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Theun de Groot, Anuradha Chowdhary, Jacques F Meis, Andreas Voss
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging yeast, causing severe infections in patients with underlying diseases. This yeast is responsible for several outbreaks within healthcare facilities, where it can be found on hospital surfaces and patient care devices. Spread from these fomites may be prevented by improving the decontamination of hospital surfaces. UV-C decontamination may constitute an effective adjunct to routine room cleaning. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the effect of different UV-C exposure times and distance in killing C...
February 12, 2019: Mycoses
Nitin Bansal, Nandini Sethuraman, Ram Gopalakrishnan, V Ramasubramanian, D Suresh Kumar, P Senthur Nambi, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Many patients with histoplasmosis are treated with anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) in tuberculosis endemic regions as diagnosis of histoplasmosis requires invasive sampling. We sought to study the utility of urinary Histoplasma antigen detection test. METHODS: Case records of patients with a diagnosis of histoplasmosis prior to (Period A) and after (Period B) introduction of urinary Histoplasma antigen detection test were analysed in this single centre retrospective study RESULTS: Thirty seven patients (18 in period A, and 19 patients in period B) were studied...
February 8, 2019: Mycoses
Marcio Nucci, Shmuel Shoham, Edson Abdala, Nelson Hamerschlak, Juan Carlos Rico, Fabio Forghieri, Simone A Nouér, Paola Cappellano, Cristiana Solza, Yung Gonzaga, Giampaolo Nadali, Fabio Nucci, Arnaldo L Colombo, Ana Munhoz Albuquerque, Flavio Queiroz-Telles Filho, Carlos B L Lima, Celso Arrais-Rodrigues, Vanderson Rocha, Francisco M Marty
BACKGROUND: Patients treated for invasive aspergillosis may relapse during subsequent periods of immunosuppression and should receive secondary prophylaxis. Little is known about the frequency of relapse and practices of secondary prophylaxis for invasive fusariosis (IF). OBJECTIVES: Evaluate practices of secondary prophylaxis and the frequency of relapse in patients who survived IF and were exposed to subsequent periods of immunosuppression. METHODS: Multicentre retrospective study of patients with haematological malignancies who developed IF, survived the initial fungal disease period, and were exposed to subsequent periods of immunosuppression...
February 5, 2019: Mycoses
Suzana Otašević, Stefan Momčilović, Milan Golubović, Aleksandra Ignjatović, Nataša Rančić, Marina Đorđević, Marina Ranđelović, Roderick Hay, Valentina Arsić-Arsenijević
BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections (SFI), one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, are infections of keratin-rich structures of human body mostly caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible changes in the epidemiology of SFI on the territory of Southeastern Serbia and to investigate epidemiological characteristics and the influence of SFI on the patient's quality of life. METHODS: From 2012 to the end of 2017, samples of 1643 patients (568 males and 1075 females, mean age 40...
January 28, 2019: Mycoses
Fabianne Altruda de Moraes Costa Carlesse, Orlei Ribeiro de Araujo, Leticia Maria Acioli Marques, Dafne Cardoso Bourguignon da Silva, Andreza Almeida Senerchia, Antonio Sergio Petrilli
BACKGROUND: The wide pharmacokinetic variability of voriconazole leads to uncertainty regarding adequate exposure. OBJECTIVES: To create a pharmacokinetic model that could help to explain the variability. METHODS: Retrospective review of pediatric patients with cancer. Models were built using Pmetrics. RESULTS: We analyzed 158 trough measurements in 55 patients; in 41.8%, the serum levels were between 1 and 6 mg/L on initial measurement...
January 28, 2019: Mycoses
Abi Manesh, Priscilla Rupali, Maire O Sullivan, Promila Mohan Raj, V Rupa, Biju George, Joy Sarojini Michael
BACKGROUND: Limited data exists for epidemiology and outcomes of various agents causing mucormycosis in various clinical settings from developing countries like India. OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology and outcomes of various agents causing mucormycosis in different clinical settings in a tertiary care hospital from South India. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed details of 184 consecutive patients with culture proven mucormycosis with consistent clinical syndrome and supporting features from September 2005 to September 2015...
