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Mycotoxin Research

J Spencer Smith, W Paul Williams, Gary L Windham
Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr, an opportunistic ear-rot pathogen of maize (Zea mays L. subsp. Mays). Prior to the discovery of aflatoxin, A. flavus was considered a minor pathogen and was not a priority for maize breeders or pathologists. Aflatoxin was discovered in England in 1961 following an epidemic in poultry. By the early 1970s, surveys of agricultural commodities in the USA found that maize produced in the Southeast was especially vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination...
February 7, 2019: Mycotoxin Research
Marta Mendel, Wojciech Karlik, Magdalena Chłopecka
Regardless of the efforts put into preventing or reducing fungal growth, extensive mycotoxin contamination has been reported in animal feeds. In the case of pigs, one of the mycotoxins of major concern is deoxynivalenol (DON). The use of adsorbents as feed additives represents one of the strategies to control mycotoxins' contamination in feedstuff. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the ability of chlorophyllin (CHL) to reduce the absorption rate of DON in swine mucosa explants. Intestine was obtained from routinely slaughtered adult pigs...
February 2, 2019: Mycotoxin Research
Jesús M González-Jartín, Amparo Alfonso, María J Sainz, Mercedes R Vieytes, Olga Aguín, Vanesa Ferreiroa, Luis M Botana
Fusarium foetens, a pathogen of Begonia plants, has been recently described as a new fungal species. This Fusarium species causes a destructive vascular wilt disease which leads to the death of the plant. Moreover, Fusarium species are known to produce a huge variety of secondary metabolites such as mycotoxins and phytotoxins. Here, we studied the toxicogenic profile of one F. foetens strain, isolated from maize, employing two methods based on the use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-ion trap-time of flight detection...
January 31, 2019: Mycotoxin Research
Jaqueline Gozzi Bordini, Mario Augusto Ono, Glauco Tironi Garcia, Édio Vizoni, Ismael Rodrigues Amador, Melissa Tiemi Hirozawa, Elisabete Yurie Sataque Ono
The aim of this study was to compare the fate of fumonisins in transgenic and non-transgenic corn during industrial dry milling. For this purpose, whole corn samples and their fractions (germ, pericarp, endosperm, corn meal, and grits) were collected from one of the major Brazilian milling plants, totaling 480 samples. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between mean fumonisin (FB1 + FB2 ) levels in transgenic (1130 μg/kg) and non-transgenic (920 μg/kg) whole corn. However, in non-transgenic germ, endosperm and corn meal fraction fumonisin levels were higher (2940 μg/kg, 250 μg/kg and 190 μg/kg, respectively) than in transgenic fractions (2180 μg/kg, 130 μg/kg and 85...
January 31, 2019: Mycotoxin Research
Stefanie Hessel-Pras, Janine Kieshauer, Giana Roenn, Claudia Luckert, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen
Alternaria mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites which can contaminate food and feed. They are produced by Alternaria species with alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA), and tentoxin (TEN) as the main representatives for Alternaria mycotoxins in food. Once passing the intestinal barrier, Alternaria toxins can reach the liver to exert yet uncharacterized molecular effects. Therefore, hepatic in vitro systems were used to examine selected Alternaria mycotoxins for their induction of metabolism-dependent cytotoxicity, phosphorylation of the histone H2AX as a surrogate marker for DNA double-strand breaks, and relevant marker genes for hepatotoxicity...
December 14, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Oyekemi O Akinmusire, Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda, Jasini A Musa, Oluwawapelumi A Oyedele, Michael Sulyok, Yinka M Somorin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Rudolf Krska
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that can negatively affect animal productivity when ingested through feed. In order to assess mycotoxin contamination of poultry feed and feed ingredients vis-a-vis source tracking of feed contamination in Nigeria, 102 samples of feed (n = 30) and feed ingredients (n = 72) were collected from in-house mills of poultry farms across 12 states of Nigeria and analyzed for multiple mycotoxins using LC/MS-MS. One hundred and forty microbial metabolites were detected in the feed and feed ingredients...
