Eiji Iwata, Shyam Kishor Sah, I-Ping Chen, Ernst Reichenberger
Currently, over 500 rare genetic bone disorders are identified. These diseases are often accompanied by dental abnormalities, which are sometimes the first clue for an early diagnosis. However, not many dentists are sufficiently familiar with phenotypic abnormalities and treatment approaches when they encounter patients with rare diseases. Such patients often need dental treatment but have difficulties in finding a dentist who can treat them appropriately. Herein we focus on major dental phenotypes and summarize their potential causes and mechanisms, if known...
September 22, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Kento Takaya, Yoshiaki Sakamoto, Shinobu Noji, Nobuaki Imanishi, Kazuo Kishi
Deeply etched forehead creases indicate aging. Various treatments such as filler injections, fat grafting, and facelift surgery are used to remove them. However, knowledge of the anatomical structures associated with subcutaneous tissue changes and the superficial musculoaponeurotic system is lacking, and there is no consensus about the appropriate treatment. We have investigated the subcutaneous structures involved in forehead creases; this will help to establish selection criteria for improved treatment. The forehead sections of five unfixed adult Asian cadavers were obtained...
September 21, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
James R Wright, William A Hibbitts
Dick van Velzen practiced as a pediatric pathologist at Alder Hey Children's Hospital in Liverpool, England from September 1988 until December 1995; he then relocated to the IWK-Grace Health Centre, a children's and maternity hospital in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, where he practiced until he was fired for cause in January 1998. About a year and a half later, his practice in Liverpool came under increasing scrutiny, with the initial focus on the massive collection of post-mortem pediatric organs he had accumulated for planned future research on sudden infant death syndrome...
September 21, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Hong-Fu Liu, Yan-Lian Xiong, In-Beom Kim, Hyung-Sun Won, Chang-Zhu Jin
This study aimed to validate and compare the anatomical variations of the superior intercostal veins, focusing on their origin, course, anastomoses, and destination. In addition, the results were compared with findings from other relevant studies. Fifty Korean and 16 Chinese adult cadavers were dissected for this study. The superior intercostal veins were dissected and measured. In our study of 66 specimens, the right superior intercostal vein was observed in 92.3% of cases, while the left superior intercostal vein was observed in 50%...
September 8, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
M Dalmau-Pastor, N Alvarez Toledo, I Valdivia-Gandur, R S Tubbs, T Vázquez-Osorio, J M de Anta, C Simon de Blas, A Prats-Galino, M Loukas, M C Manzanares-Cespedes
Dissection Rooms (DRs) are key facilities that allow teaching and research on human anatomy, where students and researchers work with human bodies to acquire, increase, or create new knowledge. Usually, DRs work with a Body Donation Program (BDP), where living donors bequeath their bodies for use in teaching and research after they expire. Despite DRs being part of universities worldwide, no common guidelines, regulations, or quality management systems (QMS) exist that could be applied to different countries...
August 31, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Ewa Toruńska, Marcjanna Owczarek-Konopka, Mikołaj Konopka, Jerzy Stanisław Gielecki, Łukasz Klepacki
In patients with COVID-19 different methods improving therapy have been used, including one of the anatomical position-prone position, to support ventilation. The aim of this review was to summarize the cases of brachial plexopathy as a consequence of the prone position in COVID-19 patients, and thus bring closer the issue of the brachial plexus in the face of clinical aspects of its function, palsy, and consequences. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement was followed, inclusion criteria were created according to Patients, Interventions, Comparisons, Outcomes (PICO)...
August 30, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Hamza Ali, Jeffrey Weinstein, Ammar Sarwar, Amy Evenson, Kristin Raven, Michael P Curry, Muneeb Ahmed
The purpose of this study is to compare the subjective and objective quality and confidence between conventional angiography with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the preoperative evaluation of potential donors for living donor liver transplant. Seventeen patients undergoing preoperative donor evaluation for living donor liver transplantation that underwent angiography with CBCT and contrast-enhanced MRI for evaluation of hepatic vascular anatomy were included in the study...
