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Psychology & Health

Arie Dijkstra, Sarah Elbert
OBJECTIVE: Because the working memory (WM) has a limited capacity, the cognitive reactions towards persuasive information in the WM might be disturbed by taxing it by other means, in this study, by inducing voluntary eye movements (EMi). This is expected to influence persuasion. METHODS: Participants (N = 127) listened to an auditory persuasive message on fruit and vegetable consumption, that was either framed positively or negatively. Half of them was asked to keep following a regularly moving dot on their screen with their eyes...
May 3, 2019: Psychology & Health
Drew G Tatnell, Natalie J Loxton, Kathryn L Modecki, Kyra Hamilton
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate both implicit and explicit drinker identity as mediators of reward sensitivity and problematic drinking. University students engage in problematic levels of alcohol consumption, exposing them to increased negative health outcomes. Although personality traits (e.g. reward sensitivity) and social-cognitive variables (e.g. implicit and explicit drinker identity) have been used to investigate drinking behaviour, few studies link personality and multiple indices of drinker identity to problematic drinking...
April 29, 2019: Psychology & Health
Eva Janssen, Erika A Waters
OBJECTIVE: The role of affectively oriented risk beliefs in explaining health behaviors has not been examined in the context of physical activity or in diverse study populations. We evaluated whether affective risk beliefs account for unique variance in physical activity intentions and behavior above and beyond that accounted for by cognitive risk beliefs. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of socio-demographically diverse US residents (N = 835; 46.4% no college training; 46...
April 23, 2019: Psychology & Health
L Alison Phillips, Madeline Johnson, Kimberly R More
OBJECTIVE: Habit-formation interventions may help individuals initiate and maintain behaviour change. This paper proposes and empirically tests the idea that it is possible for individuals to form 'higher-order habits', or behaviours that can be executed in more than one way, and still be habitual. DESIGN: Participants (N = 82) were healthy adults randomly assigned to an action-and-coping-planning intervention for forming a 'higher-order habit' of filling half of their dinner plates with fruits and vegetables or a control condition...
April 23, 2019: Psychology & Health
Dean A Seehusen, Carla L Fisher, Heather A Rider, Angela B Seehusen, Jasmyne J Womack, Jeremy T Jackson, Paul F Crawford, Christy J W Ledford
OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study sought to identify and describe patients' variant perceptions of disease severity after receiving a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) or prediabetes (preDM) diagnosis. DESIGN: Researchers interviewed 29 patients from two US medical centers to ascertain perceptions of severity. We used the constant comparative method from a grounded theory approach to identify themes from patients' perspectives that inform their disease severity. This approach was used to help translate research to practice and ultimately identify intervention strategies informed by authentic experiences of preDM and T2DM patients...
April 23, 2019: Psychology & Health
Catherine Quinn, Ian Rees Jones, Anthony Martyr, Sharon M Nelis, Robin G Morris, Linda Clare
OBJECTIVE: Informal caregivers of people with dementia develop their own beliefs about the condition, referred to as Dementia Representations (DRs), as they try to make sense of the changes they are observing. The first aim of this study was to provide a profile of the types of DRs held by caregivers. The second aim was to examine the impact of caregivers' DRs on their well-being, satisfaction with life (SwL) and caregiving stress. METHODS: Participants were 1264 informal caregivers of people in the mild-to-moderate stages of dementia from time-point 1 of the IDEAL cohort study...
April 22, 2019: Psychology & Health
Esther Yuet Ying Lau, Mark Lawrence Wong, Benjamin Rusak, Yeuk Ching Lam, Yun Kwok Wing, Chia-Huei Tseng, Tatia Mei Chun Lee
OBJECTIVE: To examine how risk-related decision making might be associated with habitual sleep variables, including sleep variability, sleep duration and perceived sleep need in young adults cross-sectionally and longitudinally. DESIGN: 166 participants completed a 7-day protocol with sleep and risk-related decision-making measures at baseline (T1) and 12 months later (T2). RESULTS: Habitual short sleep duration (averaging < 6 h nightly) was identified in 11...
April 10, 2019: Psychology & Health
Lisa Graham-Wisener, Julie Hanna, Louise Collins, Martin Dempster
OBJECTIVE: Oesophageal cancer is an increasingly prevalent disease with a demanding post-curative treatment recovery period and sustained longer-term effects. Although post-curative treatment is a key transitionary period, the process of psychological adjustment for the individual is under-researched which limits the evidence base to inform supportive care. The aim of this study was to understand the process of adjustment for oesophageal cancer patients post-curative treatment, in particular the beliefs participants hold regarding their condition and how these are appraised against their experience...
April 2, 2019: Psychology & Health
Marleen Gillebaart, Denise T D De Ridder
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to test whether and how self-control and perceived control play a role in health outcomes and lifestyle differences between disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged neighbourhoods. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data including demographics was collected from 3758 participants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: With the survey, self-control, perceived control, health status and lifestyle variables were assessed. RESULTS: Participants in disadvantaged neighbourhoods reported poorer general health, as well as unhealthier lifestyles compared to participants in non-disadvantaged neighbourhoods...
April 2, 2019: Psychology & Health
Adrienne Sexton, Bridget Gargan, Jessica Taylor, Michael Bogwitz, Ingrid Winship
OBJECTIVE: Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic condition causing frequent nose bleeds, skin lesions (telangiectasia) and arteriovenous malformations. Approximately, 50% of people experience life-threatening HHT symptoms including haemorrhages in the brain, lungs and liver. This study aimed to gain a qualitative understanding of the psychosocial impact of HHT over time. DESIGN: Using a phenomenological framework, a rigorous narrative analysis was performed on 20 semi-structured interviews with individuals with HHT aged 20s-60s...
