Vanessa C R Magalhães, Salene A Colombo, Nalu T A Peres, Alexandre S Moura, Ana C Lyon, Sandra Lyon, Maria R T Dutra, Tatiani O Fereguetti, Virginia A Andrade, Maria I Azevedo, Daniel A Santos
BACKGROUND: Systemic sporotrichosis occurs when organs, other than subcutaneous tissues and lymph nodes, are infected. Interestingly, systemic sporotrichosis in apparently immunocompetent individuals is increasing in Brazil, but data on clinical manifestations and risk factors are scarce. Most of the existing data on such condition relate to people living with HIV. We aimed to study the risk factors associated with systemic sporotrichosis among HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study with 80 patients from Brazil, diagnosed between 2014 and 2021...
September 24, 2023: Mycoses
Bram Spruijtenburg, Suhail Ahmad, Mohammad Asadzadeh, Wadha Alfouzan, Inaam Al-Obaid, Eiman Mokaddas, Eelco F J Meijer, Jacques F Meis, Theun de Groot
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast, causing outbreaks in healthcare facilities. Echinocandins are the antifungal drugs of choice to treat candidiasis, as they cause few side effects and resistance is rarely found. Previously, immunocompromised patients from Kuwait with C. auris colonisation or infection were treated with echinocandins, and within days to months, resistance was reported in urine isolates. To determine whether the development of echinocandin resistance was due to independent introductions of resistant strains or resulted from intra-patient resistance development, whole genome sequencing (WGS) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on susceptible (n = 26) and echinocandin-resistant (n = 6) isolates from seven patients...
September 15, 2023: Mycoses
Ralph Bertram, Hans-Theodor Naumann, Vanessa Bartsch, Wolfgang Hitzl, Martina Kinzig, Golo-Sung Haarmeyer, Matthias Baumgärtel, Arnim Geise, Dorothea Muschner, Jens Nentwich, Stefan John, Fritz Sörgel, Joerg Steinmann, Rainer Höhl
BACKGROUND: The broad-spectrum antifungal isavuconazole is administered to treat invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. OBJECTIVES: Isavuconazole plasma concentrations in critically ill ICU patients with or without COVID-19 and invasive fungal infection were determined, and factors for sub-therapeutic drug levels (<1 μg/mL) were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Isavuconazole plasma levels were measured as part of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in ICUs of a tertiary hospital...
September 12, 2023: Mycoses
R Kassem, A Barzilai, S Baum, A Kempfner, F Pavlotsky
BACKGROUND: Tinea capitis (TC), a fungal infection that occurs in children, is primarily caused by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton and Microsporum species. For Trichophyton species, treatment with terbinafine is considered more effective than griseofulvin treatment. Specific populations, such as refugee children, are more susceptible to TC. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe and compare the response to treatment among Israeli and refugee children with TC...
August 24, 2023: Mycoses
Iman Haghani, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Tahereh Shokohi, Firoozeh Kermani, Mona Ghazanfari, Javad Javidnia, Shaghayegh Khojasteh, Behrad Roohi, Hamid Badali, Maryam Fathi, Kazem Amirizad, Zahra Yahyazadeh, Mahdi Abastabar, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi
Fusarium species are an emerging cause of onychomycosis, and the number of cases has dramatically increased in recent decades worldwide. This review presents an overview of the onychomycosis cases caused by Fusarium species and diagnosis and treatment that have been reported in the literature. The most common causative agent of onychomycosis is F. solani species complex, which accounts for 11.68% of the cases of Fusarium onychomycosis, followed by the F. oxysporum species complex (164 out of 1669), which is accounted for 9...
August 21, 2023: Mycoses
Jon Salmanton-García, Martin Hoenigl, Helmut J F Salzer, Michaela Lackner, Juergen Prattes, Karl Dichtl, Markus Winkler-Zamani, Robert Krause, Jannik Stemler, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Oliver A Cornely, Birgit Willinger
INTRODUCTION: Immunosuppression after chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation or solid organ transplantation are the main risk factors for invasive fungal infections in Austria. Here, we aim to describe the status of laboratory mycology and the access to antifungal treatment in Austria. METHODS: Between October and November 2021, hospitals were contacted to participate in our online survey: Centres were required to provide information on their institutional profile; self-assessment of burden of invasive fungal infections; access to microscopy, culture, serology, antigen detection and molecular testing; and availability of antifungal agents and therapeutic drug monitoring...
