Urska Arnautovska, Alyssa Milton, Mike Trott, Rebecca Soole, Dan Siskind
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SDD) are characterized by a complex array of psychosis symptoms, and typically require ongoing and long-term support, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological management. Digital mental health interventions (DMHIs) have been suggested as a novel therapeutic approach to enable low-cost, scalable improvements in quality of care for adults living with SSD. However, the types and role of human involvement and support within DMHIs is currently unknown...
June 25, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Ana Ganho-Ávila, Mónica Sobral, Mijke Lambregtse-van den Berg
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To present the latest data on the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in peripartum depression (PPD), complemented by notes emerging from our clinical and research experience. RECENT FINDINGS: TMS and tDCS show promising results to manage mild to moderate depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Evidence of TMS efficacy during pregnancy and the postpartum comes from two small randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with encouraging but still inconsistent results...
June 14, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Shalika Arniotis-Streat, Anthony Fonte, Hisham Ziauddeen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychotropic drug related weight gain is a common side-effect of significant concern to both clinicians and patients. Recent studies and treatment guidelines strongly support taking preventive and early treatment approaches to psychotropic drug-related weight gain (PDWG). Arguably the main pathway that PDWG occurs is via changes in eating behaviour leading to increased caloric intake. RECENT FINDINGS: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have provided good data on the nature and prevalence of alterations in eating behaviour with psychotropic treatment including increased hunger, night eating and binge eating...
June 11, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Mike Trott, Urska Arnautovska, Dan Siskind
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People with schizophrenia experience three to five times higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity than the general population, contributing to a 20-year reduced lifespan. The impacts of weight gain extend beyond physical health, affecting people's self-esteem, quality of life, and triggering treatment nonadherence, leading to relapse and deteriorations in health. Clinical guidelines recommend patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain are treated with cognitive behaviour therapy and lifestyle changes; however, effective treatments for obesity in schizophrenia are critically lacking...
June 10, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Claire Surr, Laura Ashley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review examines recent research on end of life (EOL) care for people with dementia and comorbid cancer, highlighting the complexity and challenge of providing effective EOL care for this group and areas of interest for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: People with cancer and dementia and their family/supporters have more complex care and support needs at EOL that are less well met than those of older adults with cancer alone, including questionable use of aggressive EOL care interventions, poorer access to specialist palliative care teams and poor pain management...
May 22, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Mark A Horowitz, Joanna Moncrieff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been an increasing focus on deprescribing in psychiatry recently, particularly of antipsychotic medication, with recognition that not all patients with psychotic disorders require lifelong medication. We summarize some empirical and theoretical papers, and examine case studies to provide instruction on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have found that slower tapering (over months or longer) of antipsychotics is associated with a lower relapse rate than quicker tapering (weeks)...
May 10, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Trisha Thomas, Jayashree Dasgupta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: India is facing a significant increase in the aging population who are at risk for dementia. This review evaluates recent literature on community-based care, focusing on caregiver experiences, challenges and policy initiatives. RECENT FINDINGS: Dementia care in India is traditionally provided by family members who take on the role of caregivers. Studies on caregiver experiences have reflected high caregiving burden and related impact on their mental health...
May 8, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Rachel Luba, Sandra D Comer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Opioid use disorder (OUD) presents a serious public health concern, with dramatic increases in opioid-overdose mortality in recent years and a small percentage of those with OUD accessing or remaining engaged with available treatments. Efforts are currently underway to identify and vaccines targeting opioids, which could provide a novel and complimentary approach. The current review provides an overview of existing literature, practical considerations for designing and conducting clinical trials with vaccines for opioids, and future directions...
May 2, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Ali Cheetham, Elizabeth Grist, Suzanne Nielsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Collaborative models of care where pharmacists work alongside physicians have been developed for a range of physical health conditions, with benefits including improved patient outcomes and increased access to ongoing care. Opioid agonist treatment (methadone and buprenorphine) is a clinically effective and cost-effective treatment for opioid use disorder that is under-utilized in many countries due to a shortage of prescribers. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the development of collaborative models that utilize pharmacists to overcome barriers to treatment...
