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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Page 2

Frederick G Hayden, Nahoko Shindo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review antivirals inhibiting subunits of the influenza polymerase complex that are advancing in clinical development. RECENT FINDINGS: Favipiravir, pimodivir, and baloxavir are inhibitory in preclinical models for influenza A viruses, including pandemic threat viruses and those resistant to currently approved antivirals, and two (favipiravir and baloxavir) also inhibit influenza B viruses. All are orally administered, although the dosing regimens vary...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Silvia Corcione, Tommaso Lupia, Francesco G De Rosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breast surgery is considered a clean surgical procedure; nevertheless, infection rates are often higher than those reported after other similarly considered clean surgeries (e.g., thyroid, hernia). Acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, mostly surgical site infections and implant-associated infections are commonest events that could complicate postoperative care. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk of infection is closely related to surgery procedure itself and patients host factors...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Sarah Neill, Nathan Dean
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose is to describe aspiration pneumonia/pneumonitis as a spectrum of infectious/noninfectious diseases affecting the lung. We summarize diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and strategies for prevention of aspiration. RECENT FINDINGS: Aspiration is present in normal individuals, and disease manifestation depends on the chemical characteristics, frequency, and volume of inoculum. Anaerobes, though present, are no longer the predominant microbes isolated in aspiration pneumonia...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Lucy B Palmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Two recent large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of adjunctive inhaled therapy for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia failed to show a mortality effect or more rapid resolution of pneumonia symptoms. Does the failure of these studies to reach their endpoints suggest the end of inhaled therapy? This review will explain why inhaled therapy may still have an important role in the treatment of ventilated patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent interest in inhaled antimicrobial therapy is driven by the global emergence of increasingly resistant bacteria to systemic therapy...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Matteo Bassetti, Nadia Castaldo, Barbara Cadeo, Alessia Carnelutti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) represent one of the most disastrous complications in prosthetic surgery, requiring long hospitalization, prolonged antimicrobial treatment and repeated surgical interventions. No gold standard test to formulate diagnosis exist. A combination of high index of suspicion, physical examination, microbiological and biohumoral investigations is required. Therapeutical approach should be based on a multidisciplinary team. In our center, a two-stage approach is preferred...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
David M Jacobs, Ursula Pandit, Sanjay Sethi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute exacerbations are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with evidence suggesting at least 50% of exacerbations involve bacteria that benefit from antibiotic treatment. Here, we review the most relevant data regarding the use of antibiotics in exacerbations of COPD and provide insights on the selection of initial antibiotic therapy for their treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Identification of bacterial exacerbations still relies on clinical assessment rather than laboratory biomarkers...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Ilker Uçkay, Martin Berli, Parham Sendi, Benjamin A Lipsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic antibiotic therapy in persons with a diabetic foot infection (DFI) is frequent, increasing the risk of promoting resistance to common pathogens. Applying principles of antibiotic stewardship may help avoid this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review of the literature, especially seeking recently published studies, for data on the role and value of antibiotic stewardship (especially reducing the spectrum and duration of antibiotic therapy) in community and hospital populations of persons with a DFI...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Elda Righi, Alessia Carnelutti, Matteo Bassetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An increase of skin and soft tissue infections involving Staphylococcus aureus has been reported in community and hospital settings. Methicillin resistance in S. aureus is associated with treatment failure and increased mortality. Recently, new antimicrobials with enhanced activity against methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus have been approved for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. Among these, novel oxazolidinones and lipoglycopeptides represent options with favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics and safety profiles...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Garyphallia Poulakou, Styliani Lagou, Sotirios Tsiodras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most common infections in outpatients and the most frequent infectious cause of referrals to emergency departments in developed world, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare expenditures. We sought to review recent literature covering epidemiology of SSTIs. RECENT FINDINGS: Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci predominate and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) poses additional challenges; community-acquired-MRSA in some areas is superseding methicillin-susceptible S...