Rachel C Blain, Colleen E Martin, Carolina C Ehlinger, Kathleen M Chard
Evidenced-based posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments generally reduce suicidal ideation (SI), and the interpersonal theory of suicide (ITS) may theoretically account for this finding. The ITS posits that SI stems from feeling like a burden (i.e., perceived burdensomeness) and a lack of belonging (i.e., thwarted belongingness). Previous research suggests that change in PTSD severity has a significant indirect effect on change in SI through changes in perceived burdensomeness, but not thwarted belongingness, among patients receiving residential PTSD treatment in a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center; however, no research has investigated these associations in an outpatient VA setting with fewer confounding factors that might affect ITS constructs...
December 6, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Nathalie Dieujuste, Yara Mekawi, Jenalee R Doom
In the United States, racism is theorized to exert its negative effects on Black individuals' mental health by triggering a response known as "race-based traumatic stress" (RBTS), a multidimensional construct comprising seven clusters of symptoms that can occur following exposure to race-based traumatic events (e.g., racial discrimination, racist incidents): depression, intrusion, anger, hypervigilance, physical symptoms, (low) self-esteem, and avoidance. However, little is known about which symptoms and clusters are strongest and most influential in the maintenance of RBTS...
December 6, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Shane W Adams, Christopher M Layne, Ateka A Contractor, Maureen A Allwood, Chérie Armour, Sabra S Inslicht, Shira Maguen
Alternative models of traumatic stress and broader psychopathology have been proposed to address issues of heterogeneity, comorbidity, clinical utility, and equitable representation. However, systematic and practical methods and guidelines to organize and apply these models remain scarce. The Middle-Out Approach is a novel, integrative, contextually informed framework for organizing and applying existing empirical methods to evaluate current and alternative traumatic stress reactions. Rather than beginning to identify traumatic stress reactions from the top-down (i...
December 4, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Wolfgang Lederer
In their survey, Park and colleagues (2023) reported that many health care and hospital workers perceived that their safety was not a priority during the COVID-19 pandemic, with 33.9% of responders feeling betrayed by institutional leaders. Employees of the health care system reported being viewed more as servants than specialists during the pandemic, and they noted that critical assessment and the expression of one's own opinion were unwelcome (Lederer, 2023). A lack of epidemiologic knowledge was compensated with the inflexible strategy of a hierarchical system...
December 4, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Laura Shannonhouse, Daniel Dosal-Terminel, Daun Kwag, M Elizabeth Lewis Hall, Crystal L Park, Jason McMartin, Eric J Silverman, Jamie Aten, Mary Helen O'Connor, Kelly Kapic
In this consensual qualitative research study, we investigated the role of refugees' Christian faith in meaning-making coping. High percentages of religiosity in refugee populations support the need to understand the role of religion in their coping processes. Interviews with 20 Christian refugees from 10 African and Asian countries revealed that participants drew heavily from their faith resources to cope with their experiences. Specifically, refugees reported coping practices that included trust in God, prayer, intimacy with God, spiritual surrender, lament, worship, and social support...
November 29, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Philipp Jann, Sina Neldner, Frank Neuner, Rezhna Mohammed
The lives of people in conflict areas are often characterized by the experience of traumatic events frequently accompanied by loss and separation. These can equally trigger symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complicated grief (CG). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether affected individuals could be assigned to distinct classes at symptom-cluster levels of these two disorders. Moreover, we aimed to identify event-related and sociodemographic predictors associated with membership in these pathological classes...
November 27, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Stephen H Boyle, Julie Upchurch, Elizabeth J Gifford, Thomas S Redding, Elizabeth R Hauser, Deeksha Malhotra, Ashlyn Press, Kellie J Sims, Christina D Williams
Gulf War illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom disorder of unknown etiology that is believed to be caused by neurotoxicant exposure experienced during deployment to the Gulf War. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) covaries with GWI and is believed to play a role in GWI symptoms. The present study examined the association between self-reported military exposures and GWI, stratified by PTSD status, in veterans from the Gulf War Era Cohort and Biorepository who were deployed to the Persian Gulf during the war...