April 30, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Balasingam Vicknasingam, Thiruventhan Karunakaran, Marek C Chawarski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kratom plant, products derived from the plant, and plant phytochemicals are of great interest among researchers, clinicians, and consumers. However, there is a paucity of rigorously collected scientific data on their risk/safety profile and public health impact. This scoping review discusses original research articles published between 2022 and 2023. It focuses on identifying publication gaps on topics related to epidemiology, public health, and risk/safety profiles comparing evidence collected by researchers from Southeast Asia and the West...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Alberto Salomone, Marco Vincenti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The worldwide spread of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in the illicit drug market and their continuous increase in number and type, for the purpose of bypassing controlled substance legislation, represents a continuing challenge for forensic scientists, clinicians and enforcement authorities. We aim to provide information regarding the most urgent harms related to NPS consumption in different world regions and the current state of the art for NPS analysis. RECENT FINDINGS: Unfortunately, the identification of NPS in biological samples is controversial, especially when samples are limited, or the drug is promptly and extensively metabolized...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Stephan Lehmler, Sebastian Siehl, Rikka Kjelkenes, Jannik Heukamp, Lars Tjelta Westlye, Nathalie Holz, Frauke Nees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Environmental factors such as climate, urbanicity, and exposure to nature are becoming increasingly important influencers of mental health. Incorporating data gathered from real-life contexts holds promise to substantially enhance laboratory experiments by providing a more comprehensive understanding of everyday behaviors in natural environments. We provide an up-to-date review of current technological and methodological developments in mental health assessments, neuroimaging and environmental sensing...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Maciej Stolarski, Katarzyna Czajkowska-Łukasiewicz, Rafał Styła, Anna Zajenkowska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ability to perform mental time travels and to develop representations of the past, the present, and the future is one of the distinctive capacities of the human mind. Despite its pronounced consequences for motivation, cognition, affect, and subjective well being, time perspective (TP) has been outside mainstream psychiatry and clinical psychology. We highlight the role of psychological-temporal phenomena in various disorders and summarize the current research on TP and psychopathology...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Stephen N Xenakis, Scott M Shannon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pace of psychedelic treatments continues to increase. Regulation and coherent clinical guidance have not been established. A philosophical divide limits effective resolution of a practice delivery quandary: is this primarily a pharmacological or psychotherapeutic intervention? RECENT FINDINGS: Lykos (formerly MAPS) has submitted its new drug application (NDA) request to the FDA for 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD and is expecting a response by the summer of 2024...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
John B Saunders, Gary Chan, Janni Leung, Daniel Stjepanović, Jason P Connor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the diagnoses related to problem gaming that are included in ICD-11, published by the WHO in 2022. It summarizes the recent literature on the prevalence of Gaming Disorder, its structure, antecedents and comorbidities, and explores whether the range of diagnoses currently available adequately covers the range of experiences seen with problem gaming. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, between 3 and 6% of the population worldwide are reported to have a gaming disorder as defined by ICD-11 or DSM-5...
July 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Teris Cheung, Kwan Hin Fong, Yu-Tao Xiang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urbanization is a multifaceted process that can have both positive and negative effects on mental health, especially in adolescents. This paper attempts to summarize the impact of urbanization on youth mental health in Hong Kong. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have shown that urbanization is associated with an increased risk of youth mental health problems in Hong Kong. Psychosocial factors like perceived stress, social isolation, and exposure to environmental pollutants may contribute to a negative association between urbanization and mental health issues...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Lynn E DeLisi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of the most up-to-date thoughts about treatment for schizophrenia at different stages of illness. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of Coordinated Specialty Care clinics has arisen as the standard for early on in the treatment of psychosis, providing the notion that recovery is possible. New medications that do not depend on postsynaptic dopamine receptor blockade are soon becoming available. SUMMARY: A focus should be made by clinicians to personalize treatment plans for each patient who has the possibility of being diagnosed with a primary psychosis and the plan should be to predict outcomes based on biological markers that include genetic vulnerability, early psychosocial combined with pharmacological treatments as needed and then a plan to determine or maintain treatments going forward into the future...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Sandeep Grover, Natarajan Varadharajan, Sandesh Venu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urbanization, a complex global phenomenon, has a significant bearing on schizophrenia/psychosis burden through various socioeconomic and environmental factors. This review focuses on recent evidence (2019-2023) linking urbanization, schizophrenia, and the role of green space. RECENT FINDINGS: This review analyzed 43 articles that examined the correlation between urban birth or upbringing, urban living (urbanicity), and various schizophrenia/psychosis-related outcomes such as incidence, psychotic experiences, etc...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Bea R H Van den Bergh, Marta C Antonelli, Dan J Stein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Perinatal mental health research provides an important perspective on neurobehavioral development. Here, we aim to review the association of maternal perinatal health with offspring neurodevelopment, providing an update on (self-)regulation problems, hypothesized mechanistic pathways, progress and challenges, and implications for mental health. RECENT FINDINGS: (1) Meta-analyses confirm that maternal perinatal mental distress is associated with (self-)regulation problems which constitute cognitive, behavioral, and affective social-emotional problems, while exposure to positive parental mental health has a positive impact...
May 1, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Nicole D Fitzgerald, Linda B Cottler, Joseph J Palamar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge globally and present a threat to public health. This article summarizes the most recent literature on approaches for monitoring NPS use and adverse events related to use. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of approaches have recently been employed for surveillance of NPS use and associated harms, including the use of toxicology testing of patients in emergency departments, surveys of sentinel populations, drug checking and syringe services programs, wastewater-based epidemiology, and retrospective analyses of clinical samples and toxicology reports...
March 27, 2024: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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