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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

Duco van der Burg, Cleo L Crunelle, Frieda Matthys, Wim van den Brink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often presents with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD). Due to similarities in key symptoms of both disorders and suboptimal efficacy of the available treatments, clinicians are faced with difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients with both disorders. This review addresses recent publications between 2017 and 2019 on the etiology, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of co-occurring ADHD and SUD...
April 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Max Wenden Abbott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess recent developments in self-directed interventions for gambling disorder and at-risk gambling. RECENT FINDINGS: Relevant reviews and meta-analyses were published during 2017 and 2018. These reviews assess the nature and efficacy of self-directed and largely self-directed interventions including self-change, assisted self-change and mutual aid support groups. Additional reviews cover government and industry strategies to reduce harm including gambling venue and site self-exclusion and a variety of responsible gambling and consumer protection measures...
April 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Jonathan Buchholz, Andrew J Saxon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cocaine is a highly addictive substance with serious medical and mental health consequences. Despite these concerns, there are no food and drug administration-approved medications for the treatment of cocaine use disorder (CUD). Although many medication-assisted treatments (MATs) have been investigated, no clear guidelines exist for clinicians treating patients with CUDs. RECENT FINDINGS: There are a limited number of recent data examining MATs for CUD...
April 16, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Sari Castrén, Niklas Mäkelä, Hannu Alho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Only a few pharmacological treatments are available for treating alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and nalmefene is EMA-approved in European Union. Off-label medications, such as baclofen, gabapentin, ondansetron and topiramate are medications commonly prescribed for the treatment of AUD. The aim of this review is to give an update on recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviews evaluating pharmacological treatment for AUD...
April 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Pratima Murthy, Jayant Mahadevan, Prabhat K Chand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of treatment for substance use in patients with co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD) and mental health disorders (dual diagnosis) with a focus on both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 1435 abstracts were identified, of which we selectively reviewed 43 for this narrative review. There is emerging evidence, both clinical and neurobiological, that clozapine is a more efficacious antipsychotic in treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and SUD...
April 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Tianzhen Chen, Min Zhao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in minimizing the harms caused by opioid dependence, as well as China's current challenges in this area. In addition, we aim to discuss the treatment strategies for opioid dependence within the international community in the current global situation of serious abuse of opioids. RECENT FINDINGS: Like other countries facing the opioid crisis, China is actively working on revising policy, improving the addiction treatment system and promotion of MMT clinics to cope with the risks of opioid abuse...
March 19, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Maya Semrau, Norman Sartorius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of recent progress within work centred around the 'International schedule for the integrated assessment and staging of care for dementia' (IDEAL schedule), and places it within the context of recent work around other staging models for dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: The IDEAL schedule assesses the severity of dementia across seven dimensions. A 'Menu of care options' of recommended priorities for interventions accompanies the schedule...
March 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Grace K Ryan, Maya Semrau, Eddie Nkurunungi, Richard S Mpango
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Lancet Commission on global mental health and sustainable development claims the field of global mental health is undergoing a 'transformational shift' toward an ethic of 'nothing about us without us'. Yet a systematic review published in 2016 identified few examples of meaningful participation by service users in mental health systems strengthening in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). To investigate whether this is still the case, we conducted a rapid review of primary research published between June 2017 and December 2018...
March 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Johan Ormel, Ronald C Kessler, Robert Schoevers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the 70s, treatment of depression, especially pharmacologically, has expanded enormously. However, epidemiological studies show that 12-month population prevalence rates have not dropped. This observation raises multiple questions. How good are treatments of depression actually? Do they improve long-term outcomes? Have the treatment gaps narrowed? And how can we make mental healthcare more effective at the population level? RECENT FINDINGS: Recent publications suggest some answers...
March 6, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Irina Franke, Tobias Vogel, Reinhard Eher, Manuela Dudeck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In prisons, resources for psychiatric care are limited, but the population is at high risk for mental disorders. This article aims to review recent findings and developments and to focus on the changing needs of prisoners and consequences for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence for high general prevalence rates of mental disorders in prison populations can be considered as robust worldwide. Recent meta-analyses focused on specific prevalence rates and found that complex disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, are also more common in prison populations...
