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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Justin M Stilwell, Matt J Griffin, Thomas Graham Rosser, John Leary, Katharina Hagen-Frei, Charles C Mischke, Eric K Pomaranski, Esteban Soto, Alvin C Camus
Native and introduced fish can serve as reservoirs for pathogens of cultured fish species. In the current study, 351 archived western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis collected from experimental catfish production ponds in Mississippi, USA, were surveyed histologically to evaluate their potential as vectors for fish pathogens. In addition to epitheliocystis and multiple metazoan parasites, 8 fish had widespread basophilic colonies of small Gram-positive rods associated primarily with stroma supporting the skeletal muscle and bone, as well as connective tissue components of other tissues and organ systems, such as perivascular adventitia and basement membranes...
February 7, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
F Marcer, E Marchiori, C Centelleghe, D Ajzenberg, A Gustinelli, V Meroni, S Mazzariol
Mediterranean fin whales Balaenoptera physalus face many threats to their conservation, including both anthropogenic and natural issues. There are few records of the parasitic fauna of this species in this geographical area. To partially fill in this gap of knowledge, we investigated the presence and potential impact of parasitic diseases in Mediterranean fin whales. Seven animals stranded along Italian coastlines between 2006 and 2015 were submitted for necropsy and parasitological examination. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was detected in 1 fin whale and, for the first time in mysticetes, it was successfully genotyped as a type II strain with 15 microsatellite markers...
February 7, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Katharina Seilern-Moy, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Shaheed K Macgregor, Shinto K John, Chris Linton, Andrew A Cunningham, Becki Lawson
A wild adult female common toad Bufo bufo found dead in Scotland in September 2016 was observed to have hepatomegaly, a large soft tissue mass in the coelomic cavity (2.7 g, 3.5 × 2.3 × 1.8 cm) and numerous dark-red papules (1-2 mm diameter) in the skin and subjacent tissue over the back and dorsal aspects of the limbs. Histopathological examination identified marked hepatitis and coelomitis associated with pigmented fungal hyphae, which are results consistent with a diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region and the D1-D2 region of the large subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene from affected liver tissue identified the presence of Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) sp...
February 7, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Ran Berzak, Aviad Scheinin, Nadav Davidovich, Yael Regev, Rei Diga, Dan Tchernov, Danny Morick
Infectious diseases in marine animals have ecological, socio-economic and environmental impacts. Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) and Streptococcus iniae have become major threats to marine aquaculture and have been detected in morbid marine organisms worldwide. However, despite their importance, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the prevalence of these pathogens in wild fish species. Here we sampled indigenous and Lessepsian species from different trophic levels and different biological niches in the eastern Mediterranean...
February 7, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
David S Rotstein, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Billy Adams, Mike Pederson
This case describes a metastatic Sertoli cell tumor (SCT) with lymphatic spread to the abdominal and thoracic lymph nodes, pancreas, and adrenal gland in an adult spotted seal Phoca largha. The neoplasm was composed of tubules lined by palisading neoplastic cells separated by a variably dense fibrous stroma. This pinniped was 1 of 2 cryptorchid seals and the sole case of genital neoplasia among 70 ice seals necropsied by the North Slope Borough from 2012 to 2017. Overall, SCTs are rarely reported in marine mammals...
February 7, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Jo Cable
Millions of fish are transported between countries annually for the aquarium trade, yet no quantitative study has examined how disease frequency differs among species and stakeholders. Here we visually inspected freshwater fish species in 12 specialised and non-specialised aquarium retailers in Spain for the presence of diseased fish in 2015 and in 2016. This information was complemented with disease records from 3 internet fora (>100000 users) and pathogen identification at a retailer. Overall, 22 fish species out of the 312 recorded were reported diseased, with species of Poeciliidae accounting for most records...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Alejandro M Labella, Rocío Leiva-Rebollo, Alí Alejo, Dolores Castro, Juan J Borrego
Lymphocystis disease, caused by the iridovirus lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), is characterized by the appearance of tumour-like lesions on the skin of affected animals associated with several environmental factors and/or with stress due to the intensive culture conditions of fish farms. In a previous study, the genomes of a new LCDV species, LCDV-Sa, were detected, together with 2 previously unknown viruses, Sparus aurata papillomavirus 1 (SaPV1) and Sparus aurata polyomavirus 1 (SaPyV1). Gilthead seabream from 17 fish farms in Spain, Italy and Turkey were sampled between 2009 and 2015 to investigate the role of the newly described SaPV1 and SaPyV1 viruses in lymphocystis disease development...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Leszek Rolbiecki, Joanna N Izdebska, Iwona Pawliczka
On 28 August 2015, a dead fin whale Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758) was collected from the waters of the Gulf of Gdan΄%%KERN_ERR%%sk (Baltic Sea). The individual was a male in a poor nutritional condition with an empty stomach. Over 34000 Ogmogaster antarcticus flukes were found in the colon and rectum. This is the first observation of O. antarcticus in the Baltic Sea.
