Amanda Bombassaro, Bram Spruijtenburg, Fernanda Medeiros, Bruna Jacomel Favoreto de Souza Lima, Luana Beatriz Ballardin, Marconi Rodrigues de Farias, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Flavio de Queiroz-Telles, Jacques F Meis, Theun de Groot
Sporotrichosis is an implantation mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix and mostly involves cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues and the lymphatic vessels. Among more than 50 different species, only Sporothrix schenckii, Sporothrix globosa and Sporothrix brasiliensis are frequently reported to cause infections in humans. Sporothrix brasiliensis is remarkably virulent and has been spreading rapidly in Brazil and other Latin American countries. In this study, we aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and antifungal susceptibility of Sporothrix strains by analysing 89 isolates from humans and cats in Curitiba, Southern Brazil...
March 27, 2023: Mycoses
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Keshavamurthy Vinay, Sahajal Dhooria, Valliappan Muthu, Kuruswamy Thurai Prasad, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Hansraj Choudhary, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Itraconazole capsules have variable and unpredictable bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: Whether the generic brands are as effective as the innovator itraconazole in treating subjects with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) remains unclear. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we treated CPA subjects with 6-month itraconazole capsule and measured itraconazole levels at 2 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. Our primary outcome was to compare the proportion of subjects achieving therapeutic drug levels (≥0...
March 26, 2023: Mycoses
Sreya Sebastian, Dina A Boikov, Jack D Sobel
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC), despite its worldwide prevalence, has limited treatment options; and a long-term prophylactic regimen utilizing fluconazole is the dominant choice. OBJECTIVES: An increase in fluconazole resistance is reported and little information is available about the reversibility of resistance status following the withdrawal of fluconazole. METHODS: Repeated Antifungal Susceptibility Tests(ASTs) for fluconazole at a median interval of 3 months between them were evaluated in women with refractory or recurrent VVC patients at the Vaginitis clinic from 2012-2021(10 years) and performed at pH 7 and pH 4...
March 3, 2023: Mycoses
Iriagbonse I Osaigbovo, Bassey E Ekeng, Adeyinka A Davies, Rita O Oladele
Mucorales fungi cause mucormycosis, an invasive and rapidly progressive disease which increasingly affects mostly immunocompromised but also immunocompetent individuals. The objective of this study was to highlight the epidemiology, diagnostic modalities, treatment and overall survival of mucormycosis in Africa. We searched for relevant publications in PubMed, Google Scholar and African Journal Online databases covering the period 1960-2022. A total of 147 articles were identified, of which 66 were included in the review, detailing 408 individual cases from 12 African countries; 330 (80...
March 1, 2023: Mycoses
Patcharin Thammasit, Angkana Laliam, Kunyaluk Chaicumpar, Kritsada Pruksaphon, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Sirida Youngchim
BACKGROUND: Malassezia furfur is a member of the human skin microbiomes that can cause various skin diseases. Dimorphism plays a role as the yeast phase predominates during skin colonization whereas mycelial forms are observed in the scales of patients with pityriasis versicolor (PV). However, due to their condition-dependence for growth, it is difficult to culture M. furfur and this is an additional challenge for studying the pathogenicity of this fungus. OBJECTIVE: To describe different media suitable for culturing Malassezia from the yeast phase into mycelial forms, with a particular focus on nutritional supplements and pH conditions...
February 24, 2023: Mycoses
George R Thompson, Marisa H Miceli, Jeanette Jiang, Emily F Shortridge, Kalatu Davies, Giridharan Gurumoorthy, Tomomi Kimura
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have been identified as a complication in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, there are few US studies examining the excess humanistic and economic burden of IFIs on hospitalized COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the incidence, risk factors, clinical and economic burden of IFIs in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the US. PATIENTS/METHODS: Data from adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during 01 April 2020-31 March 2021 were extracted retrospectively from the Premier Healthcare Database...
February 20, 2023: Mycoses
Anuradha Chowdhary, Nitesh Gupta, Sebastian Wurster, Raj Kumar, Jason T Mohabir, Shashidhar Tatavarthy, Vikas Mittal, Preeti Rani, Purabi Barman, Neelam Sachdeva, Ashutosh Singh, Brijesh Sharma, Ying Jiang, Christina A Cuomo, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
BACKGROUND: The etiology of the major outbreak of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) in India in spring 2021 remains incompletely understood. Herein, we provide a multifaceted and multi-institutional analysis of clinical, pathogen-related, environmental, and healthcare-related factors during CAM outbreak in the metropolitan New Delhi area. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of all patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven CAM (n=50) at 7 hospitals in the New Delhi, and NCR area in April-June 2021...
