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Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31096207/assessment-of-radiation-protection-and-awareness-level-among-radiation-workers-and-members-of-the-public-in-afghanistan-a-pilot-study
#1
Mohammad Rahmatullah Tanha, Fazal Rahman Khalid, Christoph Hoeschen
Abstract
 In this study, the level of radiation protection and awareness among radiation workers and members of the public in Afghanistan is assessed using two different survey mechanisms. The onsite survey conducted by the regulatory authorities covered 472 facilities while the online survey covering 1200 responses was conducted via the Survey Monkey online survey platform. Both the onsite and the online surveys show that more than 70% of radiation workers have insufficient knowledge of radiation safety and protection rules and regulations while more than 70% of the public just heard about radiation from one source or another...
May 16, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31096189/corrigendum-to-a-model-for-estimating-the-total-absorbed-dose-to-the-thyroid-in-swedish-inhabitants-following-the-chernobyl-nuclear-power-plant-accident-implications-for-existing-international-estimates-and-future-model-applications-2019-j-rad-prot-39-2-522
#2
Christopher Rääf, Martin Tondel, Mats Isaksson
Four of the equations in the article "A model for estimating the total absorbed dose to the thyroid in Swedish inhabitants following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: implications for existing international estimates and future model applications " were incomplete or erroneously expressed. A corrigendum is attached with the amended equations.
May 16, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31085816/studies-of-radiation-health-effects-inform-epa-actions
#3
David Pawel, Mike Boyd
In 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was given the responsibility to provide guidance to other federal agencies in the formulation of radiation protection standards. To carry out its federal guidance responsibilities and protect human health, the EPA must estimate risk at low doses to limit the risk of radiogenic cancers from environmental exposures. These risk estimates are based on models which conform to the linear no threshold (LNT) hypothesis. A cancer risk model conforms to the LNT hypothesis if the excess risk of cancer at low doses increases approximately proportional to dose, with no threshold...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31042686/pediatric-cone-beam-ct-on-varian-halcyon-and-truebeam-radiotherapy-systems-radiation-dose-and-positioning-accuracy-evaluations
#4
Yuliang Huang, Yi Du, Chenguang Li, Haiyang Wang, Zhixin Zu, Zhongsu Feng, Shun Zhou, Hao Wu, Yibao Zhang
Medical exposure to ionizing irradiation has become a recognised carcinogenic risk. Balancing the concomitant imaging dose and positioning accuracy is critical in image-guided-radiotherapy (IGRT) especially for children, whose higher biological susceptibility and longer expected life make them more vulnerable to develop secondary cancer. This work aims to evaluate and benchmark the imaging dose and positioning accuracy of a new MV cone-beam-CT (CBCT)-guided IGRT system, Varian Halcyon, against conventional kV CBCT...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31035264/the-u-s-nuclear-regulatory-commission-radiation-protection-policy-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#5
Cynthia Gillian Jones
For nearly 50 years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been responsible for the development of radiation protection regulations and guidance for protecting workers, the public and the environment. In 1971, although ALARA was not a regulatory requirement, NRC's predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), incorporated the concept of "as low as is practically achievable" into its general provisions for standards against radiation, Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 20...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31018196/dosimetric-response-of-fabricated-ge-doped-optical-fibres-in-computed-tomography-rqt-beam-quality-x-ray-beams
#6
N N M Rais, David A Bradley, Asmaliza Hashim, N M Isa, Noor Diyana Osman, I Ismail, H A Hassan, Noramaliza Mohd Noor
Novel germanium (Ge)-doped silica glass fibres tailor-made in Malaysia are fast gaining recognition as potential media for thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, with active research ongoing into exploitation of their various beneficial characteristics. Investigation is made herein of the capability of these media for use in diagnostic imaging dosimetry, specifically at the radiation dose levels typically obtained in conduct of Computed Tomography (CT). As a first step within such efforts, there is need to investigate the performance of the fibres using tightly defined spectra, use being made of a Philips constant potential industrial X-Ray facility, Model MG165, located at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency Secondary Standards Dosimetry Lab (SSDL)...