August 17, 2023: Mycoses
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein
BACKGROUND: In a previous genome wide association study (GWAS) of UK Biobank (UKB) data, we identified one susceptibility locus, tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TINAG), with genome wide significance for dermatophytosis. We used genotype calls from file UKB22418. These data are derived directly from Affymetrix DNA microarrays but are missing many genotype calls. Using computationally efficient approaches, UKB has entered imputed genotypes into a second dataset, UKB22828, increasing the number of testable variants by over 100-fold to 96 million variants...
August 17, 2023: Mycoses
Yuki Hanai, Takashi Ueda, Yukihiro Hamada, Kazutaka Oda, Yoshiko Takahashi, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Mone Kiriyama, Shusuke Uekusa, Kazuhiro Matsuo, Kazuaki Matsumoto, Toshimi Kimura, Yoshio Takesue
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of voriconazole in Asians, who have higher rates of poor metabolisers than non-Asians, is unclear. This can cause unexpectedly high concentrations and delays in reaching steady-state levels. OBJECTIVES: To determine the appropriate timing of TDM in Japanese patients receiving voriconazole. PATIENTS/METHODS: Trough levels (Cmin ) were measured on days 3-5 (recommended timing, RT) and days 6-14 (delayed timing, DT) after starting voriconazole in patients receiving an appropriate dosage...
August 16, 2023: Mycoses
David Navarro-Pérez, Sara García-Oreja, Aroa Tardáguila-García, Diego León-Herce, Francisco Javier Álvaro-Afonso, José Luis Lázaro-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is the most common nail pathology, involving various pathogens such as dermatophytes, moulds and yeasts. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of onychomycosis, analyse the most appropriate diagnostic test, and assess the distribution of pathogens based on age, sex, quarter of the year, duration of symptoms and previous treatment. METHODS: Retrospectively, mycological culture and PCR data and results were collected from 121 patients...
August 13, 2023: Mycoses
Kai Dai, Zhuo Feng, Tao Hu, Zhihui Su, Dasen Yuan, Bang-E Qin, Meifeng Gu, Fuhua Peng, Ying Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Information about the seasonal characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is quite limited. The aim of this study was to explore the seasonality and meteorological factors of HIV-negative patients with CM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 469 HIV-negative CM patients admitted to the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Their initial onset symptoms of CM occurred from January 2011 to December 2020...
August 11, 2023: Mycoses
Ritesh Agarwal, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Valliappan Muthu, Sahajal Dhooria, Kuruswamy Thurai Prasad, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Mandeep Garg, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: The long-term outcomes of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are poorly characterised. METHODS: We retrospectively included treatment-naïve subjects of acute stage ABPA-complicating asthma from three randomised trials. All the subjects received oral prednisolone for 4 months and were monitored every 6 weeks for 6 months and then every 6 months. Our primary objective was to estimate the incidence rate and the frequency of subjects experiencing ABPA exacerbation...
August 9, 2023: Mycoses
Silke E Gastine, Kerstin K Rauwolf, Stephanie Pieper, Georg Hempel, Thomas Lehrnbecher, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Andreas H Groll
Voriconazole (VCZ) is an important first-line option for management of invasive fungal diseases and approved in paediatric patients ≥24 months at distinct dosing schedules that consider different developmental stages. Information on dosing and exposures in children <24 months of age is scarce. Here we report our experience in children <24 months who received VCZ due to the lack of alternative treatment options. This retrospective analysis includes 50 distinct treatment episodes in 17 immunocompromised children aged between 3 and <24 months, who received VCZ between 2004 and 2022 as prophylaxis (14 patients; 47 episodes) or as empirical treatment (3 patients; 3 episodes) by mouth (46 episodes) or intravenously (4 episodes) based on contraindications, intolerance or lack of alternative options...
August 8, 2023: Mycoses
Chris Kosmidis, Holly Smith, Guy Mollett, Chris Harris, Suha Akili, Rohit Bazaz
OBJECTIVES: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is associated with significant mortality, and suboptimal antifungal treatment response. We describe predictive factors for treatment response and survival. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed clinical, serological and radiological parameters at baseline and following antifungal treatment in patients with CPA and correlated with clinical and radiological response and survival. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients were included with a mean age of 61 years...