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Paola Del Giacomo, Angela Raffaella Losito, Mario Tumbarello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) with a wide spectrum of disease severity ranging from uncomplicated to potentially lethal are still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The burden of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) in SSTIs is increasing. Luckily, the armamentarium of drugs available is recently expanding as well. The present review looks at data on the role CR-GNB in SSTIs and on the old and new drugs available for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Angela Branche, Olivia Neeser, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is convincing evidence linking antibiotic-stewardship efforts which include the infection marker procalcitonin (PCT) to more rational use of antibiotics with improvements in side-effects and clinical outcomes. This is particularly true in the setting of respiratory infection and sepsis. Yet, some recent trials have shown no benefit of PCT-guided care. Our aim was to discuss the benefits and limitations of using PCT for early infection recognition, severity assessment and therapeutic decisions in individual patients based on most the recent study data...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
José-Artur Paiva, José M Pereira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of lung fungal infections, namely invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and mucormycosis, is increasing in neutropenic and nonneutropenic patients. As they are a major cause of death, early diagnosis and antifungal therapy are crucial for outcome. The role of biomarkers in the management of this infections is the scope of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage shows the best discriminatory power for IPA diagnosis...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Anjali Patel, Rajul Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Technology to rapidly determine the partial or full genomic sequences of large viruses has developed rapidly in the last few years. Required sample sizes have diminished and sequencing of directly collected patient samples is now possible. Using banked samples from a number of clinical studies researchers have investigated how genomic variation may determine pathogenicity and answering important questions around the limits of vaccine therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural variation in HSV-1 and HSV-2 geographically has been determined...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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February 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Sanjeet S Dadwal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytomegalovirus infection (CMVi) has been the troll of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Over the last 4 decades various approaches have been adopted to minimize the burden from CMVi. There has been major advancement in the management of CMVi in HCT within the last few years that is poised to change the approaches employed in preventing and managing CMVi. This review will summarize recent advances and potential future development in the management of CMV in HCT...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Karen E Rogstad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review considers recent evidence on travel-associated sexual intercourse and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risks and travel with regards to risk behavior and implications of travel on communities. It highlights the lack of research in this area and topics for consideration. RECENT FINDINGS: A population-based study, and others, shows significant levels of sex abroad and risk behavior with inconsistent condom use despite increasing travel advice about risks...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
José Garnacho-Montero, Jean-François Timsit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed recent data about epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii, resistance mechanisms, and therapeutic options for severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains. RECENT FINDINGS: A. baumannii is a major cause of nosocomial infections affecting mainly to debilitating patients in the ICU, although the spread to regular wards and to long-term care facilities is increasing. It is characterized by its great persistence in the environment and to have an extraordinary capability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Henry J C de Vries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a serious sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. If left untreated LGV can cause irreversible late sequelae. LGV is endemic among a high-risk population of men who have sex with men (MSM), and largely reported in Western metropoles. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the majority of LGV patients are HIV positive, in recent years the proportion of HIV-negative MSM with LGV is rising. This could indicate a shift toward lower risk populations...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Hans Verstraelen, Alexander Swidsinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial vaginosis is conventionally appreciated as a temporary community disturbance of the vaginal microbiota, though really involving self-organization as a resilient biofilm community. We will briefly review here how recent findings on this matter may affect practice and research in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: The rapidly expanding literature base on the vaginal microbiome is largely based on 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and cpn60 gene sequencing, with few studies accounting thus far for spatial microbiota organization...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
David S Lawrence, Timothée Boyer-Chammard, Joseph N Jarvis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant contributor to AIDS-related mortality despite widened access to antiretroviral therapy. Even in clinical trial settings 10-week mortality is roughly 40%. A number of important clinical trials have either recently concluded or are actively recruiting. RECENT FINDINGS: Global burden of disease estimates suggest cryptococcal meningitis causes 181 100 deaths annually. Screening blood for cryptococcal antigen in HIV-infected individuals with CD4 cell counts less than 100 cells/μl and preemptive antifungal treatment for those with detectable cryptococcal antigen reduces the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis and is likely to reduce mortality...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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