Emeka Blessius Kesieme, Keith Gunn Buchan
Anomalies of coronary venous system, the valve of the coronary sinus (Thebesian valve) and other cardiac malformations may make interventions through the coronary sinus difficult. These variants may pose a challenge in cannulating the coronary sinus for retrograde cardioplegia and for interventions performed through the coronary sinus by cardiac electrophysiologist/interventional cardiologist. Retrograde cardioplegia is an established method of myocardial protection with advantages, indications, and complications...
June 12, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Brian Freeman
Our understanding of the processes of human development that occur during and just after implantation is still incomplete. The anatomical studies by Erich Blechschmidt (1904-1992) at the University of Göttingen demonstrate the uniqueness and beauty of the early stages of individual human development or ontogeny. The interpretations of human embryology by Blechschmidt offer a simple unifying hypothesis: metabolic and biomechanical events are repeated, and this can be described as an ontogenetic recapitulation...
June 12, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Etienne Lefevre, Megane Le Quang, Guillaume Chotard, Steven Knafo, Pierre Mengelle, Yanis Taupin, Dominique Liguoro, Vincent Jecko, Jean-Rodolphe Vignes, Paul Roblot
The upper end of the central canal of the human spinal cord has been repeatedly implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, yet its precise normal position in the medulla oblongata and upper cervical spinal cord remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to describe the anatomy of the upper end of the central canal with quantitative measurements and a three-dimensional (3D) model. Seven formalin-embalmed human brainstems were included, and the central canal was identified in serial axial histological sections using epithelial membrane antigen antibody staining...
June 11, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Vincenzo Ricci, Ke-Vin Chang, Ondřej Naňka, Levent Özçakar
The pertinent literature widely describes ultrasound-guided procedures targeting the retrocalcaneal bursa and the tendon tissue to manage insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Synovial bursae and cutaneous nerves of the superficial retrocalcaneal pad are often overlooked pain generators and are poorly considered by clinicians and surgeons. A layer-by-layer dissection of the superficial soft tissues in the retrocalcaneal region of two fresh frozen cadavers was matched with historical anatomical tables of the textbook Traite d'Anatomie Topographique Avec Applications Médico-Chirurgicales (1909 by Testut and Jacob)...
June 11, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Keishiro Kikuchi, Kosuke Tabuchi, Seiichi Inoue, Akihiro Yamashita, Shotaro Kinouchi, Ryuki Hashida, Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, R Shane Tubbs, Takahiro Okawa, Koji Hiraoka
This study aimed to evaluate the superficial medial collateral ligament distal tibial attachment (sMCL-dTA) morphologically and morphometrically. Seventeen unpaired formalin-fixed cadaveric knees were used. The sMCL was divided into anterior and posterior sections in the paracoronal plane along the midline of the sMCL. The distance from the medial edge of the tibial plateau and the joint line to the proximal margin, center, and distal margin of the sMCL-dTA and the length of the sMCL-dTA were measured in the anterior section, respectively...
June 6, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Guilherme R B C Fonseca, George L Tipoe, Fred A Ganotice
Learning 2D sectional anatomy facilitates the comprehension of 3D anatomical structures, anatomical relationships, and radiological anatomy. However, the efficacy of technology-enhanced collaborative instructional activities in sectional anatomy remains unclear, especially if theoretical frameworks, namely the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML), are applied in instructional design. Thus, this study compared the educational impact of distinct 45-min-long technology-enhanced collaborative learning tasks in sectional anatomy...
June 6, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Helen E Ritchie, Hongzhi Yang, Elizabeth Hegedus
One of the major challenges for health science students is the rapid acquisition of a new vocabulary in anatomy comprising several hundred new words. Research has shown that vocabulary learning can be improved when students are directed to vocabulary strategies. This paper reported a study with a formative intervention design inspired by Vygotsky's method of double stimulation. In this design, the students were put in a structured situation that invited them to identify the challenges in learning anatomy and then provided them with active guidance and a range of anatomy vocabulary learning strategies that scaffolded them to work out a solution to the challenge and develop their individualized anatomy learning resources...