November 23, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Annika Skandsen, Mari Hysing, Kristin Gärtner Askeland, Martin H Teicher, Liv Sand, Tormod Bøe
Exposure to potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) is common among children and adolescents and associated with an increased risk of psychiatric diagnoses. This study aimed to ascertain how the number of PTEs differed across adolescent psychiatric diagnoses. Data on PTE exposure were derived from the youth@hordaland survey, and Axis 1 data were from the linked Norwegian National Patient Registry (NPR). Among 10,257 total adolescents, 9,555 (age range: 16-19 years, 53.9% female) consented to register linkage, 8,845 of whom were included in the analyses...
November 20, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Eimear Cleary, David Curran, Kevin Dyer, Jane Simms, Donncha Hanna
Alongside the recognized potential negative repercussions of working as a psychological therapist, there is growing interest in the potential positive impacts of engaging in such work. The current study used a cross-sectional online survey design to explore the impact of a range of demographic, work-related, and compassion-related factors on levels of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG) in an international sample of 359 psychological therapists. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that burnout, lower levels of self-compassion, having a personal trauma history, reporting a higher percentage of working time with a trauma focus, and being female were the statistically significant contributors to STS scores, explaining 40...
November 20, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Mahsa Mojallal, Raluca M Simons, Jeffrey S Simons, Surabhi Swaminath
One of the central symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a heightened reactivity to trauma cues. The current study used experience sampling to investigate the associations between exposure to combat-related cues and PTSD symptoms in 93 U.S. veterans who served in support of recent military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. We also examined the effects of peri- and postdeployment factors, including exposure to combat, unit support during deployment, and postdeployment social support on PTSD. Participants completed eight brief random surveys daily for 2 weeks using palmtop computers...
November 20, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Alba Contreras, Sarah Butter, Umberto Granziol, Anna Panzeri, Vanesa Peinado, Almudena Trucharte, Orestis Zavlis, Carmen Valiente, Carmelo Vázquez, Jamie Murphy, Marco Bertamini, Mark Shevlin, Todd K Hartman, Giovanni Bruno, Giuseppe Mignemi, Andrea Spoto, Giulio Vidotto, Richard P Bentall
Commonly identified patterns of psychological distress in response to adverse events are characterized by resilience (i.e., little to no distress), delayed (i.e., distress that increases over time), recovery (i.e., distress followed by a gradual decrease over time), and sustained (i.e., distress remaining stable over time). This study aimed to examine these response patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Anxiety and depressive symptom data collected across four European countries over the first year of the pandemic were analyzed (N = 3,594)...
November 13, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Brittany J Baugher, Douglas L Delahanty, Karin G Coifman
There is a wealth of research linking adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with negative outcomes later in life, but less research has focused on the effects of protective childhood experiences (PCEs). PCEs have been shown broadly to promote resilience, but the precise nature of this association is not clear, particularly in studies of at-risk adults. The current investigation explored the association between recollection of early life experiences and in vivo emotional responses in at-risk adults. In 2018, 56 active-duty firefighters reported childhood experiences via a questionnaire...
November 13, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Amy E Lansing, Jane Park, Audrey N Beck
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are social determinants of health that increase morbidity and mortality and are prevalent among juvenile justice-involved (JJI) youth. ACEs drive health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use) that reflect maladaptive coping, increase arrest risk, and overlap with posttraumatic risk-seeking theoretically and reckless/self-destructive behaviors diagnostically. However, little is known, especially among girls, about cumulative developmental adversity burden distress (i.e., total cumulative/lifespan stressor reactivity, grief-specific and adversity-related symptoms, and adversity-driven maladaptive coping strategies by age 18) and associated health risk impacts...
