Paul S Muhle-Karbe, Hannah Sheahan, Giovanni Pezzulo, Hugo J Spiers, Samson Chien, Nicolas W Schuck, Christopher Summerfield
Humans can navigate flexibly to meet their goals. Here, we asked how the neural representation of allocentric space is distorted by goal-directed behavior. Participants navigated an agent to two successive goal locations in a grid world environment comprising four interlinked rooms, with a contextual cue indicating the conditional dependence of one goal location on another. Examining the neural geometry by which room and context were encoded in fMRI signals, we found that map-like representations of the environment emerged in both hippocampus and neocortex...
September 14, 2023: Neuron
Annie Handler, Qiyu Zhang, Song Pang, Tri M Nguyen, Michael Iskols, Michael Nolan-Tamariz, Stuart Cattel, Rebecca Plumb, Brianna Sanchez, Karyl Ashjian, Aria Shotland, Bartianna Brown, Madiha Kabeer, Josef Turecek, Michelle M DeLisle, Genelle Rankin, Wangchu Xiang, Elisa C Pavarino, Nusrat Africawala, Celine Santiago, Wei-Chung Allen Lee, C Shan Xu, David D Ginty
Across mammalian skin, structurally complex and diverse mechanosensory end organs respond to mechanical stimuli and enable our perception of dynamic, light touch. How forces act on morphologically dissimilar mechanosensory end organs of the skin to gate the requisite mechanotransduction channel Piezo2 and excite mechanosensory neurons is not understood. Here, we report high-resolution reconstructions of the hair follicle lanceolate complex, Meissner corpuscle, and Pacinian corpuscle and the subcellular distribution of Piezo2 within them...
September 13, 2023: Neuron
Pingping Song, Wesley Peng, Veronique Sauve, Rayan Fakih, Zhong Xie, Daniel Ysselstein, Talia Krainc, Yvette C Wong, Niccolò E Mencacci, Jeffrey N Savas, D James Surmeier, Kalle Gehring, Dimitri Krainc
Parkin-mediated mitophagy has been studied extensively, but whether mutations in parkin contribute to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis through alternative mechanisms remains unexplored. Using patient-derived dopaminergic neurons, we found that phosphorylation of parkin by Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CaMK2) at Ser9 leads to activation of parkin in a neuronal-activity-dependent manner. Activated parkin ubiquitinates synaptojanin-1, facilitating its interaction with endophilin A1 and synaptic vesicle recycling...
September 13, 2023: Neuron
Fabian Grabenhorst, Adrián Ponce-Alvarez, Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer, Gustavo Deco, Wolfram Schultz
Primates make decisions visually by shifting their view from one object to the next, comparing values between objects, and choosing the best reward, even before acting. Here, we show that when monkeys make value-guided choices, amygdala neurons encode their decisions in an abstract, purely internal representation defined by the monkey's current view but not by specific object or reward properties. Across amygdala subdivisions, recorded activity patterns evolved gradually from an object-specific value code to a transient, object-independent code in which currently viewed and last-viewed objects competed to reflect the emerging view-based choice...
September 9, 2023: Neuron
Sean M O'Toole, Hassana K Oyibo, Georg B Keller
Predictive processing postulates the existence of prediction error neurons in cortex. Neurons with both negative and positive prediction error response properties have been identified in layer 2/3 of visual cortex, but whether they correspond to transcriptionally defined subpopulations is unclear. Here we used the activity-dependent, photoconvertible marker CaMPARI2 to tag neurons in layer 2/3 of mouse visual cortex during stimuli and behaviors designed to evoke prediction errors. We performed single-cell RNA-sequencing on these populations and found that previously annotated Adamts2 and Rrad layer 2/3 transcriptional cell types were enriched when photolabeling during stimuli that drive negative or positive prediction error responses, respectively...