November 27, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Alberto Altafini, Giorgio Fedrizzi, Paola Roncada
A total of 172 different salamis were purchased from farms and small salami factories located in four Italian regions (Piedmont, Veneto, Calabria, and Sicily) and analyzed for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA). Analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorimetric detector (HPLC-FLD). The detection limit (LOD) for the method used was 0.05 μg/kg, while the quantitation limit (LOQ) was 0.20 μg/kg; the average recovery rate was 89.1%. OTA was detected in 22 salamis, and 3 samples exceeded the Italian guidance value for OTA in pork meat (1 μg/kg)...
November 20, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Zelma Faisal, Virág Vörös, Beáta Lemli, Diána Derdák, Sándor Kunsági-Máté, Mónika Bálint, Csaba Hetényi, Rita Csepregi, Tamás Kőszegi, Dominik Bergmann, Franziska Sueck, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Florian Hübner, Miklós Poór
Citrinin (CIT) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by Penicillium, Monascus, and Aspergillus species. CIT appears as a contaminant in cereals, cereal-based products, fruits, nuts, and spices. During the biotransformation of CIT, its major urinary metabolite dihydrocitrinone (DHC) is formed. Albumin interacts with several compounds (including mycotoxins) affecting their tissue distribution and elimination. CIT-albumin interaction is known; however, the complex formation of DHC with albumin has not been reported previously...
November 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Anna Barbasz, Elżbieta Rudolphi-Skórska, Maria Filek, Anna Janeczko
The progressive contamination of food products by mycotoxins such as zearalenone (ZEN) has prompted the search for specific substances that can act as protectors against an accumulation of these toxins. This paper discusses the effect of selenium ions and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) as non-organic and organic compounds that preserve human lymphoblastic cells U-937 under ZEN stressogenic conditions. Based on measurements of cell viability and a DAPI test, concentrations of ZEN at 30 μmol/l, Se at 2.5 μmol/l and EBR at 0...
November 8, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Thilona Arumugam, Yashodani Pillay, Terisha Ghazi, Savania Nagiah, Naeem Sheik Abdul, Anil A Chuturgoon
Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ), a causative agent for animal-related mycotoxicoses, has been implicated in human and animal cancer. FB1 induces oxidative stress but the related survival responses are not well established. Central to this response is the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The effects of FB1 on Nrf2-related survival responses in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were investigated. HepG2 cells were treated with 200 μmol/l FB1 (IC50 -24 h). Cellular redox status was assessed via the quantification of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH)...
November 8, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Claude Schummer, Loïc Brune, Gilbert Moris
Ergot alkaloids are toxins produced by some species of fungi in the genus Claviceps, that may infect rye and triticale and, in a minor degree, other types of cereals. In this study, a new UHPLC-FLD method for the quantification of the six major ergot alkaloids as well as their corresponding epimers was developed. The sample preparation was done by a solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and clean-up via freeze-out. The method was fully validated and then applied to 39 samples (wheat, rye, triticale, and barley) harvested in Luxembourg in 2016...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Alma Rosa Solano-Báez, Juan Manuel Cuca-García, Adriana Delgado-Alvarado, Daniel Panaccione, Carlos De León-García de Alba, Santos Gerardo Leyva-Mir, Jesús Ricardo Sánchez-Pale, Javier Hernández-Morales
The Ascomycete fungus Claviceps gigantea infects maize kernels and synthetizes several alkaloids, mostly dihydrolysergamides. There is limited information on the damage these toxins cause in mammals, despite reports from infested areas with 90% presence of the fungus sclerotia. With this background, it was decided to determine the biological activity of chemical compounds present in sclerotia of C. gigantea in rabbits 38 days after weaning. Sclerotia of C. gigantea were collected in fields with high incidence of the disease, ground and analysed for nutrients...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Johanna Frida Lindahl, I N Kagera, D Grace
Milk is an important source of energy and nutrients, especially for children, and in Kenya, milk consumption is higher than other countries in the region. One major concern with milk is the risks of chemical contaminants, and reports of high levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) in milk in Kenya has been causing public health concerns. This study collected marketed milk products every month during 1 year, just as a consumer would purchase them from retailers and traders in a low-income area, and a major supermarket in a middle/high-income area...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Zelma Faisal, Beáta Lemli, Dénes Szerencsés, Sándor Kunsági-Máté, Mónika Bálint, Csaba Hetényi, Mónika Kuzma, Mátyás Mayer, Miklós Poór