May 29, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Ondřej Naňka, Jan Bartoníček
Division of the growing long bone into individual basic parts, that is, diaphysis, metaphysis, physes and epiphyses, has become generally accepted and used. However, the origin of these terms is almost unknown. Therefore, we have analyzed the literature in order to identify their sources. The terms epiphysis and apophysis have been used since the time of Hippokrates, although with different meanings. During the time of Galen, the term apophysis was used to describe all types of bone processes, and epiphyses denoted articular ends...
May 22, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Vipul Mandalia, Rahul Anaspure, Sharief Aboelmagd, Roy Powell, William Manning
The two most common techniques to determine femoral tunnel placement during medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction are radiographic and by palpation. Their intra/interobserver reliability is widely debated. Both techniques rely on identifying bony landmarks such as the medial epicondyle (ME) and adductor tubercle (AT) during surgery. During MPFL reconstructive surgery, the central longitudinal vessels (CLVs) are seen consistently. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomic relationship of CLV to ME and AT and to determine if CLV might be used as a landmark during MPFL reconstruction...
May 15, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Hongqi Sun, Chaohui Fan, Xinying Zhou, Zhiyang Zheng, Zezheng Liu, Qingchu Li, Qinghao Zhao
Cadaveric study; To describe the characteristics of the nerve and its relationship with the lumbar intervertebral disc and psoas major muscle. Nerve injury is an understudied complication of extreme lateral interbody fusion. A detailed description of the nerve anatomy would be helpful for surgeons to minimize the risk of this complication. The lumbar plexus and lumbar sympathetic nerve of 10 embalmed male cadavers were dissected, and the distribution, number, and spatial orientation of the nerves on the L1/2 to L4/5 intervertebral discs were examined...
May 9, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Bradley R Collins, Erik W Black, Kyle E Rarey
Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are poised to become an increasingly important part of education in the anatomical sciences. OpenAI has also introduced generative pretrained transformers (GPTs), which are customizable versions of the standard ChatGPT application. There is little research that has explored the potential of GPTs to serve as intelligent tutoring systems for learning the anatomical sciences. The objective of this study was to describe the design and explore the performance of AnatomyGPT, a customized artificial intelligence application intended for anatomical sciences education...
May 9, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Sharmeen Adnan, Patrick Michael, Amanda C Benson, Junhua Xiao
Digital technologies are changing how anatomy is taught tremendously. However, little is known about the effective integration of multimodal digital resources when concurrently provided in an anatomy course. To address this question, an array of digital anatomy resources including Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) anatomy resources were concurrently trialed by a total of 326 undergraduate and postgraduate students across three undergraduate (systemic anatomy, neuroanatomy, and regional anatomy) and one postgraduate anatomy (applied musculoskeletal anatomy) curricula in 2022...
May 8, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Inger Mechlenburg, Sepp De Raedt, Hakim C Achterberg, Maiken Stilling, Lone Rømer, Kjeld Søballe, Marleen de Bruijne
The dysplastic hip is characterized by incomplete coverage of the femoral head, resulting in increased risk of early osteoarthritis. The morphological variation of the hip joint is diverse and clear differences exist between females and males. The aim of this observational study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the morphology of the hip, sex, and hip dysplasia using a three-dimensional model. Statistical shape models of the combined femur and pelvic bones were created from bilateral hips of 75 patients...
May 8, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Einat Kedar, David Ezra, Ruth Pelleg-Kallevag, Dan Stein, Nathan Peled, Hila May, Israel Hershkovitz
The cervical spine manifests a wide shape variation. However, the traditional methods to evaluate the cervical spine curve were never tested against its actual shape. The study's main aim was to determine whether the shape classification of the cervical spine, based on traditional angular measurements, coincides with each other and with the shape captured by the 2D landmark-based geometric morphometric method. The study's second aim was to reveal the associations between the cervical spine shape and the demographic parameters, the head's position, and the spine's sagittal balance...