February 15, 2023: Mycoses
David Navarro-Pérez, Aroa Tardáguila-García, Sara García-Oreja, Mateo López-Moral, Marta García-Madrid, José Luis Lázaro-Martínez
BACKGROUND: A systematic review was conducted to investigate the prevalence of onychomycosis in patients with diabetes. The association of onychomycosis with risk factors in patients with diabetic foot syndrome was also examined. METHODS: The recommendations in the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) checklist were applied, and the included studies were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) method...
February 15, 2023: Mycoses
Christina Friese, Katharina Breuckmann, Andreas Hüttmann, Lewin Eisele, Ulrich Dührsen
BACKGROUND: To reduce the risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA), air purification by high-efficiency particulate air filtration and laminar air flow (HEPA/LAF) is standard of care in allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation. Its use in non-transplant haematological patients is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the incidence and outcome of pulmonary IA in non-transplant patients with life-threatening neutropenia by comparing an ambient air hospitalisation period (2008-2011) with a subsequent HEPA/LAF hospitalisation period (2012-2014)...
February 14, 2023: Mycoses
Charussri Leeyaphan, Chatree Chai-Adisaksopha, Napatra Tovanabutra, Phichayut Phinyo, Sumanas Bunyaratavej
BACKGROUND: The prognostic factors for cure have been derived from cases of dermatophyte onychomycosis. However, there are limited studies in non-dermatophyte onychomycosis. Neoscytalidium dimidiatum is the common causative agents of non-dermatophyte onychomycosis which has proven to be recalcitrant to treatment. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study investigated mycological cure and prognostic factors in Neoscytalidium onychomycosis patients METHODS: Patients aged 18 or older with newly diagnosed Neoscytalidium onychomycosis were enrolled...
February 5, 2023: Mycoses
Karri A Bauer, Kalvin Yu, Pamela A Moise, Lyn Finelli, ChinEn Ai, Janet Watts, Gang Ye, Vikas Gupta
BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating outcomes of COVID-19 patients with candidemia are limited and have only evaluated a single timepoint during the pandemic. OBJECTIVES: Compare the prevalence and outcomes associated with candidemia in patients based on SARS-CoV-2 status and through the various pandemic waves (March 1, 2020-March 5, 2022). PATIENTS/METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective cohort analysis of data from 248 United States medical facilities using the BD Insights Research Database (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, USA)...
February 5, 2023: Mycoses
Morgana Ferreira Voidaleski, Flávia de Fátima Costa, G Sybren de Hoog, Renata Rodrigues Gomes, Vania Aparecida Vicente
BACKGROUND: The skin is the first line of defence against communities of resident viruses, bacteria and fungi. The composition of the microbiome might change with factors related to the environment and host. The microbiome is dominated by bacteria. Dermatophytes and yeasts are the predominant fungi that are also involved in opportunistic infections of skin, hair and nails. Among environmental fungi, Chaetothyriales (black yeasts and relatives) are enriched by hydrocarbon pollution in domesticated habitats and comprise numerous species that cause mild-to-severe disease...
February 5, 2023: Mycoses
Emmanuel Edwar Siddig, Ayman Ahmed, Omnia Babekir Hassan, Sahar Mubarak Bakhiet, Annelies Verbon, Ahmed Hassan Fahal, Wendy W J van de Sande
BACKGROUND: Eumycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous inflammatory fungal infection most often caused by Madurella mycetomatis. Using a species-specific PCR on DNA directly isolated from grains is currently the most reliable method for species identification. However, so far, PCR has been performed on grains obtained through deep-seated surgical biopsies, which are invasive procedures. Grains can also be obtained via ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (US-FNA). Here we determined the diagnostic performance of species-specific PCRs performed on samples obtained through US-FNA...