August 8, 2023: Mycoses
Xianzhong Zhu, Jianchi Ma, Bowen Zheng, Wenying Cai, Jiahao Li, Li Lin, Liyan Xi, Xiqing Li, Sha Lu
Exophiala spinifera is a rare dematiaceous fungus causing cutaneous, subcutaneous and disseminated phaeohyphomycosis (PHM). Standard antifungal therapy for PHM is still uncertain. Here, we report a case of a Chinese male with PHM caused by E. spinifera, who received significant clinical improvement after the treatment with oral itraconazole and terbinafine. With the aim of evaluating the antifungal therapy for PHM caused by E. spinifera, a detailed review was performed.
August 8, 2023: Mycoses
Zia Hashim, Alok Nath, Ajmal Khan, Mansi Gupta, Anup Kumar, Riksoam Chatterjee, Radha Krishan Dhiman, Martin Hoenigl, Naresh Kumar Tripathy
COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) remains a high mortality mycotic infection throughout the pandemic, and glucocorticoids (GC) may be its root cause. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of systemic GC treatment on the development of CAPA. We systematically searched the PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Embase databases to collect eligible studies published until 31 December 2022. The pooled outcome of CAPA development was calculated as the log odds ratio (LOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random effect model...
August 7, 2023: Mycoses
Chia-Yu Chiu, Takahiro Matsuo, Sebastian Wurster, Yoheved Gerstein, Danielle E Hammond, Kelly S Chien, Courtney DiNardo, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in the gene encoding the GATA2 transcription factor can result in profound reductions of monocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and B cells. GATA2 PVs are associated with an increased risk of myeloid malignancies and a predisposition to nontuberculous mycobacterial and human papillomavirus infections. Additionally, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have been reported in individuals with GATA2 PVs, even in the absence of myeloid malignancies. In this report, we present the case of a 40-year-old man with Emberger syndrome (GATA2 mutation, recently diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia [AML] and history of lymphedema with hearing loss) who developed Mucorales sinusitis while receiving his first course of remission induction chemotherapy...
August 7, 2023: Mycoses
Etienne Canouï, Geoffrey Rossi, Yann Nguyen, Emmanuel Lafont, Benjamin Rossi, Olivier Roux, Safi Dokmak, Frédéric Bert, Véronique Leflon-Guibout, Bruno Fantin, Agnès Lefort
BACKGROUND: Out of the context of haematological patients, Candida sp. is rarely retrieved from pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA). OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the risk factors for occurrence, and clinical, microbiological characteristics, management and outcome of Candida pyogenic liver abscesses (C-PLA). PATIENTS/METHODS: We retrospectively analysed C-PLA cases and compared them to pyogenic liver abscesses exclusively due to bacteria (B-PLA) included in our monocentric database on liver abscesses...
August 3, 2023: Mycoses
Constanza Giselle Taverna, Matías Ezequiel Vivot, Bárbara Abigail Arias, Lucia Irazu, Cristina Elena Canteros
Rapid and accurate yeasts species identification in clinical laboratories is important for appropriate and timely antifungal treatment. We evaluate the performance of the new medium CHROMagar™ Candida Plus for presumptive identification of yeasts species and MALDI-TOF identification. We identify 303 strains belonging to 60 clinically relevant yeasts species by using the new medium. Presumptive identification was correct at the Candida albicans complex, Candida tropicalis and Pichia kudriavzevii (Candida krusei) species...
July 30, 2023: Mycoses
Eun Hwa Lee, Min Hyuk Choi, Kyoung Hwa Lee, Young Goo Song, Sang Hoon Han
BACKGROUND: Trichosporon is an emerging yeast that causes invasive infections in immunocompromised patients experiencing prolonged hospitalisation, indwelling venous catheters and neutropenia. METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study analysed invasive Trichosporon infections (ITIs) occurring between January 2005 and December 2022 at three tertiary hospitals and compared the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of ITIs caused by Trichosporon asahii and non-T...
July 29, 2023: Mycoses
Orion Sant'Anna Motter Borba, Marilia Marufuji Ogawa, Gianna Mastroiani Kirsztajn, Jane Tomimori
UNLABELLED: Onychomycosis is common among immunosuppressed individuals. Renal transplant recipients (RTR) and lupus nephritis (LN) patients are submitted to corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive therapy; and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are intrinsically immunocompromised. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterise and identify fungal infections on the nails (feet and hands) in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: The clinical material, nail scales (foot and/or hand), was collected from 47 RTR, 66 LN, 67 DM, and 78 immunocompetent individuals (control group)...
July 24, 2023: Mycoses
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