April 24, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31018192/validation-of-a-rapid-conservative-transuranic-alpha-activity-estimation-method-in-air-samples
#7
Samuel Joseph Cope, Robert B Hayes
In air filter assay for radiological emergency response, radon (<sup>222</sup>Rn) and thoron (<sup>220</sup>Rn) progeny are known interferents to transuranic activity estimation. Previous work detailed a conservative, graded approach for TRU alpha activity estimation from air samples void of transuranic activity yet containing varying amounts of radon and thoron progeny. Validation of this method to produce rapid, conservative and defensible transuranic alpha activity estimates was accomplished through introduction of surrogate transuranic activity, <sup>239</sup>Pu and <sup>230</sup>Th check sources, along with the naturally occurring radioactive progeny from an environmental air filter...
April 24, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31013484/translating-science-into-recommendations-the-development-of-ncrp-report-180
#8
Donald Cool
The development of new recommendations for radiological protection is a complex process of translating scientific knowledge of radiation risks into a coherent system for protection, using experience and ethical values. From 2014 to 2019, the U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) engaged in the development of updated recommendations to replace those previously published in 1993. This process included experiences gained with implementation of the NCRP recommendations, and the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection...
April 23, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31013251/low-dose-from-external-radiation-among-returning-residents-to-the-former-evacuation-zone-in-minamisoma-city-fukushima-prefecture
#9
Shuhei Nomura, Tomoyoshi Oikawa, Masaharu Tsubokura
After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, evidence on the real-life conditions of returnees to areas once designated as legal no-go zones, including their radiation dose levels, is scarce. In the present study, using a radiation dosimeter and lifestyle survey, we evaluated the lifestyle characteristics and dose levels in 2017 from external exposure among those who returned to the no-go zones after the evacuation orders were lifted. A total of 112 returnees to Odaka district, Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture, were considered and compared to 266 non-returnees...
April 23, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30999283/low-dose-radiation-interagency-collaboration-on-planning-research-could-improve-information-on-health-effects
#10
John Neumann, Joseph Cook, Allen Chan
In September 2017, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report on the scientific basis for federal protections against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation-particularly low-dose radiation, or below about 100 millisieverts (10 rem). The report provided examples of how federal agencies developed and applied radiation protection requirements and guidance for workers and the public and examined the extent to which federal agencies funded epidemiological and radiobiological research on the health effects of low-dose radiation and their efforts at coordination of this research...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30991380/guidance-on-prevention-of-unintended-and-accidental-radiation-exposures-in-nuclear-medicine
#11
Colin John Martin, Mario Marengo, J Vassileva, Francesco Giammarile, Gian Luca Poli, Paul Marks
Nuclear medicine (NM) procedures for diagnosis and treatment of disease are performed routinely in hospitals throughout the world. These involve preparation and administration to patients of pharmaceuticals labelled with radioactive material. There is potential for incidents to occur, involving unintended exposures of patients or staff members, throughout all stages of a procedure. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organisation highlighted the need for improvement in prevention of medical radiation incidents and accidents in the Bonn Call-for-Action in 2012...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30990211/fluence-to-effective-dose-conversion-coefficients-for-male-astronauts
#12
G N Timoshenko, M I Belvedersky
The problem of the reliable estimation of astronauts' radiation exposure doses in deep space is very important and relevant in connection with the accepted space research programmes. The effective dose value based on ICRP Publication 103 presents too conservative an estimate of an astronaut's radiation risk. A more realistic dose can be calculated on the basis of relationships between the radiation quality factor and linear energy transfer or linear energy or Z*2 /β 2 , according to the NASA concept. In addition, it is reasonable to use a set of tissue weighting coefficients (normalised relative detriments) that have been averaged over a cohort of working age males similar to the male astronaut cohort...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30978715/impact-of-the-newly-proposed-icru-icrp-quantities-on-neutron-calibration-fields-and-extended-range-neutron-rem-counters
#13
Fabio Pozzi, Michele Ferrarini, Francesca Ferulli, Marco Silari
In July 2017, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) proposed the introduction of new operational quantities for external radiation exposure, with the aim of improving coherence between protection quantities and operational quantities within the system of radiological protection. A change in operational quantities will impact both instrumentation and reference radiation fields used for their calibration. This paper evaluates the potential impact of the new quantity ambient dose, H*, meant to replace ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), on two neutron reference fields, the Am-Be source and the CERF high-energy workplace field, and on the response of two models of extended-range neutron rem counters (LINUS and LUPIN)...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30970330/low-dose-radiation-research-and-radiation-protection-policy-implementation-at-the-department-of-energy
#14
Isaf Al-Nabulsi, Derek Favret
One of the Department of Energy's (DOE) highest priorities is the protection of workers, the public and the environment from the conduct of DOE activities in areas which the Department operates. As a self-regulating agency, DOE develops radiation protection policies and orders that integrate national and international consensus standards into requirements that enable it to complete its diverse missions safety and effectively. DOE leadership is unequivocally committed to the well-being of its workforce involved in carrying out its mission...
