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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31084944/genome-evolution-of-coral-reef-symbionts-as-intracellular-residents
#1
REVIEW
Raúl A González-Pech, Debashish Bhattacharya, Mark A Ragan, Cheong Xin Chan
Coral reefs are sustained by symbioses between corals and symbiodiniacean dinoflagellates. These symbioses vary in the extent of their permanence in and specificity to the host. Although dinoflagellates are primarily free-living, Symbiodiniaceae diversified mainly as symbiotic lineages. Their genomes reveal conserved symbiosis-related gene functions and high sequence divergence. However, the evolutionary mechanisms that underpin the transition from the free-living lifestyle to symbiosis remain poorly understood...
May 10, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31079944/using-networks-to-connect-individual-level-reproductive-behavior-to-population-patterns
#2
Rebecca J Safran, Iris I Levin, Bailey K Fosdick, Molly T McDermott, Georgy А Semenov, Amanda K Hund, Elizabeth S C Scordato, Sheela P Turbek
We propose an application of network analysis to determine which traits and behaviors predict fertilizations within and between populations. This approach quantifies how reproductive behavior between individuals shapes patterns of selection and gene flow, filling an important gap in our understanding of the connection between evolutionary processes and emergent patterns.
May 9, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31078331/uncovering-ecological-patterns-with-convolutional-neural-networks
#3
REVIEW
Philip G Brodrick, Andrew B Davies, Gregory P Asner
Using remotely sensed imagery to identify biophysical components across landscapes is an important avenue of investigation for ecologists studying ecosystem dynamics. With high-resolution remotely sensed imagery, algorithmic utilization of image context is crucial for accurate identification of biophysical components at large scales. In recent years, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have become ubiquitous in image processing, and are rapidly becoming more common in ecology. Because the quantity of high-resolution remotely sensed imagery continues to rise, CNNs are increasingly essential tools for large-scale ecosystem analysis...
May 8, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31078330/an-ecological-framework-for-modeling-the-geography-of-disease-transmission
#4
REVIEW
Erica E Johnson, Luis E Escobar, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio
Ecological niche modeling (ENM) is widely employed in ecology to predict species' potential geographic distributions in relation to their environmental constraints and is rapidly becoming the gold-standard method for disease risk mapping. However, given the biological complexity of disease systems, the traditional ENM framework requires reevaluation. We provide an overview of the application of ENM to disease systems and propose a theoretical framework based on the biological properties of both hosts and parasites to produce reliable outputs resembling disease system distributions...
May 8, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31076210/biocultural-hysteresis-inhibits-adaptation-to-environmental-change
#5
REVIEW
P O'B Lyver, P Timoti, T Davis, J M Tylianakis
Indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC) often use natural resources as both a reason and mechanism for environmental management, yet a number of environmental, social, and economic drivers disrupt this relationship. Here, we argue that these drivers can also trigger a set of feedback mechanisms that further diminish the efficacy of local management. We call this process biocultural hysteresis. These feedbacks, which include knowledge loss and a breakdown of social hierarchies, prevent IPLC from adapting their management to change...
May 7, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31072606/eco-evolutionary-dynamics-of-sexual-dimorphism
#6
David C Fryxell, Doriane E Weiler, Michael T Kinnison, Eric P Palkovacs
Sexual dimorphism is widespread, but we have a limited understanding of its significance for communities and ecosystems. Several new experiments demonstrate that sexual dimorphism can have far-reaching ecological effects. These results suggest that sexual dimorphism and sexual selection are potent, but largely overlooked components of eco-evolutionary dynamics.
May 6, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31072605/the-conservation-of-native-honey-bees-is-crucial
#7
REVIEW
Fabrice Requier, Lionel Garnery, Patrick L Kohl, Henry K Njovu, Christian W W Pirk, Robin M Crewe, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Recent studies have emphasized the role of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, as a managed agricultural species worldwide, but also as a potential threat to endangered wild pollinators. This has resulted in the suggestion that honey bees should be regulated in natural areas to conserve wild pollinators. We argue that this perspective fails to appreciate the multifaceted nature of honey bees as native or introduced species with either managed or wild colonies. Wild populations of A. mellifera are currently imperiled, and natural areas are critical for the conservation of local subspecies and genotypes...
May 6, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31056219/ecological-data-should-not-be-so-hard-to-find-and-reuse
#8
Timothée Poisot, Anne Bruneau, Andrew Gonzalez, Dominique Gravel, Pedro Peres-Neto
Drawing upon the data deposited in publicly shared archives has the potential to transform the way we conduct ecological research. For this transformation to happen, we argue that data need to be more interoperable and easier to discover. One way to achieve these goals is to adopt domain-specific data representations.
May 2, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31054858/better-model-transfers-require-knowledge-of-mechanisms
#9
LETTER
Phil J Bouchet, A Townsend Peterson, Damaris Zurell, Carsten F Dormann, David Schoeman, Rebecca E Ross, Paul Snelgrove, Ana M M Sequeira, Mark J Whittingham, Lifei Wang, Giovanni Rapacciuolo, Steffen Oppel, Camille Mellin, Valentina Lauria, Periyadan K Krishnakumar, Alice R Jones, Stefan Heinänen, Risto K Heikkinen, Edward J Gregr, Alan H Fielding, M Julian Caley, A Márcia Barbosa, Andrew J Bamford, Hector Lozano-Montes, Stephen Parnell, Seth Wenger, Katherine L Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31054857/call-to-action-a-global-consortium-for-tropical-cyclone-ecology
#10
Jonathan N Pruitt, Alexander G Little, Sharanya J Majumdar, Thomas W Schoener, David N Fisher
Rigorously evaluating of the ecological impacts of cyclones is logistically challenging. Here we issue a call-to-action to organize a global collaboration initiative to advance cyclone ecology. If successful, this will allow the international community to pose some of the most exciting questions in ecology and provide definitive answers.