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
R Salighehzadeh, H Sharifiyazdi, M Akhlaghi, M Khalafian, A Gholamhosseini, S Soltanian
Co-infections occur when a host is infected by 2 or more different pathogen types, either by secondary or simultaneous infections, and are very frequent in nature. In this study, 10 narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus with signs of disease were collected from Haft Baram Lake (Fars province, southern Iran). Samples of fluid from inside the intact abscess and melanized lesions in the cuticle were cultured aseptically onto brain heart infusion agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar for bacterial and fungal agents, respectively...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Lucilla Giulietti, Simonetta Mattiucci, Michela Paoletti, Didrik H Grevskott, Miguel Bao, Paolo Cipriani, Arne Levsen
Myxozoans of the genus Kudoa (Myxosporea, Multivalvulida) infect marine and estuarine fish species worldwide. Some Kudoa species are of concern to the seafood industry since they may generate macroscopic cysts in the fish host's musculature, or cause post mortem myoliquefaction, commonly known as 'soft flesh'. One of the economically most important species is K. thyrsites, a myoliquefactive myxosporean parasite that occurs in many wild and cultured marine fish species worldwide. Here we identified a K. thyrsites isolate as the causative agent of myoliquefaction in silver scabbardfish Lepidopus caudatus from the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea)...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Allen M Foley, Brian A Stacy, Paul Schueller, Leanne J Flewelling, Barbara Schroeder, Karrie Minch, Deborah A Fauquier, Jerris J Foote, Charles A Manire, Karen E Atwood, April A Granholm, Jan H Landsberg
Data on Karenia brevis red tides (≥105 cells l-1) and on dead or debilitated (i.e. stranded) Kemp's ridleys Lepidochelys kempii, loggerheads Caretta caretta, green turtles Chelonia mydas, hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricata, and leatherbacks Dermochelys coriacea documented in Florida during 1986-2013 were evaluated to assess red tides as a sea turtle mortality factor. Unusually large numbers of stranded sea turtles were found coincident with red tides primarily along Florida's Gulf coast but also along a portion of Florida's Atlantic coast...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Rocío Y Mejía-Radillo, Alan A Zavala-Norzagaray, J Alicia Chávez-Medina, A Alonso Aguirre, César M Escobedo-Bonilla
The presence of fibropapilloma and its associated chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) was assessed in 82 wild sea turtles. Olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 58) were caught in the pelagic Area of Marine Influence (AMI) (off the coast of Guasave, Sinaloa), and black turtles Chelonia mydas agassizii (n = 24) were captured in the Navachiste Lagoon System. The apparent physical condition was evaluated as 'good' or 'poor' by physical examination. The population structure and general health status was determined by condition index, hematocrit and total plasma protein...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Molly Martony, Jorge A Hernandez, Martine de Wit, Judy St Leger, Claire Erlacher-Reid, Jacob Vandenberg, Nicole I Stacy
Cold-stress syndrome (CSS) is a leading natural cause of mortality in free-ranging Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris, but comprehensive investigations into blood analyte derangements and prognostic indicators in CSS are lacking. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare admission blood analyte data of manatees pre and post rehabilitation for CSS to identify clinicopathological derangements, (2) identify blood analyte prognostic indicators for survival, and (3) correlate post-mortem anatomic pathological changes with clinicopathological findings to improve the understanding of CS pathophysiology...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Antonino Pace, Leonardo Meomartino, Andrea Affuso, Giuseppina Mennonna, Sandra Hochscheid, Ludovico Dipineto
Bacterial bone infections have been occasionally reported in wild sea turtles. This study reports on a sub-adult Caretta caretta affected by Aeromonas hydrophila osteomyelitis, with extensive involvement of cranial and caudal flippers. The turtle was severely debilitated, had limited flipper mobility and showed signs of pain in reaction to manipulation. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed multiple lytic bone lesions. Since an infectious polyostotic osteomyelitis was suspected, the turtle was subjected to echo-assisted fine needle aspiration to characterize the etiology of the disease...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Yasunari Kiryu, Jan H Landsberg, Micah D Bakenhaster, Amanda J Tyler-Jedlund, Patrick W Wilson