November 8, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Alexandra B Klein, Paula P Schnurr, Michelle J Bovin, Matthew J Friedman, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
Subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has long been recognized as an important construct that identifies a subgroup of individuals who report significant PTSD symptoms and associated disability but do not endorse enough symptoms to meet the criteria for a full PTSD diagnosis. Different investigators have defined subthreshold PTSD in various ways, making it difficult to interpret findings across studies. To address this problem, we systematically compared individuals who met criteria for nine different subthreshold PTSD definitions with individuals diagnosed with either full PTSD or no PTSD (i...
November 8, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Rachel A Wamser, Julia C Sager
Maltreatment survivors may be at risk for parenting challenges, although the previous literature is inconsistent, has focused on individual maltreatment forms, and has overlooked posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and other trauma exposure. The current study, thus, aimed to expand this research in four key ways by (a) examining all five maltreatment forms; (b) controlling for other nonmaltreatment trauma exposure to better isolate the role of maltreatment; (c) investigating maltreatment types and PTSS simultaneously; and (d) exploring novel parenting factors, specifically four types of parenting beliefs and developmental knowledge...
November 3, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Philip Hyland, Enya Redican, Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin
Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is included in the 11th version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11). This study sought to test the validity and reliability of a new brief measure to screen for ICD-11 PGD-the International Grief Questionnaire (IGQ). The psychometric properties of the IGQ were tested using data collected from two bereaved samples of adults from the United Kingdom (n = 1,012) and Ireland (n = 1,011). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a correlated two-factor model best captured the latent dimensionality of the IGQ in both samples...
November 2, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Carolyn Ponting, Melissa Bond, Belén Rogowski, Ann Chu, Alicia F Lieberman
Trauma exposure is strongly linked to maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms during the perinatal period; however, childhood trauma exposure is often assessed without accounting for adult exposure. This study tested the unique impacts of childhood and adulthood trauma exposure on PTSD and depressive symptoms among pregnant women (N = 107, 82.9% Latina) enrolled in a nonrandomized intervention study. Regression analyses at baseline showed positive associations between trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms irrespective of trauma timing, childhood: B = 1...
October 31, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Lauren M Sippel, Kayla C Knopp, Tamara Wachsman, Chandra E Khalifian, Shirley M Glynn, Leslie A Morland
The pretreatment quality of intimate relationships can promote or interfere with couple therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment response. We tested whether baseline relationship satisfaction predicted clinical and process outcomes in two dyadic treatments for PTSD. Using data from a randomized trial comparing brief cognitive behavioral conjoint therapy (bCBCT) for PTSD to PTSD family education (PFE) among 137 military veterans and their partners (N = 274, Mage = 42.3 years, 46.7% White, 81...
October 29, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Hannah Schumm, Regina Steil, Franziska Lechner-Meichsner, Nexhmedin Morina, Cornelia Weise, Ricarda Mewes, Sascha Kuck, Julia Reuter, Julia Giesebrecht, Barbara Cludius, Thomas Ehring
Many patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffer from sleep problems, leading to impairments in social functioning and quality of life. Refugees are at high risk for sleep problems due to stressful life circumstances and a high PTSD prevalence. However, limited data on the frequency of sleep problems in refugees with diagnosed PTSD exist. This study examined the frequency of sleep problems in refugees with PTSD and their associations with symptoms of PTSD. Additionally, we investigated the contribution of sleep problems to social functioning and quality of life...
October 26, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
John C Moring, Alan L Peterson, Casey L Straud, Jordan Ortman, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Cindy A McGeary, Donald D McGeary, Brett T Litz, Alexandra Macdonald, John D Roache, Patricia A Resick, For The Strong Star Consortium
Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, some patients do not improve to the same extent as others. It is important to understand potential factors that can be modified for better patient outcomes. This clinical trial implemented a three-arm, equipoise-stratified randomization design to allow for the accommodation of patient preference before randomization to one of three CPT treatment modalities: in-home, in-office, or telehealth. This study examined whether satisfaction with the modality, perceived stigma, expectations of therapy, and credibility of the therapist differed between modalities and whether these factors impacted treatment outcomes...
October 26, 2023: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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