January 27, 2019: Mycoses
Elahe Nasri, Hamed Fakhim, Afsane Vaezi, Soheila Khalilzadeh, Fatemeh Ahangarkani, Melika Laal Kargar, Zahra Abtahian, Hamid Badali
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality due to fungal and bacterial colonization of the airways or respiratory infections. The prevalence of fungi in Iranian CF population has been underestimated. Therefore, the current study was conducted to define the frequency of fungi in respiratory specimens obtained from Iranian CF patients based on conventional and molecular assays. Furthermore, in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on the obtained isolates according to the guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
January 25, 2019: Mycoses
Mahmoud Ghannoum, Lisa Long, Gernot Kunze, Marlis Sarkany, Hanan Osman-Ponchet
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the penetration of amorolfine through the nail have shown the highest concentration in the uppermost layer and measurable antifungal activity even in the lower layers of the nail. OBJECTIVES: This pilot, ex vivo study compared the penetration of antifungal concentrations of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in different layers of healthy, human cadaver toenails with that of terbinafine 10% nail solution, ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, and naftifine 1% nail solution...
January 22, 2019: Mycoses
Hailin Zheng, Yun He, Siyue Kan, Dongmei Li, Guixia Lv, Yongnian Shen, Huan Mei, Xiaofang Li, Weida Liu
BACKGROUND: The infection rate for dematiaceous fungi has increased rapidly over the most recent decades. However, the treatment for such infections has been lacking in empirical support with oral antifungal agents. OBJECTIVES: To provide a better regimen for dematiaceous infections in future, the Sensititre YeastOne® colorimetric antifungal panels were used and compared with Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 reference broth microdilution method. METHODS: Two methods were used for 9 antifungals against 67 dematiaceous fungi...
January 21, 2019: Mycoses
Minglan Shi, Jiufeng Sun, Sha Lu, Jinglin Qin, Liyan Xi, Junmin Zhang
Fonsecaea monophora is a member of dematiaceous fungi capable of causing Chromoblastomycosis through traumatic injury. However, little is known about the pathogenesis and early interactions between F. monophora and host. The aim of this study was to explore the potential mechanism of macrophages against F. monophora, especially the role of melanin during the pathogenic process. We carried out RNA sequencing based on the Illumina system. It showed that according to melanin contents, different strains of F. monophora induced different transcriptional profilings in macrophages...
January 17, 2019: Mycoses
Georgios Gaitanis, Prokopios Magiatis, Nikitia Mexia, Eleni Melliou, Maria A Efstratiou, Ioannis D Bassukas, Aristea Velegraki
BACKGROUND: Malassezia yeasts produce bioactive indolic substances when grown on L-tryptophan agar. A panel of these substances was tested against commensal and opportunistic fungi, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined and the potential for in loco antifungal activity on the skin was assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight indoles were included (malassezin, pityriacitrin, indirubin, indolo[3,2b]carbazole, formyl-indolo[3,2 b]carbazole, tryptanthrin, 6-hydroxymethyl-indolo[3,2-b]carbazole and 6-methyl-indolo[3,2-b]carbazole) and were tested against 40 fungal strains [yeasts: Malassezia spp...
January 12, 2019: Mycoses
Reinhard Beyer, Kathrin Spettel, Iris Zeller, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Dagmar Achleitner, Robert Krause, Petra Apfalter, Walter Buzina, Joseph Strauss, Christa Gregori, Christoph Schüller, Birgit Willinger
BACKGROUND: Candida-associated infections put a significant burden on western health care systems. Development of (multi-) resistant fungi can become untreatable and threaten especially vulnerable target groups, such as the immunocompromised. OBJECTIVES: We assessed antifungal susceptibility and explored possible influence factors of clinical Candida isolates collected from Austrian hospitals between 2007 and 2016 METHODS: 1360 clinical Candida spp. isolated from blood cultures were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) in a liquid handling aided continuous microdilution assay...
January 12, 2019: Mycoses
Rebeca Rodríguez-Veiga, Pau Montesinos, Estefanía García, Blanca Boluda, Rafael Rojas, Josefina Serrano, David Martínez-Cuadrón, Carmen Martín, Jaime Sanz, Salvador Tabares, José L Piñana, Ignacio Lorenzo, Juan Montoro, Miguel Salavert, Javier Pemán, Isidro Jarque, Pilar Solves, Guillermo F Sanz, Antonio Torres, Miguel A Sanz
BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported a simple prognostic score for post-engraftment invasive fungal disease (IFD) obtained in 404 adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) (training cohort). OBJECTIVES: We aim to validate this score in an external cohort assessing the 1-year cumulative incidence (CI) of post-engraftment IFD. Additionally, we analyze the type of IFD, and incidence of IFD according to type of prophylaxis. PATIENTS/METHODS: We included 465 consecutive adult recipients surviving >40 days who engrafted and were discharged without prior IFD (median age 45 years, range, 14-69)...