March 6, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Nathalie Oexle, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Diego DeLeo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to present notable findings and developments in suicide prevention research and in particular, strategies to detect persons at risk for suicide as well as strategies to reduce suicide risk among the general population and specific risk groups. RECENT FINDINGS: Popular strategies to detect persons at risk for suicide include scanning social media posts, prediction models using electronic health record data as well as the use of experienced sampling methodology to enhance our understanding of the suicidal process...
March 6, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Christopher P Szabo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Christin Weissleder, Hayley F North, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aberrant neurogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis, pathophysiology and symptoms of schizophrenia. This review summarizes the state of knowledge of adult neurogenesis in schizophrenia and raises important unanswered questions. We highlight how alterations in signalling molecules in the local and peripheral environments in schizophrenia may regulate adult neurogenesis in the human subgranular zone of the hippocampus and the subependymal zone (SEZ). RECENT FINDINGS: Cell proliferation and density of mature neurons are reduced in the hippocampus, yet the extent of adult neurogenesis remains unexplored in the SEZ in schizophrenia...
February 12, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Sasha Gorrell, Claire Trainor, Daniel Le Grange
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urbanization has broadly been implicated in negatively impacting mental health, including risk for disordered eating and eating disorders. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to risk for maladaptive eating behavior in the context of urbanization is essential to improving public health policy and guiding future clinical, research, and prevention efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: This review of recent investigation related to the impact of urbanization on eating disease highlights specific risk factors for eating disorders, including acculturation to Western standards of beauty and food resources with associated body weight and body image concern...
February 4, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Lesley J Robertson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asia and Africa are experiencing rapid urbanization and rural growth. This review focuses on the impact of urbanization on preventive and treatment mental health service provision with attention to the Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa economic bloc and sub-Saharan Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: A search of the PubMed, Academic Search Ultimate, and Global Health databases, and use of Google Scholar yielded relevant health, environmental, and urban planning research articles from sub-Saharan Africa and Brazil, India, China, and South Africa ...
February 4, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Anne-Kathrin J Fett, Imke L J Lemmers-Jansen, Lydia Krabbendam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiological studies associate city living with an elevated psychosis risk. Urban (social/economic) stress and exposure to environmental toxins, pollution or disease agents have been proposed to underlie this association. This review provides an update on the recent evidence (May 2017 - November 2018). RECENT FINDINGS: Of 647 screened studies, 17 on: urbanicity-psychosis associations in worldwide high, middle and low-income countries; explanatory mechanisms, including nature exposure, social and economic stressors and genetic risk; urbanicity effects on the brain and coping; and urbanicity and resources, were included...
February 4, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Lynn E DeLisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Iris E Sommer, Priscilla P Oomen, Alkomiet Hasan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of recent studies relevant for maintenance treatment with antipsychotic medication after a first psychotic episode (FEP). RECENT FINDINGS: Despite controversy derived from a follow-up analysis from an earlier study showing that attempted early discontinuation after remission was associated with improved long-term functioning, most other studies support better long-term outcome with continuous maintenance treatment after the first episode...
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Saher Hoda Kamil, Dawn I Velligan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To better understand the overall burden of schizophrenia, we aimed to explore informal caregivers' experiences by evaluating the current evidence on caregiver and patient characteristics, the type of care provided by caregivers, and the impacts of caregiving on caregivers' lives. RECENT FINDINGS: Caregivers provide direct care, assistance with activities of daily living, and emotional, social, and financial support to individuals with schizophrenia...
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Christian G Widschwendter, Alex Hofer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the frequency of antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and its management in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in studies published since the last systematic review in 2008. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data about antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia underscore the superiority of newer generation antipsychotics (21%) over first-generation antipsychotics (30%) with respect to prevalence and incidence rates...
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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