August 28, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Jakub Ratusznik, Filip Ratusznik, Jakub R Pękala, Eirik Krager, Mateusz Hołda, Victoria Sarata, Dominik Łazarz, Wiktor Raputa, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
Left atrial (LA) structures, including the accessory left atrial appendage (aLAA) and left atrial diverticulum, have been studied based on their prevalence, shape, and association with arrhythmia and thrombi formation. A pooled prevalence with morphometric data has not been determined in previous research. Our goal is to provide structured, clinically relevant information on said structures for clinical practitioners to use in their daily work. We propose that morphometric data of additional LA structures is necessary when considering the possible complications during cardiac interventions...
August 25, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Piotr Paweł Chmielewski
Effective communication and precise navigation within the intricacies of the human body rely on robust anatomical terminology. Since its creation by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT), the Terminologia Anatomica (TA 1998) has consistently served as the benchmark in the field. However, the constant advancement of anatomical knowledge requires regular revisions, updates, and enhancements of anatomical nomenclature to accommodate the latest scientific discoveries. The recent adoption of the second edition of Terminologia Anatomica (TA 2019) by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) has drawn attention to certain notable omissions...
August 19, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Chunxia Guo, Yongguang Zhang, Zhiwei Ding, Rong Han, Xuwen Jiao, Jinlian Hu
Several reports have shown a coincidence relationship between perforators and acupoints. However, there have been few previous reports of objective experimental methods to verify the reliability of the accuracy of acupoint location (APL) with nearby perforators. This research aimed to determine the internal agreement of the APL of five acupuncturists and to analyze the coincidence rate of acupoints with nearby perforators. Three two healthy volunteers were recruited with the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
August 19, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
De-Ting Ma, Jun-Xia Wang, Zhao-Hua Wang, Xue Cui
To investigate the computed tomography (CT) image characteristics, adjacent tissues, and related measurement indices of the sternal foramina and provide an anatomical basis for the safety of minimally invasive sternum surgery. The data from 2500 thoracic multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) cases from January 2020 to June 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The number and location of the sternal foramina and adjacent tissues (mediastinal adipose tissue, lung, pericardium) were observed. The size of the sternal foramina, CT value of the tissue inside the foramina, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness, distance from skin to lung, distance from skin to the pericardium, and manubrio-foraminal distance were measured...
August 19, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Niamh Heeran, Abdul-Rahman Gomaa, Lyndon Mason, Alistair P Bond
The posterior malleolus of the tibia is commonly accessed surgically through the posterolateral approach. This approach gives good access to the fibula and lateral aspect of the posterior tibia, however; there is little known on the vascular risks with this approach. The aim of this study was to assess and describe the anatomy of the fibular artery and its branches at the ankle region and relate it to the surgical access of the posterior malleolus. Eleven cadaveric foot and ankle specimens were dissected in layers, preserving the fibular artery, anterior tibial artery (ATA), and posterior tibial artery (PTA)...
August 19, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Hannah Bridgwater, Lauren R Hector, Peter Xiang, Neil Sardesai, Cecilia Brassett, Anand Sardesai
Typical anatomy of the supraclavicular nerve (SCN) is described as originating from the cervical plexus and dividing into medial, intermediate, and lateral branches. The SCN is vulnerable to injury during clavicular surgery, leading to altered sensation post-operatively. There is also increasing interest in anesthetizing the SCN in shoulder or clavicular surgery. Utilizing a high-frequency (20 MHz) ultrasound probe, 20 healthy volunteers were scanned, giving data for 40 SCNs. For each nerve, anatomical course and branches were graphically plotted using a custom Python 3...
August 8, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Larisa Ryskalin, Gabriele Morucci, Paola Soldani, Marco Gesi
Plantar fasciitis is a chronic, self-limiting, and painful disabling condition affecting the inferomedial aspect of the heel, usually extending toward the metatarsophalangeal joints. There is compelling evidence for a strong correlation between Achilles tendon (AT) loading and plantar aponeurosis (PA) tension. In line with this, tightness of the AT is found in almost 80% of patients affected by plantar fasciitis. A positive correlation has also been reported between gastrocnemius-soleus tightness and heel pain severity in this condition...