January 11, 2019: Mycoses
Diego R Falci, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
Despite the existence of endemic mycoses in Latin America and the Caribbean, in addition to a large population of patients at risk for invasive mycoses, the capability of medical centres to perform a proper diagnosis in mycology has not been studied in the region. Moreover, availability of antifungal drugs in the region is unknown. Here we report the results of a survey involving 129 centres in 24 countries. Only 9% of centres would have the potential to apply for the minimum standards in mycology, as determined by the European Confederation of Medical Mycology...
January 7, 2019: Mycoses
Bruna Pippi, Simone Merkel, Keli Jaqueline Staudt, Mario Lettieri Teixeira, Bibiana Verlindo de Araújo, Régis Adriel Zanette, Saulo Fernandes Andrade, Alexandre Meneghello Fuentefria
BACKGROUND: Clioquinol was used in the 1950s-1970s as antimicrobial but its oral formulations were withdrawn from the market due to suspected neurotoxicity. Currently there is possibility of repositioning of oral clioquinol formulations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antifungal activity and toxicological parameters of clioquinol and the other two 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives using alternative animal models and to study the interaction dynamic of clioquinol with Candida albicans...
January 1, 2019: Mycoses
Gao Yangmin, Ping Zhan, Ferry Hagen, S B J Menken, Jiufeng Sun, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Sybren de Hoog
Trichophyton schoenleinii is an anthropophilic dermatophyte usually causing tinea favosa. Only few studies have provided data on molecular epidemiology and antifungal profiles of this fungus due to its limited prevalence after 1950s. Forty-nine strains from Asia (n=27), Africa (n=10), Europe (n=10) and from unknown regions (n=2) were analyzed with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprinting (AFLP) to reveal intraspecific genetic diversity in this dataset. AFLP genotyping revealed five clusters which did not correspond to geographic origins or clinical characteristics...
December 29, 2018: Mycoses
Susanna K P Lau, Fanfan Xing, Chi-Ching Tsang, James Y M Tang, Yen-Pei Tan, Haiyan Ye, Ricky W T Lau, Jonathan H K Chen, Simon K F Lo, Patrick C Y Woo
Although case series of talaromycosis have been reported in China, their detailed clinical and microbiological characteristics have never been systematically profiled. In this study, we report the clinical characteristics, molecular epidemiology, rapid identification and antifungal susceptibilities of talaromycosis in The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital in Shenzhen. Seven cases of talaromycosis were observed since commencement of hospital service in 2012. Three patients were local Shenzhen residents, whereas the other four were immigrants from other parts of China...
December 29, 2018: Mycoses
Felix Bongomin, Niamh Maguire, Caroline B Moore, Timothy Felton, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson
BACKGROUND: Long-term oral triazole antifungal therapy is the cornerstone of management for patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Itraconazole is the first-line choice of treatment. Voriconazole, posaconazole or isavuconazole can be used as alternative treatments in case of resistance or intolerance. All of these can cause significant adverse drug reactions. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how CPA patients tolerate voriconazole and isavuconazole after prior triazole therapy...
December 20, 2018: Mycoses
Nathan C Bahr, Anil A Panackal, Michelle M Durkin, Melinda L Smedema, Wesley Keown, Thomas E Davis, Luke Raymond-Guillen, Yoon-Dong Park, Kieren A Marr, Bettina C Fries, Peter R Williamson, David R Boulware, L Joseph Wheat
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Antibody detection is commonly used for diagnosis of histoplasmosis, cross-reactions have been recognized due to endemic mycoses but not cryptococcosis. We observed cross-reactions in an anti-Histoplasma antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a patient with cryptococcal meningitis and sought to assess the risk for cross-reactive anti-Histoplasma antibodies in persons with cryptococcal meningitis. METHODS: An anti-cryptococcal antibody EIA was developed to measure CSF antibody response in HIV-infected subjects from Kampala, Uganda and previously healthy, HIV-negative subjects at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with cryptococcal meningitis...
December 19, 2018: Mycoses
Rosario Russo, Fabiana Superti, Eugen Karadja, Francesco De Seta
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a recurrent vaginal condition in childbearing women. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an oral formulation containing Lactobacillus acidophilus GLA-14, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and bovine lactoferrin on symptoms and recurrence of VVC as adjuvant therapy to topical clotrimazole. PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty-eight women positive for C. albicans, symptoms of VVC and documented history of recurrences were randomized into 2 groups receiving verum or placebo (2 capsules/day for 5 days followed by 1 capsule/day for additional 10 days) as adjuvant treatment to clotrimazole (induction phase) followed by a maintenance cycle of 6 months (1 capsule/day verum or placebo for 10 consecutive days each month)...
December 19, 2018: Mycoses
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