April 10, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30970329/review-of-quot-manual-for-survival-quot-by-kate-brown
#15
Jim Smith
My review, based on nearly thirty years of research on Chernobyl and dozens of visits to the contaminated areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, argues that "Manual for Survival" ignores the thousands of scientific studies on Chernobyl which are available in the international scientific literature. In doing so, I believe that it presents a biased and misleading account of the health and environmental effects of the accident. I believe that this book only perpetuates the many myths about the accident effects and has very little basis in sound science...
April 10, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30970327/ncrp-report-no-180-management-of-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation-ncrp-radiation-protection-guidance-for-the-united-states
#16
Donald Cool, Kenneth R Kase, John D Boice
NCRP Report No. 180, "Management of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation: Radiation Protection Guidance for the United States (2018)" was developed by Council Committee 1. The report builds and expands upon previous recommendations of NCRP and the ICRP, covering exposure to radiation and radioactive materials for five exposure categories: occupational, public, medical, emergency workers, and nonhuman biota. Actions to add, increase, reduce or remove a source of exposure to humans require justification. Optimization of protection universally applies, taking into account societal, economic, and environmental factors; addressing all hazards, and striving for continuous improvement when it is reasonable to do so...
April 10, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30965301/how-do-patient-characteristics-and-anatomical-features-correlate-to-accuracy-of-organ-dose-reconstruction-for-wilms-tumor-radiation-treatment-plans-when-using-a-surrogate-patient-s-ct-scan
#17
Ziyuan Wang, Brian V Balgobind, Marco Virgolin, Irma W E M van Dijk, Jan Wiersma, Cécile M Ronckers, Peter A N Bosman, Arjan Bel, Tanja Alderliesten
In retrospective radiation treatment (RT) dosimetry, a surrogate anatomy is often used for patients without 3D CT. To gain insight in what the crucial aspects in a surrogate anatomy are to enable accurate dose reconstruction, we investigated the relation of patient characteristics and internal anatomical features with deviations in reconstructed organ dose using surrogate patient's CT scans. Abdominal CT scans of 35 childhood cancer patients (age: 2.1-5.6 yr; 17 boys, 18 girls) undergoing RT during 2004-2016 were included...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30965291/dose-assessment-of-aircrew-the-impact-of-the-weighting-factors-according-to-icrp-103
#18
Matthias M Meier, Daniel Matthia
In their most recent recommendations, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) proposed the use of a set of updated tissue and radiation weighting factors for the calculation of the effective dose. This recommendation was adopted in the European Union by the directive 2013/59/EURATOM in 2013 and implemented in the corresponding radiation protection regulations in Germany in 2018. In this study, we investigate the impact of the new weighting factors according to ICRP 103 on the dose rates of the effective dose due to the exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation with the PANDOCA model for the description of the complex radiation field in the atmosphere...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30952141/reforming-the-debate-around-radiation-risk
#19
James Clark Ross, Dijana Vilić, Benjamin Fongenie
The back-and-forth debate on radiation risk, in the recent years, has unscientifically drifted away from proportionality and become increasingly antagonistic. A handful of authors have used exaggerated claims which are corroborated by their own previous work and presented using heated and superlative language. With unwarranted certainty, many have also referenced studies which report inconclusive findings and given undue weight to the results of laboratory animal and cellular studies, regardless of their exact positions on radiation risk...
April 5, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30951503/ecosystem-effects-of-the-kyshtym-accident
#20
Jim Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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