May 1, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31047718/evidence-types-and-trends-in-tropical-forest-conservation-literature
#11
REVIEW
Z Burivalova, D Miteva, N Salafsky, R A Butler, D S Wilcove
To improve the likelihood of conservation success, donors, policy makers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and researchers are increasingly interested in making conservation decisions based on scientific evidence. A major challenge in doing so has been the wide variability in the methodological rigor of existing studies. We present a simple framework to classify different types of conservation evidence, which can be used to understand the strengths, weaknesses, and biases in the conservation effectiveness literature...
April 29, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31027839/aposematism-unpacking-the-defences
#12
REVIEW
Tim Caro, Graeme Ruxton
Aposematic coloration is commonly considered to signal unpalatability, yet animals advertise malodour, spines, and weaponry as well as toxins, some of which can be seen at a distance whereas others are hidden from predators. Separating defences into overt and covert categories in this way and whether they act before, during contact, or following ingestion generates new insights into the evolution of aposematism. Signals drawing attention to overt defences are difficult to fake whereas signals advertising covert defences can deceive would-be predators, and those acting later in the predatory sequence are more likely to be dishonest...
April 23, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31027838/experimental-evolution-of-innovation-and-novelty
#13
REVIEW
Rees Kassen
How does novelty, a new, genetically based function, evolve? A compelling answer has been elusive because there are few model systems where both the genetic mechanisms generating novel functions and the ecological conditions that govern their origin and spread can be studied in detail. This review article considers what we have learned about the evolution of novelty from microbial selection experiments. This work reveals that the genetic routes to novelty can be more highly variable than standard models have led us to believe and underscores the importance of considering both genetics and ecology in this process...
April 23, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31010706/basic-principles-of-temporal-dynamics
#14
REVIEW
Masahiro Ryo, Carlos A Aguilar-Trigueros, Liliana Pinek, Ludo A H Muller, Matthias C Rillig
All ecological disciplines consider temporal dynamics, although relevant concepts have been developed almost independently. We here introduce basic principles of temporal dynamics in ecology. We figured out essential features that describe temporal dynamics by finding similarities among about 60 ecological concepts and theories. We found that considering the hierarchically nested structure of complexity in temporal patterns (i.e. hierarchical complexity) can well describe the fundamental nature of temporal dynamics by expressing which patterns are observed at each scale...
April 19, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31003875/the-impact-of-mutualisms-on-species-richness
#15
REVIEW
Guillaume Chomicki, Marjorie Weber, Alexandre Antonelli, Jordi Bascompte, E Toby Kiers
Mutualisms - cooperative interactions among different species - are known to influence global biodiversity. Nevertheless, theoretical and empirical work has led to divergent hypotheses about how mutualisms modulate diversity. We ask here when and how mutualisms influence species richness. Our synthesis suggests that mutualisms can promote or restrict species richness depending on mutualist function, the level of partner dependence, and the specificity of the partnership. These characteristics, which themselves are influenced by environmental and geographic variables, regulate species richness at different scales by modulating speciation, extinction, and community coexistence...
April 17, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31000371/a-user-s-guide-to-metaphors-in-ecology-and-evolution
#16
REVIEW
Mark E Olson, Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Francisco Vergara-Silva
Biologists energetically debate terminology in ecology and evolution, but rarely discuss general strategies for resolving these debates. We suggest focusing on metaphors, arguing that, rather than looking down on metaphors, biologists should embrace these terms as the powerful tools they are. Like any powerful tool, metaphors need to be used mindful of their limitations. We give guidance for recognizing metaphors and summarize their major limitations, which are hiding of important biological detail, ongoing vagueness rather than increasing precision, and seeming real rather than figurative...
April 15, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30979525/integrated-approaches-to-studying-male-and-female-thermal-fertility-limits
#17
LETTER
Benjamin S Walsh, Steven R Parratt, David Atkinson, Rhonda R Snook, Amanda Bretman, Tom A R Price
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30929751/what-is-gender-equality-in-science
#18
Katherine R O'Brien, Milena Holmgren, Terrance Fitzsimmons, Margaret E Crane, Paul Maxwell, Brian Head
Why do inequalities persist between male and female scientists, when the causes are well-researched and widely condemned? In part, because equality has many dimensions. Presenting eight definitions of gender equality, we show each is important but incomplete. Rigid application of any single equality indicator can therefore have perverse outcomes.
March 28, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30910426/sex-specific-differences-in-thermal-fertility-limits
#19
LETTER
Graziella Iossa
Critical thermal limits (CTLs) are established viability thresholds when studying the impact of climate change on natural populations. Novel thermal fertility limits (TFLs) of species have been proposed alongside CTLs, to better assess the sublethal effects of rising temperatures on species persistence. However, sex-specific sensitivity of fertility to temperature also needs consideration.
March 22, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30904190/aquatic-landscape-genomics-and-environmental-effects-on-genetic-variation
#20
REVIEW
Jared A Grummer, Luciano B Beheregaray, Louis Bernatchez, Brian K Hand, Gordon Luikart, Shawn R Narum, Eric B Taylor
Aquatic species represent a vast diversity of metazoans, provide humans with the most abundant animal protein source, and are of increasing conservation concern, yet landscape genomics is dominated by research in terrestrial systems. We provide researchers with a roadmap to plan aquatic landscape genomics projects by aggregating spatial and software resources and offering recommendations from sampling to data production and analyses, while cautioning against analytical pitfalls. Given the unique properties of water, we discuss the importance of considering freshwater system structure and marine abiotic properties when assessing genetic diversity, population connectivity, and signals of natural selection...
March 20, 2019: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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