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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Page 2

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31259864/controversy-around-airborne-versus-droplet-transmission-of-respiratory-viruses-implication-for-infection-prevention
#21
Eunice Y C Shiu, Nancy H L Leung, Benjamin J Cowling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Health agencies recommend transmission-based precautions, including contact, droplet and airborne precautions, to mitigate transmission of respiratory viruses in healthcare settings. There is particular controversy over the importance of aerosol transmission and whether airborne precautions should be recommended for some respiratory viruses. Here, we review the current recommendations of transmission-based precautions and the latest evidence on the aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses...
August 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31169551/editorial-diagnosis-of-infection-in-immunocompromised-patients-from-microscopy-to-next-generation-sequencing-and-host-gene-signatures
#22
José G Montoya, Ashrit Multani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31157630/risk-of-invasive-fungal-infections-during-hospital-construction-how-to-minimize-its-impact-in-immunocompromised-patients
#23
Carlos Arturo Alvarez-Moreno, Juan Felipe Combariza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fungal outbreaks have been reported in healthcare settings, showing that construction activities are a serious threat to immunocompromised hosts. Preventive measures to control fungal outbreaks (especially Aspergillus spp.) are considered essential during hospital construction. In this article, we update the main advances in each of preventive strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Anticipation and multidisciplinary teamwork are the keystone for fungal outbreaks prevention...
August 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31145116/personal-protective-equipment-for-viral-hemorrhagic-fevers
#24
Deepa Raj, Emilio Hornsey, Trish M Perl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) encompass many organisms that have caused sporadic outbreaks with high case fatality rates. This article reviews VHF with reported human-to-human transmission and describes updates about personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare personnel (HCP) and others. We summarize existing information about appropriate PPE use, training, and compliance for care of VHF patients in endemic and nonendemic countries, as well as addresses the challenges HCP experience when using PPE...
August 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31116134/clostridioides-difficile-in-transplant-patients-early-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention
#25
Sara L Revolinski, L Silva Munoz-Price
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridioides difficile infection is common in solid organ transplant and hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These populations are also underrepresented in clinical trials, making optimal management difficult. Because of this, management of these populations follows national guideline recommendations. This review aims to summarize the recent relevant literature pertaining to the clinical management of C...
August 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31116132/approach-to-infection-and-disease-due-to-adenoviruses-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#26
Diana F Florescu, Erica J Stohs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adenoviruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality of solid organ transplant patients and remain a clinical challenge with regard to diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we provide an approach to identification and classification of adenovirus infection and disease, highlight risk factors, and outline management options for adenovirus disease in solid organ transplant patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Additional clinical data and pathologic findings of adenovirus disease in different organs and transplant recipients are known...
August 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021958/typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-a-call-to-action-erratum
#27
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021957/update-on-spinal-epidural-abscess
#28
Maja Babic, Claus S Simpfendorfer, Elie F Berbari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is still a rare but potentially very morbid infection of the spine. In recent years, the incidence has risen sharply but the condition remains a medical conundrum wrought with unacceptably long diagnostic delays. The outcome depends on timely diagnosis and missed opportunities can be associated with catastrophic consequences. Management and outcomes have improved over the past decade. This review focuses on risk factors and markers that can aid in establishing the diagnosis, the radiological characteristics of SEA on MRI and their clinical implications, as well as the importance of establishing clear indications for surgical decompression...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021956/immune-mediated-encephalitis-for-the-infectious-disease-specialist
#29
Arun Venkatesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized and must be distinguished from infectious forms of encephalitis. Moreover, physicians should be aware of infectious triggers of autoimmune encephalitis and of infectious complications associated with treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the incidence of autoimmune encephalitis may rival that of infectious encephalitis. Although distinguishing autoimmune from infectious forms of encephalitis on clinical grounds can be challenging, recently proposed diagnostic criteria can provide some assistance...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021955/update-and-advances-in-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#30
Rodrigo Hasbun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis continues to occur and be associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite the availability of effective conjugate vaccines for the three most important meningeal pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: Indications for cranial imaging in suspected bacterial meningitis varies significantly between guidelines. Cranial imaging is of no clinical utility in those patients without indications and fosters delays in performing a lumbar puncture...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021954/editorial-foreword
#31
Adarsh Bhimraj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021953/regulation-of-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-gram-positive-microbes-in-response-to-cell-wall-active-antibiotics