Redfin needlefish Strongylura notata from Florida coastal waters were observed with unusual neoplastic lesions. Affected specimens were collected from 1 Atlantic estuary (Indian River Lagoon, prevalence = 0.32%, n = 5314) and 2 Gulf of Mexico estuaries (Tampa Bay, prevalence = 0.02%, n = 10762; Charlotte Harbor, prevalence = 0.02%, n = 5112) during routine fisheries-independent monitoring surveys conducted from 1999-2009. Grossly, each lesion manifested as a large (18-30 mm × 20-50 mm), raised (approximately 10 mm), white, creamy, or pinkish nodule on the flank, dorsal trunk, base of the pectoral fin, or head...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hoang A Hoang, Mai H Yen, Vo T Ngoan, Le P Nga, Dang T H Oanh
Striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmed in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, represents an important contribution to Vietnamese aquaculture exports. However, these fish are affected by frequent disease outbreaks across the entire region. One of the most common infections involves white spots in the internal organs, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. In this study, a virulent phage specific to E. ictaluri, designated MK7, was isolated from striped catfish kidney and liver samples and characterized...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Michael W Hyatt, Thomas B Waltzek, Elizabeth A Kieran, Salvatore Frasca, Jan Lovy
Enteromyxum leei is an enteric myxozoan parasite of fish. This myxozoan has low host specificity and is the causative agent of myxozoan emaciation disease, known for heavy mortalities and significant financial losses within Mediterranean, Red Sea, and Asian aquaculture industries. The disease has rarely been documented within public aquaria and, to our knowledge, has never been confirmed within the USA. This case report describes an outbreak of E. leei in a population of mixed-species east African/Indo-Pacific marine fish undergoing quarantine at a public aquarium within the USA...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Joseph R Mihaljevic, Jason T Hoverman, Pieter T J Johnson
Multiple pathogens commonly co-occur in animal populations, yet few studies demonstrate how co-exposure of individual hosts scales up to affect transmission. Although viruses in the genus Ranavirus are globally widespread, and multiple virus species or strains likely co-occur in nature, no studies have examined how co-exposure affects infection dynamics in larval amphibians. We exposed individual northern red-legged frog Rana aurora larvae to 2 species of ranavirus, namely Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV), frog virus 3 (FV3), or an FV3-like strain isolated from a frog-culturing facility in Georgia, USA (RCV-Z2)...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Z G Liu, A F Zheng, M M Chen, Y X Lian, X K Zhang, S Z Zhang, D Yu, J K Li
Diseases caused by Aeromonas veronii in freshwater fish have been widely reported, but other species such as aquatic mammals have probably been overlooked. Here, we identified one isolate of A. veronii from a Yangtze finless porpoise Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis exhibiting disease and mortality, and subsequently confirmed its virulence in artificial infection of BALB/c mice. The bacterial isolate was identified as A. veronii based on physiological, biochemical, and phenotypic features, and homology of the 16S rRNA, cpn60, rpoB, dnaJ and gyrB genes...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Angélica M Sánchez-Sarmiento, Vitor L Carvalho, Ana C O Meirelles, Waleska Gravena, Juliana Marigo, Carlos Sacristán, Samira Costa-Silva, Katia R Groch, Nairléia Dos Silva, José Soares Ferreira Neto, José L Catão-Dias
Aquatic mammals can act as sentinels of emerging and resurging pathogens in the environment. Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. are 2 zoonotic pathogens relevant to aquatic mammals, and their detection can be used to assess pathogen exposure. In this study, serum from 84 individuals-63 cetaceans (families Iniidae, n = 37; Delphinidae, n = 22; and Kogiidae, n = 4) and 21 West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus-was tested by the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) for detecting Brucella spp...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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