September 6, 2023: Neuron
Marcus Berndt, Massimo Trusel, Todd F Roberts, Brad E Pfeiffer, Lenora J Volk
Neuronal activity during experience is thought to induce plastic changes within the hippocampal network that underlie memory formation, although the extent and details of such changes in vivo remain unclear. Here, we employed a temporally precise marker of neuronal activity, CaMPARI2, to label active CA1 hippocampal neurons in vivo, followed by immediate acute slice preparation and electrophysiological quantification of synaptic properties. Recently active neurons in the superficial sublayer of stratum pyramidale displayed larger post-synaptic responses at excitatory synapses from area CA3, with no change in pre-synaptic release probability...
September 1, 2023: Neuron
Eunhee Kim, Hyeonwoo Kim, Mark P Jedrychowski, Grisilda Bakiasi, Joseph Park, Jane Kruskop, Younjung Choi, Sang Su Kwak, Luisa Quinti, Doo Yeon Kim, Christiane D Wrann, Bruce M Spiegelman, Rudolph E Tanzi, Se Hoon Choi
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein in the brain. Physical exercise has been shown to reduce Aβ burden in various AD mouse models, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Irisin, an exercise-induced hormone, is the secreted form of fibronectin type-III-domain-containing 5 (FNDC5). Here, using a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model of AD, we show that irisin significantly reduces Aβ pathology by increasing astrocytic release of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin (NEP)...
August 30, 2023: Neuron
Rui Zhan, Xia Meng, Dongping Tian, Jie Xu, Hongtu Cui, Jialei Yang, Yangkai Xu, Mingming Shi, Jing Xue, Weiwei Yu, Gaofei Hu, Ke Li, Xiaoxiao Ge, Qi Zhang, Mingming Zhao, Jianyong Du, Xin Guo, Wenli Xu, Yang Gao, Changyu Yao, Fan Chen, Yue Chen, Wenxin Shan, Yujie Zhu, Liang Ji, Bing Pan, Yan Yu, Wenguang Li, Xuyang Zhao, Qihua He, Xiaohui Liu, Yue Huang, Shengyou Liao, Bin Zhou, Dehua Chui, Y Eugene Chen, Zheng Sun, Erdan Dong, Yongjun Wang, Lemin Zheng
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) function deteriorates during aging, contributing to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. It is unclear what drives BBB leakage in aging and how it can be prevented. Using single-nucleus transcriptomics, we identified decreased connexin 43 (CX43) expression in cadherin-5+ (Cdh5+ ) cerebral vascular cells in naturally aging mice and confirmed it in human brain samples. Global or Cdh5+ cell-specific CX43 deletion in mice exacerbated BBB dysfunction during aging. The CX43-dependent effect was not due to its canonical gap junction function but was associated with reduced NAD+ levels and mitochondrial dysfunction through NAD+ -dependent sirtuin 3 (SIRT3)...
August 29, 2023: Neuron
Simone Ferrari-Toniolo, Wolfram Schultz
Behavior-related neuronal signals often vary between neurons, which might reflect the unreliability of individual neurons or a truly heterogeneous code. This notion may also apply to economic ("value-based") choices and the underlying reward signals. Reward value is subjective and can be described by a nonlinearly weighted magnitude (utility) and probability. Defining subjective values relies on the continuity axiom, whose testing involves structured variations of a wide range of reward magnitudes and probabilities...
August 29, 2023: Neuron
Rina Zelmann, Angelique C Paulk, Fangyun Tian, Gustavo A Balanza Villegas, Jaquelin Dezha Peralta, Britni Crocker, G Rees Cosgrove, R Mark Richardson, Ziv M Williams, Darin D Dougherty, Patrick L Purdon, Sydney S Cash
What happens in the human brain when we are unconscious? Despite substantial work, we are still unsure which brain regions are involved and how they are impacted when consciousness is disrupted. Using intracranial recordings and direct electrical stimulation, we mapped global, network, and regional involvement during wake vs. arousable unconsciousness (sleep) vs. non-arousable unconsciousness (propofol-induced general anesthesia). Information integration and complex processing we`re reduced, while variability increased in any type of unconscious state...
