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Clinical Anatomy

T Sandulescu, M Franzmann, J Jast, T Blaurock-Sandulescu, L Spilker, C Klein, E A Naumova, W H Arnold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Marcos C De Almeida, Diane E Spicer, Robert H Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Jose M Lasso, Eva Maranillo, Paula Martinez-Pascual, Ender Goñi, Teresa Vazquez, Jose Sanudo, Aran Pascual-Font
INTRODUCTION: The masseteric nerve (MN) and the anterior branch of the obturator nerve (ON) that innervate the transferred gracilis muscle have proved highly efficient for reanimating paralyzed facial muscles when muscle-transfer is required. Previous researchers have published the total axonal load for myelinated fibers in both nerves. However, the real motor axonal load has not been established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed the study on 20 MN and 13 ON...
February 20, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Jacob O Connelly, Mark A Tait, John W Bracey, Jasen H Gilley, Tarun Pandey, Roopa Ram, Shahryar Ahmadi
The posterior approach is a commonly employed exposure of the elbow that provides excellent visualization and efficacy for various orthopedic procedures, including total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) and fracture care. The posterior approach to the elbow has been associated with an increased rate of wound complications, including infection, skin necrosis, and wound dehiscence. Despite an association between these complications and decreased elbow perfusion, data regarding the intrinsic anatomic etiology for preferential complications in this area has been scarcely reported in the literature...
February 19, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Joe Iwanaga, Shogo Kikuta, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: Air insufflation has been used for various surgical procedures such as during laparoscopy. We hypothesized that the use of pressurized air might enable cadaveric dissection to differentiate smaller veins better than traditional dissection techniques. METHODS: In three fresh-frozen cadavers, the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right or left femoral veins were exposed just distal to the inguinal ligament and a needle placed into one of them. Pressurized air was then placed into the cannulated femoral vein using an air compressor...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
R Shane Tubbs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
T Nadesan, N Keough, F Suleman, Z Lockhat, A van Schoor
Surface anatomy is considered a fundamental part of anatomy curricula and clinical practice. Recent studies have reappraised surface anatomy using CT, but the adolescent age group has yet to be appraised. Sixty adolescent thoracoabdominal CT scans (aged 12-18 years) were examined. The surface anatomy of the central veins, cardiac apex, diaphragmatic openings and structures in relation to the sternal angle plane were analyzed. The results showed that the brachiocephalic vein (left & right) formed mostly posterior to the sternoclavicular joint...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Łukasz Olewnik
BACKGROUND: Although the tendon of the tibialis posterior muscle (TPT) high morphological variability, its insertion is not well defined in anatomy discussions. The aim of the work is to systematize the classification of TPT insertion by anatomical dissection. METHODS: Classical anatomical dissection was performed on 80 lower limbs (40 female, 40 male) fixed in 10 % formalin solution. The morphology of the insertion of the tendon was evaluated and the muscle was subjected to appropriate morphometric measurements...
February 13, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
William E Bolger, Heinz Stammberger, Masaru Ishii, Jens Ponikau, Meiyappan Solaiyappan, S James Zinreich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Nomura Kei, Ryu Hiroshi, Ohno Koji, Sato Kohji
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have suggested that vascular compression of more distal portions of the trigeminal nerve (Vth cranial nerve: VN) may cause trigeminal neuralgia (TN). However, neurosurgeons performing microvascular decompression intraoperatively cannot identify which type of myelin is being compressed by blood vessels. The aim of this study was to clarify the histological anatomy of central and peripheral myelin in the human VN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histological analyses were conducted using photomicrographs from 134 cisternal segments of the VN from the brains of 67 cadavers...
February 5, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Robert G Briggs, Arpan R Chakraborty, Christopher D Anderson, Carol J Abraham, Ali H Palejwala, Andrew K Conner, Panayiotis E Pelargos, Daniel L O'Donoghue, Chad A Glenn, Michael E Sughrue
INTRODUCTION: The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is involved in the evaluation of linguistic, interoceptive, and emotional information. A detailed understanding of its subcortical white matter anatomy could improve post-operative morbidity related to surgery in and around this gyrus. Through GQI-based fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we characterized the fiber tracts of the IFG based on relationships to other well-known neuroanatomic structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion imaging from the Human Connectome Project for ten healthy adult controls was used for fiber tracking analysis...
February 5, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Philipp Hendrix, Gerrit Fischer, Alan-Christopher Linnebach, Julian B Krug, Stefan Linsler, Christoph J Griessenauer, Joachim Oertel
OBJECTIVE: Olfactory dysfunction represents a main symptom in olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM). Besides this, olfactory function has been sparsely investigated in patients suffering from supratentorial meningiomas. Here, the authors explore pre- and postoperative variables associated with olfactory dysfunction in supratentorial meningioma patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on supratentorial meningioma patients who underwent meningioma resection between January 2015 and January 2016...