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. ZEN mainly appears in cereals and related foodstuffs, causing reproductive disorders in animals, due to its xenoestrogenic effects. The main reduced metabolites of ZEN are α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL). Similarly to ZEN, ZELs can also activate estrogen receptors; moreover, α-ZEL is the most potent endocrine disruptor among these three compounds. Serum albumin is the most abundant plasma protein in the circulation; it affects the tissue distribution and elimination of several drugs and xenobiotics...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Genevieve S Bondy, Laurie Coady, Nikia Ross, Don Caldwell, Anne Marie Gannon, Keri Kwong, Stephen Hayward, David E Lefebvre, Virginia Liston, Jayadev Raju, Peter Pantazopoulos, Ivan Curran
The presence of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal grains is due to the growth of toxigenic Penicillium mold on stored crops. Human exposure to OTA is higher in infants, toddlers, and children than in adolescents and adults, based on exposure assessments of ng OTA consumed/kg body weight/day. Ochratoxin A is nephrotoxic and teratogenic in animals, but its effects on juveniles exposed during the reproduction and development period have not been studied. To address this, Fischer rats were exposed to 0, 0...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
The stability of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 , deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone during processing of Nigerian traditional spices (dawadawa, okpehe, and ogiri) and beer (burukutu) using artificially contaminated raw materials was investigated. Results revealed the reduction of these toxins in all the final products. Boiling played a significant role (p < 0.05) in Fusarium mycotoxin reduction in the traditional spices. The highest percentage reduction of deoxynivalenol (76%) and zearalenone (74%) was observed during okpehe processing (boiled for 12 h)...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Madeleine Gross, Christian Puck Ploetz, Christoph Gottschalk
The applicability of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) to analyse these toxins in donkey milk (Equus asinus) was studied. For AFM1 and OTA analysis, milk could be analysed by EIA without sample pretreatment. For ZEN, heat treatment at 78 °C for 30 min prior EIA analysis was required to avoid false positives. To include detection of phase II metabolites of ZEN, samples were additionally treated with glucuronidase/sulfatase for this EIA. Detection limits were 5 ng/kg (AFM1 ), 9 ng/kg (OTA) and 600 ng/kg (ZEN)...
October 20, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Donna M Morrison, David R Ledoux, Lambert F B Chester, Coretta A N Samuels
A survey was conducted on Guyana's main staple foods, rice, cassava meal and cassava bread to determine the presence and concentration of aflatoxins (AFs) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection for concurrence. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungus Aspergillus and can be a health risk to humans and animals. Results were compared with European Union Commission (EUC) maximum levels of total aflatoxins of 10 μg/kg...
October 11, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Nicolás Benito, Cecilia Soledad Carranza, Carina Elizabeth Magnoli, Carla Lorena Barberis
Atrazine is one of the most frequently used herbicides in Argentina for controlling broadleaf weeds and annual grasses. Currently, there is limited information on the impact of triazine herbicides on mycotoxin production and growth parameters of toxigenic fungi in maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on the lag phase prior to growth, the growth rate, and on production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains, on maize meal extract agar (MMEA) under different water activities (aW ) and temperatures...
September 25, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Larissa T Franco, Tânia Petta, George E Rottinghaus, Keliani Bordin, Gilmar A Gomes, Carlos A F Oliveira
A limited survey was conducted to assess the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 ; fumonisins (FB) B1 and B2 ; ochratoxin A (OTA); zearalenone (ZEN); and deoxynivalenol (DON) in maize food (N = 26) and animal feed (N = 45) collected from 21 small-scale farms from the states of São Paulo (SP) and Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Samples evaluated were maize meal and maize flour for human consumption available in the farm households, and maize-based feed intended for broiler chicks, laying hens, and dairy cows...
September 21, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
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