February 5, 2023: Mycoses
Ge Song, Meijie Zhang, Weida Liu, Guanzhao Liang
BACKGROUNDS: Onychomycosis was an ignored condition in children, and the prevalence was still unknown worldwide. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and treatment regimens of onychomycosis in children younger than 18 years old. METHODS: We systemically reviewed all publications by searching the key terms to reveal the onychomycosis in children from 1990 to 2022. RESULTS: A total of 44 articles including 2,382 children with onychomycosis were enrolled in this study...
January 27, 2023: Mycoses
Christelle Boglione-Kerrien, Jeff Morcet, Lucie-Marie Scailteux, François Bénézit, Christophe Camus, Jean-Baptiste Mear, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Eric Bellissant, Camille Tron, Marie-Clémence Verdier, Florian Lemaitre
BACKGROUND: Voriconazole (VRC), a widely used triazole antifungal, exhibits significant inter- and intra-individual pharmacokinetic variability. The main metabolite voriconazole N-oxide (NOX) can provide information on the patient's drug metabolism capacity. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to implement routine measurement of NOX concentrations and to describe the metabolic ratio (MR), and the contribution of the MR to VRC therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) by proposing a suggested dosage-adjustment algorithm...
January 25, 2023: Mycoses
Xiaoxian Cheng, He Zhu, Shuang Bai, Yuekun Zou, Zhikuan Xia, Rongya Yang
BACKGROUND: Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast-like fungus. Phospholipase B1 (PLB1) is an important virulence factor of pathogenic fungi such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, and there are few studies on the role of PLB1 in the pathogenicity of T. asahii. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of PLB1 in the pathogenicity of T. asahii. METHODS: A strain with low secretion of PLB1 (4848) was screened, a PLB1 overexpression strain (PLB1OX ) was constructed, and the differences in histopathology, fungal load of organ, survival time of mice, the levels of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and GM-GSF in the serum and organs caused by the two strains were compared...
January 20, 2023: Mycoses
Gabriele Sass, David J Larwood, Marife Martinez, David A Stevens
BACKGROUND: Candidiasis is the most common cause of fungal sepsis, and new agents are of interest to ameliorate current deficiencies in therapy. Nikkomycin Z (NIKZ) is an inhibitor of chitin synthase, interfering with fungal cell wall development. OBJECTIVES/METHODS: We studied NIKZ therapy of disseminated murine candidiasis, via continuous drug exposure, in drinking water, to compensate for rapid clearance of the drug. RESULTS: Drinking, and thus drug intake in the NIKZ groups, as well as body weight, was affected by the degree of illness...
January 20, 2023: Mycoses
Julia Jeck, Sebastian M Wingen-Heimann, Florian Jakobs, Anna Kron, Jennifer Franz, Oliver A Cornely, Florian Kron
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are life-threatening and demand timely and appropriate treatment. Research showed that isavuconazole treatment positively affects clinical outcome and length of hospital stay (LOS). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the hospital costs of patients diagnosed with IFD and treated with isavuconazole using real-world data from a German cancer centre. PATIENTS/METHODS: Data and LOS collected from Jan-2016 to Jun-2021 at Department I of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Cologne were retrieved...
January 20, 2023: Mycoses
Katriina Pihlajamaa, Veli-Jukka Anttila, Hodgson Ulla
BACKGROUND: Aspergilli moulds are frequently detected in sputum and other respiratory samples. It is not known what the significance of these findings is, or how to differentiate contamination, temporary or persistent colonization from clinical infection when Aspergilli are found in respiratory samples. OBJECTIVES: In this study we studied the clinical significance of Aspergillus findings from respiratory samples. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 299 patients who had provided Aspergillus-positive respiratory samples in 2007-2016, which provided a follow-up time of 3-13 years...
January 18, 2023: Mycoses
Danielle Firkus, Omar M Abu Saleh, Mark J Enzler, Paul J Jannetto, Kristin Mara, Paschalis Vergidis, Christina G Rivera, Ryan W Stevens
BACKGROUND: Itraconazole is the recommended first-line treatment for mild-to-moderate blastomycosis and consolidation treatment of moderate-to-severe disease. Itraconazole is metabolised into three metabolites, including an active metabolite hydroxy-itraconazole. Literature provides little evidence indicating whether therapeutic drug monitoring targets should be based on itraconazole parent compound alone or a sum of itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole serum concentrations. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare clinical outcomes and adverse drug events (ADEs) of combined itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole concentrations versus itraconazole parent compound alone in patients with blastomycosis...
January 17, 2023: Mycoses
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