August 4, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Miguel Angel Reina, Xavier Sala-Blanch, André P Boezaart, Richard Shane Tubbs, Francisco José Pérez-Rodríguez, Rita Riera-Pérez, Margarita Sanromán Junquera
The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of nerve endings in the mucosa, submucosa, and cartilage of the epiglottis and the vallecula area and to quantify them. The findings could inform the choice of laryngoscope blades for intubation procedures. Fourteen neck slices from seven unembalmed, cryopreserved human cadavers were analyzed. The slices were stained, and cross and longitudinal sections were obtained from each. The nerve endings and cartilage were identified. The primary metrics recorded were the number, area, and circumference of nerve endings located in the mucosa and submucosa of the pharyngeal and laryngeal sides of the epiglottis, epiglottis cartilage, and epiglottic vallecula zone...
August 4, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Sanjib Kumar Ghosh
The concept of evidence-based anatomy (EBA) emerged in 2014 and has become a significant element in contemporary anatomy education. The evolving fabric of the medical education curriculum has necessitated critical changes in practice. EBA enables these changes to be incorporated seamlessly and implemented congruently into anatomy education programs. However, in parallel, non-evidence-based (classical) knowledge that has been built up through centuries of anatomical practice continues to be the core element of anatomy education in some countries/regions...
August 1, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Anna Pliszka, Agata Wawrzyniak, Jerzy Walocha, Agata Musiał, Michał Bonczar, Tomasz Ostrowski, Michał Polguj, Grzegorz Wysiadecki, Edward Clarke, R Shane Tubbs, Krzysztof Balawender
Polyorchidism, a congenital malformation characterized by supernumerary testes (SNTs), is usually revealed incidentally during ultrasound or open scrotal surgery. In the approximately 200 cases so far published in the literature, the left side is affected more often than the right. Despite the rarity of this anomaly, a surgeon must have basic knowledge of its embryological basis and classifications to implement proper treatment and avoid overlooking it, since the consequences could harm the patient. This review summarizes previous classifications...
July 26, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Yuting Zhang, Mengtong Chen, Yanan He, Zhenzhen Guo, Yuanchao Li, Suiqing Yu, Hongying Liang, Junxiao Yin, Pengtao Sun, Zhijie Zhang, Chunlong Liu
This study investigated the effect of the prone trunk extension test (PTE) on lumbar and lower limb muscle stiffness to explore the optimal angle for lumbar muscle training, understand the peripheral muscle force transmission effect, and determine the modulation strategy and interaction mode of different muscles during PTE. Twenty healthy young females were recruited for this study, and the stiffness of the erector spinae (ES), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), medial head of the gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral head of the gastrocnemius (LG) was measured by MyotonPRO under four angular PTE conditions (0° horizontal position, 10°, 20°, and 30°)...
July 25, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Ilia Miltykh, Edgar S Kafarov, Serghei Covantsev, Ali S Dadashev, Apostolos A Skarlis, Oleg K Zenin
Virtual reality technology has been increasingly used in the field of anatomy education, particularly in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Virtual reality in anatomy (VRA) allows the creation of immersive, three-dimensional environments or experiences that can interact in a seemingly real or physical way. A comprehensive search of electronic databases was conducted to identify relevant studies. The search included studies published between 2020 and June 2023. The use of VRA education has been shown to be effective in improving students' understanding and retention of knowledge, as well as developing practical skills such as surgical techniques...
July 24, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
Sarika Hira, Eric J Dahl, Kasmika Maharjan, Jonathan H Geisler
A previous paper has demonstrated a statistically significant moderate correlation between the number of citations obtained from PubMed and a Delphi study for 251 anatomical structures of the Head and Neck region, suggesting that clinical significance is a major driver of research involving anatomical structures. This raises the possibility that these ranks could be an objective measure of clinical relevance of individual anatomical structures. In the present study, we revisited the rankings of the PubMed results from the previous paper and compared it with a Delphi study for 450 musculoskeletal structures...
July 21, 2023: Clinical Anatomy
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