March 31, 2019: Psychology & Health
Alison L Owen, Keira Scholtens, Sarah Grogan, Ian R Burgess
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to investigate women's experiences of an age-appearance, facial-ageing, morphing intervention to show the effect of alcohol consumption on their skin. DESIGN: Seventeen women aged 19-32 took part in the study, using individual sessions where they viewed the intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were recorded during their viewing of the facial-ageing software, and the recordings of the sessions were then transcribed...
March 28, 2019: Psychology & Health
Anna Sallis, Sophie Attwood, Hugo Harper, John Larsen, Dan Berry, Ivo Vlaev, Michael Sanders, Tim Chadborn
OBJECTIVES: To compare the impact of appearance versus health-framed messages on engagement in a brief web-based risk screening and alcohol reduction intervention. DESIGN: Randomised trial delivered via Drinkaware's website. Visitors were exposed to appearance (n = 51,588) or health-framed messages (n = 52,639) directing them towards an AUDIT-C risk screening questionnaire. Users completing this questionnaire were given feedback on their risk level and extended frame-congruent information...
March 27, 2019: Psychology & Health
Dinne Skjaerlund Christensen, Trine Flensborg-Madsen, Ellen Garde, Åse Marie Hansen, Erik Lykke Mortensen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the cross-sectional associations of Big Five personality traits with midlife allostatic load, including the role of sex, socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviours. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of 5512 members of the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank, aged 49-63 years, 69% men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Allostatic load (AL) based on 14 biomarkers representing the inflammatory, cardiovascular and metabolic system...
March 25, 2019: Psychology & Health
Suzanne C Segerstrom, Edward J Kasarskis, David W Fardo, Philip M Westgate
OBJECTIVE: Socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that as the end of life approaches, goals and resources that provide immediate, hedonic reward become more important than those that provide delayed rewards. This study tested whether these goal domains differentially affected psychological health in the context of marital dyads in which one partner had been diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a life-limiting disease. DESIGN: ALS patients (N = 102) being treated in three multidisciplinary clinics and their spouses (N = 100) reported their loneliness, financial worry and psychological health every 3 months for up to 18 months...
March 23, 2019: Psychology & Health
Erin M Ellis, Edward Orehek, Rebecca A Ferrer
OBJECTIVE: Goal-concordant care is an important feature of high quality medical treatment. Patients' care goals may focus on curative and/or palliative outcomes. Patients rarely communicate their care goals, and providers' predictions of patient goals are often inaccurate, corresponding most closely to their own treatment goals. This projection of own goals onto patients introduces the potential for bias, leading to goal-discordant care. Design and Main Outcomes: We examined goal discordance using data from a U...
March 23, 2019: Psychology & Health
Dominika Kwasnicka, Stephan U Dombrowski, Martin White, Falko F Sniehotta
OBJECTIVE: To advance understanding of the individual and environmental factors underpinning weight loss maintenance. DESIGN: Semi-structured, data-prompted interviews were conducted with twelve overweight adult participants (three men, nine women) who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the year before baseline. Participants gathered daily data through wireless scales, activity monitors (Fitbit™), ecological momentary assessment and experience sampling (taking photographs, writing notes)...
March 23, 2019: Psychology & Health
Elizabeth A Sarma, Michelle I Silver, Sarah C Kobrin, Pamela M Marcus, Rebecca A Ferrer
OBJECTIVE: Cancer screening tests have helped to reduce cancer deaths. We provide an overview of recent research pertaining to the definition, health impact, and prevalence of several screening tests. We also discuss the multilevel correlates and determinants of screening and interventions designed to increase uptake. DESIGN: Narrative review. RESULTS: Epidemiologic evidence supports the effectiveness of several cancer screening tests in reducing mortality and are therefore routinely recommended...
March 23, 2019: Psychology & Health
Benjamín Reyes Fernández, Rafael Monge-Rojas, Ana Laura Solano López, Esteban Cardemil
OBJECTIVES: The Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) was originally reported as one-dimensional; however, habit has been described as characterised by several features. Moreover, one-dimensional models for the SRHI have demonstrated poor fit. Therefore, we aimed to compare multidimensional models with a one-dimensional model in both snacking and physical activity habits, besides examining further instrument characteristics. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted with high school and university students (n = 555)...
March 22, 2019: Psychology & Health
Sandro Voi, Kirby Sainsbury
OBJECTIVE: Examine the correspondence between autonomous motivation, self-control lapses, and adherence, to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and weight loss plan in adults with coeliac disease; and assess the impact of the interaction of motivation style and self-control lapses on adherence to both diets. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey in 519 adults with coeliac disease, 238 of whom were also attempting weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence, motivation style, frequency of temptation and self-control lapses (e...
March 4, 2019: Psychology & Health
Stephanie Tom Tong, Pradeep Sopory
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how affect influences people's processing of messages about risks and benefits of using autonomous artificial intelligence (AI) technology to screen for skin cancer. We examined integral affect (emotion derived during decision making) separately from incidental affect (extraneous mood states). DESIGN: Using the affect heuristic framework, we randomly assigned 273 participants to conditions featuring risk (high, low, uncertain) or benefit (high, low, uncertain) messages about AI...
March 1, 2019: Psychology & Health
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