August 29, 2023: Neuron
Richard J Burman, Paul J N Brodersen, Joseph V Raimondo, Arjune Sen, Colin J Akerman
Fast synaptic inhibition determines neuronal response properties in the mammalian brain and is mediated by chloride-permeable ionotropic GABA-A receptors (GABAA Rs). Despite their fundamental role, it is still not known how GABAA Rs signal in the intact brain. Here, we use in vivo gramicidin recordings to investigate synaptic GABAA R signaling in mouse cortical pyramidal neurons under conditions that preserve native transmembrane chloride gradients. In anesthetized cortex, synaptic GABAA Rs exert classic hyperpolarizing effects...
August 29, 2023: Neuron
John Cowgill, Chen Fan, Nandan Haloi, Victor Tobiasson, Yuxuan Zhuang, Rebecca J Howard, Erik Lindahl
The neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) drives critical inhibitory processes in and beyond the nervous system, partly via ionotropic type-A receptors (GABAA Rs). Pharmacological properties of ρ-type GABAA Rs are particularly distinctive, yet the structural basis for their specialization remains unclear. Here, we present cryo-EM structures of a lipid-embedded human ρ1 GABAA R, including a partial intracellular domain, under apo, inhibited, and desensitized conditions. An apparent resting state, determined first in the absence of modulators, was recapitulated with the specific inhibitor (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid and blocker picrotoxin and provided a rationale for bicuculline insensitivity...
August 25, 2023: Neuron
Lindsay Willmore, Adelaide R Minerva, Ben Engelhard, Malavika Murugan, Brenna McMannon, Nirja Oak, Stephan Y Thiberge, Catherine J Peña, Ilana B Witten
Dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTADA ) respond to food and social stimuli and contribute to both forms of motivation. However, it is unclear whether the same or different VTADA neurons encode these different stimuli. To address this question, we performed two-photon calcium imaging in mice presented with food and conspecifics and found statistically significant overlap in the populations responsive to both stimuli. Both hunger and opposite-sex social experience further increased the proportion of neurons that respond to both stimuli, implying that increasing motivation for one stimulus increases overlap...
August 25, 2023: Neuron
Daniela Rojo, Louisa Dal Cengio, Anna Badner, Samuel Kim, Noriaki Sakai, Jacob Greene, Tess Dierckx, Lindsey C Mehl, Ella Eisinger, Julia Ransom, Caroline Arellano-Garcia, Mohammad E Gumma, Rebecca L Soyk, Cheyanne M Lewis, Mable Lam, Maya K Weigel, Valentina Martinez Damonte, Belgin Yalçın, Samuel E Jones, Hanna M Ollila, Seiji Nishino, Erin M Gibson
Myelination depends on the maintenance of oligodendrocytes that arise from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). We show that OPC-specific proliferation, morphology, and BMAL1 are time-of-day dependent. Knockout of Bmal1 in mouse OPCs during development disrupts the expression of genes associated with circadian rhythms, proliferation, density, morphology, and migration, leading to changes in OPC dynamics in a spatiotemporal manner. Furthermore, these deficits translate into thinner myelin, dysregulated cognitive and motor functions, and sleep fragmentation...
August 25, 2023: Neuron
Kaibin Wu, Dijia Wang, Yuwei Wang, Peiwen Tang, Xuan Li, Yidi Pan, Huizhong W Tao, Li I Zhang, Feixue Liang
Safety assessment and threat evaluation are crucial for animals to live and survive in the wilderness. However, neural circuits underlying safety assessment and their transformation to mediate flexibility of fear-induced defensive behaviors remain largely unknown. Here, we report that distinct neuronal populations in mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) encode safety status by selectively responding under different contexts of auditory threats, with one preferably activated when an animal staysing in a self-deemed safe zone and another specifically activated in more dangerous environmental settings that led to escape behavior...