#32
Jessica J Evans, Devin D Bolz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibiotic stress can evoke considerable genotypic and phenotypic changes in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we review recent studies describing altered virulence expression in response to cell wall-acting antibiotics and discuss mechanisms that coordinate regulation of the antibiotic response. RECENT FINDINGS: Pleiotropic effects induced by antibiotic exposure include alterations to bacterial metabolism, cell wall structure and antibiotic resistance...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31021952/immune-memory-characteristics-of-innate-lymphoid-cells
#33
Katarzyna Placek, Joachim L Schultze, Mihai G Netea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune memory is essential for host defense against invaders and it is also used as a basis for vaccine development. For these reasons, it is crucial to understand its molecular basis. In this review, we describe recent findings on memory characteristics of innate-like lymphocytes and its contribution to host protection.(Figure is included in full-text article.) RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to adaptive immune cells, innate cells are also able to mount memory responses through a process called 'trained immunity...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31008724/human-prion-diseases
#34
Han Wang, Daniel D Rhoads, Brian S Appleby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prion diseases are rapidly progressive neurodegenerative conditions that can be difficult to diagnose and are transmissible under specific circumstances. The authors will provide background regarding prion disease and focus on diagnostic tools. RECENT FINDINGS: Prion disease is caused by misfolded prion protein. The three possible causes of prion disease include sporadic (85%), genetic (10-15%), and acquired (<1%). Acquired prion diseases include kuru, iatrogenic, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30973394/infectious-causes-of-stroke
#35
Dinesh V Jillella, Dolora R Wisco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stroke continuous to be a leading cause of debility in the world. Infections have been associated with stroke, but are not considered as directly causal, and so they are not often included in the traditional stroke workup and management. They are especially important in patients with stroke of undetermined etiology, and in certain patient populations, such as young patients without traditional risk factors, and immunocompromised patients. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been strong evidence for infectious conditions, such as endocarditis, and pathogens, such as varicella zoster in stroke causation, and more supportive evidence is surfacing in recent years of several organisms increasing the stroke risk or being directly causal in stroke...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30950853/monoclonal-antibody-based-therapies-for-bacterial-infections
#36
Michael P Motley, Kasturi Banerjee, Bettina C Fries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent developments in the development of monoclonal antibodies to treat bacterial disease, including preclinical advances and the status of current clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is becoming increasingly promising in the infectious disease field. Though bacterial exotoxins continue to be a mainstay of mAb targets, searches for protein targets on the surface of bacteria have uncovered new mechanisms of antibody-mediated action against bacteria...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30921087/herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-update
#37
Jean Paul Stahl, Alexandra Mailles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HSV is the most frequently identified cause of infectious encephalitis, in Western countries. This article is an update on the topic based on a review of recent studies from 2017 to 2018. RECENT FINDINGS: Acyclovir is still the first line treatment, and no new drugs are currently available for clinical use. The major considerations for HSV encephalitis are as follows: point one, clinical evaluation remains the most important factor, as though CSF HSV PCR has a good sensitivity, in a small proportion of patients the initial testing might be negative...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30921086/lyme-neuroborreliosis
#38
John J Halperin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent evidence clarifying the symptomatology and diagnosis of nervous system Lyme disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Two-tier testing combining pairs of ELISAs, using C6 or VlsE assays to replace second tier Western blots, may eliminate confusion about test interpretation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be informative in diagnosing central nervous system (CNS) Lyme disease, not peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders. CSF CXCL13 may provide useful adjunctive information in CNS infection; its specificity remains to be defined...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30921084/update-on-fungal-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-emerging-pathogens-and-emerging-diagnostics
#39
Karen C Bloch, Samuel S Bailin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are relatively uncommon but associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We reviewed recent literature highlighting new approaches to management of these complex patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Fungal infections are increasingly recognized as important causes of CNS disease in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Globally, cryptococcal meningitis remains a leading cause of death in HIV-infected persons in resource-limited settings...
June 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31135389/controversy-around-airborne-versus-droplet-transmission-of-respiratory-viruses-implication-for-infection-prevention
#40
Eunice Y C Shiu, Nancy H L Leung, Benjamin J Cowling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Health agencies recommend transmission-based precautions, including contact, droplet and airborne precautions, to mitigate transmission of respiratory viruses in healthcare settings. There is particular controversy over the importance of aerosol transmission and whether airborne precautions should be recommended for some respiratory viruses. Here, we review the current recommendations of transmission-based precautions and the latest evidence on the aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses...
May 22, 2019: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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