April 24, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Yikuan Du, Xiaolin Cai, Ye Zheng, Aoxue Long, Mengting Zhang, Mianhai Chen, Weichui Zhang, Jinfeng Zhu, Jinhua Guo, Chun Yang
As the cornerstone of medicine, the development of anatomy is related to many disciplines and fields and has received extensive attention from researchers. How to integrate and grasp the cutting-edge information in this field quickly is a challenge for researchers, so the aim of this study is to analyze research in anatomy using CiteSpace and VOSviewer in order to identify research hotspots and future directions. To offer a fresh viewpoint for assessing the academic influences of researchers, nations, or institutions on anatomy, and to examine the development of hotspots in anatomical study and to forecast future trends...
April 23, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Noritaka Komune, Satoshi Matsuo, Osamu Akiyama, Yuhei Sangatsuda, Daisuke Kuga, Yusuke Miyamoto, Tomoharu Suzuki, Daisuke Murakami, Koji Yoshimoto, Joe Iwanaga, R Shane Tubbs, Takashi Nakagawa
Endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery is increasingly prevalent, with its scope expanding from pathogens in the midline region to those in the paramedian region. Maximizing anterior sphenoidectomy is important for the median approach, and lateralizing the pterygopalatine fossa is crucial for the paramedian approach. Maximizing the surgical corridor in the nasal cavity and minimizing damage to neurovascular structures are vital for establishing a surgical field with minimal bleeding, ensuring safe, precise, and gentle procedures...
April 22, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Yuka Matsumoto, Naomichi Ogihara
The plantar aponeurosis (PA) is an elastic longitudinal band that contributes to the generation of a propulsive force in the push-off phase during walking and running through the windlass mechanism. However, the dynamic behavior of the PA remains unclear owing to the lack of direct measurement of the strain it generates. Therefore, this study aimed to visualize and quantify the PA behavior during two distinct foot postures: (i) neutral posture and (ii) windlass posture with midtarsal joint plantarflexion and metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion, using computed tomography scans...
April 20, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Robin Baudouin, Angélique Amelot, Isabelle Huynh-Charlier, Quentin Lisan, Stéphane Hans, Philippe Charlier
PURPOSE: The preserved head of King Henri IV of France (life 1553-1610, reign 1589-1610) has survived to the present day thanks to high-quality embalming and favorable conservation conditions. The aim of this study was to examine Henry IV's upper resonant cavities and mastoids using an original and innovative forensic three-dimensional segmentation method. METHODS: The paranasal sinuses and mastoid cells of King Henri IV of France were studied by cross-referencing available biographical information with clinical and flexible endoscopic examination and computed tomography (CT-scan) imaging...
April 18, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Mohammadali M Shoja, Tara Tritsch, R Shane Tubbs
During the 14th century CE, a pivotal shift took place in the world of medicine as its epicenter transitioned from the Middle East to Europe. The emergence of the European Renaissance sparked skepticism regarding the significance of Avicenna's contributions to the advancement of medicine. This paper explores how the rise of secularization and the Renaissance in Europe marked significant cultural transformations, fostering the spread of literacy. These societal shifts influenced the trajectory of medical thought, and Avicenna's "Canon of Medicine" received both praise and condemnation amidst the evolving intellectual landscape...
April 17, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
Damian Dudkiewicz, Maciej Lis, Artem Yakovliev, Jakub Hołda, Filip Bolechała, Marcin Strona, Paweł Kopacz, Mateusz K Hołda
The complex anatomy of the aortic root is of great importance for many surgical and transcatheter cardiac procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive morphological description of the nondiseased aortic root. We morphometrically examined 200 autopsied human adult hearts (22.0% females, 47.9 ± 17.7 years). A meticulous macroscopic analysis of aortic root anatomy was performed. The largest cross-section area of the aortic root was observed in coaptation center plane (653...
April 17, 2024: Clinical Anatomy
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