to evolve at slow rates. This phenomenon, known as the expression level-evolutionary rate (E-R) anticorrelation, has been attributed to the abundance-dependent deleterious effects of misfolding or misinteraction. We have recently shown that secreted proteins either lack an E-R anticorrelation or exhibit a significantly reduced E-R anticorrelation...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tutku Aykanat, Mikhail Ozerov, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Panu Orell, Eero Niemelä, Jaakko Erkinaro, Craig R Primmer
Co-inheritance in life history traits may result in unpredictable evolutionary trajectories if not accounted for in life-history models. Iteroparity (the reproductive strategy of reproducing more than once) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a fitness trait with substantial variation within and among populations. In the Teno River in northern Europe, iteroparous individuals constitute an important component of many populations and have experienced a sharp increase in abundance in the last 20 years, partly overlapping with a general decrease in age structure...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Anasuya Chakrabarty, Philipp van Kronenberg, Nikolaos Toliopoulos, Holger Schielzeth
A fundamental part of the quantitative genetic theory deals with the partitioning of the phenotypic variance into additive genetic and environmental components. During interaction with conspecifics, the interaction partner becomes a part of the environment from the perspective of the focal individual. If the interaction effects have a genetic basis, they are called indirect genetic effects (IGEs) and can evolve along with direct genetic effects. Sexual reproduction is a classic context where potential conflict between males and females can arise from trade-offs between current and future investments...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Cristina Romero-Diaz, Julio A Rivera, Alison G Ossip-Drahos, J Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Cuauhcihuatl Vital-García, Diana K Hews, Emília P Martins
Colour signalling traits are often lost over evolutionary time, perhaps because they increase vulnerability to visual predators or lose relevance in terms of sexual selection. Here, we used spectrometric and phylogenetic comparative analyses to ask whether four independent losses of a sexually selected blue patch are spectrally similar, and whether these losses equate to a decrease in conspicuousness or to loss of a signal. We found that patches were lost in two distinct ways: either increasing reflectance primarily at very long or at very short wavelengths, and that species with additional colour elements (UV, green and pink) may be evolutionary intermediates...
January 27, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Matishalin Patel, Ben Raymond, Michael B Bonsall, Stuart A West
The growth and virulence of the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis depends on the production of Cry toxins, which are used to perforate the gut of its host. Successful invasion of the host relies on producing a threshold amount of toxin, after which there is no benefit from producing more toxin. Consequently, the production of Cry toxin appears to be a different type of social problem compared with the public goods scenarios that bacteria usually encounter. We show that selection for toxin production is a volunteer's dilemma...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Ariel F Kahrl, Michele A Johnson, Robert M Cox
Postcopulatory sexual selection is thought to be responsible for much of the extraordinary diversity in sperm morphology across metazoans. However, the extent to which postcopulatory selection targets sperm morphology versus sperm production is generally unknown. To address this issue, we simultaneously characterized the evolution of sperm morphology (length of the sperm head, midpiece, and flagellum) and testis size (a proxy for sperm production) across 26 species of Anolis lizards, a group in which sperm competition is likely...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Samuel E Barnett, Graziella V DiRenzo, Kelly R Zamudio, L Felipe Toledo, Timothy Y James, Karen R Lips
Phenotypes are the target of selection and affect the ability of organisms to persist in variable environments. Phenotypes can be influenced directly by genes and/or by phenotypic plasticity. The amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has a global distribution, unusually broad host range, and high genetic diversity. Phenotypic plasticity may be an important process that allows this pathogen to infect hundreds of species in diverse environments. We quantified phenotypic variation of nine Bd genotypes from two Bd lineages (Global Pandemic Lineage [GPL] and Brazil) and a hybrid (GPL-Brazil) grown at three temperatures (12, 18, and 24 °C)...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
L A García-Cortés, F Austerlitz, M A R de Cara
In 1971, John Sved derived an approximate relationship between linkage disequilibrium and effective population size for an ideal finite population. This seminal work was extended by Sved and Feldman (1973) and Weir and Hill (1980) who derived additional equations with the same purpose. These equations yield useful estimates of effective population size, as they require a single sample in time. As these estimates of effective population size are now commonly used on a variety of genomic data, from arrays of single nucleotide polymorphisms to whole genome data, some authors have investigated their bias through simulation studies and proposed corrections for different mating systems...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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