August 25, 2023: Neuron
Zohreh Farsi, Ally Nicolella, Sean K Simmons, Sameer Aryal, Nate Shepard, Kira Brenner, Sherry Lin, Linnea Herzog, Sean P Moran, Katherine J Stalnaker, Wangyong Shin, Vahid Gazestani, Bryan J Song, Kevin Bonanno, Hasmik Keshishian, Steven A Carr, Jen Q Pan, Evan Z Macosko, Sandeep Robert Datta, Borislav Dejanovic, Eunjoon Kim, Joshua Z Levin, Morgan Sheng
A genetically valid animal model could transform our understanding of schizophrenia (SCZ) disease mechanisms. Rare heterozygous loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in GRIN2A, encoding a subunit of the NMDA receptor, greatly increase the risk of SCZ. By transcriptomic, proteomic, and behavioral analyses, we report that heterozygous Grin2a mutant mice show (1) large-scale gene expression changes across multiple brain regions and in neuronal (excitatory and inhibitory) and non-neuronal cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), (2) evidence of hypoactivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hyperactivity in the hippocampus and striatum, (3) an elevated dopamine signaling in the striatum and hypersensitivity to amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (AIH), (4) altered cholesterol biosynthesis in astrocytes, (5) a reduction in glutamatergic receptor signaling proteins in the synapse, and (6) an aberrant locomotor pattern opposite of that induced by antipsychotic drugs...
August 23, 2023: Neuron
Suresh K Jetti, Andrés B Crane, Yulia Akbergenova, Nicole A Aponte-Santiago, Karen L Cunningham, Charles A Whittaker, J Troy Littleton
Although neuronal subtypes display unique synaptic organization and function, the underlying transcriptional differences that establish these features are poorly understood. To identify molecular pathways that contribute to synaptic diversity, single-neuron Patch-seq RNA profiling was performed on Drosophila tonic and phasic glutamatergic motoneurons. Tonic motoneurons form weaker facilitating synapses onto single muscles, while phasic motoneurons form stronger depressing synapses onto multiple muscles. Super-resolution microscopy and in vivo imaging demonstrated that synaptic active zones in phasic motoneurons are more compact and display enhanced Ca2+ influx compared with their tonic counterparts...
August 16, 2023: Neuron
Hermany Munguba, Kasra Nikouei, Hannah Hochgerner, Polina Oberst, Alexandra Kouznetsova, Jesper Ryge, Ana Belén Muñoz-Manchado, Jennie Close, Renata Batista-Brito, Sten Linnarsson, Jens Hjerling-Leffler
Although cardinal cortical interneuron identity is established upon cell-cycle exit, it remains unclear whether specific interneuron subtypes are pre-established, and if so, how their identity is maintained prior to circuit integration. We conditionally removed Sox6 (Sox6-cKO) in migrating somatostatin (Sst+ ) interneurons and assessed the effects on their mature identity. In adolescent mice, five of eight molecular Sst+ subtypes were nearly absent in the Sox6-cKO cortex without a reduction in cell number. Sox6-cKO cells displayed electrophysiological maturity and expressed genes enriched within the broad class of Sst+ interneurons...
August 15, 2023: Neuron
Timothy A Krausz, Alison E Comrie, Ari E Kahn, Loren M Frank, Nathaniel D Daw, Joshua D Berke
Animals frequently make decisions based on expectations of future reward ("values"). Values are updated by ongoing experience: places and choices that result in reward are assigned greater value. Yet, the specific algorithms used by the brain for such credit assignment remain unclear. We monitored accumbens dopamine as rats foraged for rewards in a complex, changing environment. We observed brief dopamine pulses both at reward receipt (scaling with prediction error) and at novel path opportunities. Dopamine also ramped up as rats ran toward reward ports, in proportion to the value at each location...
August 15, 2023: Neuron
Francesca Garretti, Connor Monahan, Nicholas Sloan, Jamie Bergen, Sanjid Shahriar, Seon Woo Kim, Alessandro Sette, Tyler Cutforth, Ellen Kanter, Dritan Agalliu, David Sulzer
Enteric symptoms are hallmarks of prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) that appear decades before the onset of motor symptoms and diagnosis. PD patients possess circulating T cells that recognize specific α-synuclein (α-syn)-derived epitopes. One epitope, α-syn32-46 , binds with strong affinity to the HLA-DRB1∗ 15:01 allele implicated in autoimmune diseases. We report that α-syn32-46 immunization in a mouse expressing human HLA-DRB1∗ 15:01 triggers intestinal inflammation, leading to loss of enteric neurons, damaged enteric dopaminergic neurons, constipation, and weight loss...
August 11, 2023: Neuron
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