January 31, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Nikki Mills, Seth M Pransky, Donna T Geddes, S Ali Mirjalili
INTRODUCTION: Surgical release of the lingual frenulum (frenotomy) has become an increasingly common procedure, performed from birth through to adulthood. Surprisingly, detailed anatomy of the in-situ lingual frenulum has never been described, and no anatomical basis has been proposed for the individual variability in frenulum morphology. The lingual frenulum is frequently referred to as a "cord" or "submucosal band" of connective tissue, yet there is no evidence to support this anatomical construct...
January 30, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Valera Castanov, S Ahmed Hassan, Shayan Shakeri, Maxine Vienneau, Karl Zabjek, Denyse Richardson, Nancy H McKee, Anne M R Agur
INTRODUCTION: Vastus medialis (VM) has two partitions, longus (VML) and obliquus (VMO), which have been implicated in knee pathologies. However, muscle architecture of VMO and VML has not been documented volumetrically. The aims of this study were to determine and compare the muscle architecture of VMO and VML in three-dimensional (3D) space, and to elucidate their relative functional capabilities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve embalmed specimens were used in this study...
January 30, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
L S Gregory, L V Jones, N M Amorosi
INTRODUCTION: Flaring of the ischiopubic synchondrosis at the time of fusion is a common clinical observation in pediatrics and represents a normal physiological process in skeletal maturation. When presenting unilaterally, this flaring can mimic a range of serious pathological conditions such as osteomyelitis, osteal tumors and traumatic injury. An improved understanding of ischiopubic synchondrosis fusion is therefore critical to avoid potential misdiagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective multi-slice computed tomography pelvic scans of Australian individuals aged neonate to 24 years (n=184) were assessed using a novel five stage morphological classification system of the maturation and fusion of the ischiopubic synchondrosis...
January 30, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Przemysław A Pękala, Lourdes Kaythampillai, Bendik Skinningsrud, Marios Loukas, Jerzy A Walocha, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
INTRODUCTION: The plantar fascia (PF) plays a significant role in ankle movement and anatomical variations of this structure may significantly alter the biomechanical properties of the foot and lower extremity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of the PF's origin point on the calcaneus (CB), and whether these changes are dependent on age and sex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two independent observers evaluated two hundred and two foot and ankle MRIs and the following measurements was performed: (A) horizontal length of the AT insertion into the posterior aspect of the CB, (B) horizontal length of the CB and (C) horizontal distance from the most anterior point of the CB to the most posterior part of the PF...
January 30, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Shumpei Mori, Justin T Tretter, Diane E Spicer, David Bolender, Robert H Anderson
The heart is a remarkably complex organ. Teaching its details to medical students and clinical trainees can be very difficult. Despite the complexity, accurate recognition of these details is a pre-requisite for the subsequent understanding of clinical cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. A recent publication promoted the benefits of virtual reconstructions in facilitating the initial understanding achieved by medical students. If such teaching is to achieve its greatest value, the datasets used to provide the virtual images should themselves be anatomically accurate...
January 24, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Jianpei Liu, Pinjie Huang, Qiong Liang, Xiaofeng Yang, Zhongheng Zheng, Hongbo Wei
Urogenital complications due to pelvic autonomic nerve damage frequently occur following rectal surgery. We investigated whether total mesorectal excision (TME) with preservation of the Denonvilliers' fascia (DVF) can effectively prevent the removal of pelvic autonomic nerves through microscopy. Twenty consecutive male patients with mid-low rectal cancer who received TME with preservation or resection of the Denonvilliers' fascia (P and R groups, respectively) were included. Serial transverse sections from surgical specimens were studied histologically...
January 21, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Hyung-Jin Lee, You-Jin Choi, Kang-Woo Lee, Kyung-Seok Hu, Seong Taek Kim, Hee-Jin Kim
INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether the deep inferior tendon (DIT) is equally present in vivo, and little anatomical information is available regarding the existence and morphology of the DIT in healthy young subjects. The aim of this study was to characterize the DIT of the masseter muscle in healthy young subjects using ultrasonography and to compare the morphology of this tendon with previously reported data for healthy young subjects in order to provide the most-effective injection methods for botulinum neurotoxin treatments of masseteric hypertrophy...
January 21, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
James R Wright
At the beginning of the 19th century, there were only 5 medical schools in America. The Medical Department of Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky was the first in the West; however it had few students or faculty until it was restructured in 1815. In 1817-1818, three of its faculty members (Benjamin Dudley, Daniel Drake, and William Richardson) quickly developed a highly dysfunctional relationship. Dudley tried to have Richardson fired, with Drake blocking this. Drake then criticized Dudley's performance of a coroner's autopsy, resulting in both parties publishing derogatory comments about each other...
January 21, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
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