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Journals Infectious Disease Clinics of ...

Infectious Disease Clinics of North America

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38599896/recurrent-uti-in-women-risk-factors-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Jacob E Lazarus, Kalpana Gupta
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women; more than 50% of women will be diagnosed with a UTI in her lifetime. Many of these women will go on to develop recurrent UTI. Nevertheless, evidence-based prevention of recurrent UTI is under-utilized. Here, the authors provide detailed practical advice on UTI prevention with a thorough review of the evidence. Non-antibiotic prevention measures discussed include increased fluid intake, vaginal estrogen therapy, methenamine, and cranberry. Antibiotic prophyalxis for carefully selected patients is also discussed...
April 10, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38599895/managing-external-urinary-catheters
#2
REVIEW
Corina Lopez, Barbara W Trautner, Prathit A Kulkarni
This narrative review explores the use of external urinary catheters. These devices are available in various types and materials for male and female patients. The indications for the use of external urinary catheters include managing incontinence linked to overactive bladder and neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Contraindications to the use of external urinary catheters include urinary obstruction. Proper skin care and proactive infection control measures are necessary to prevent complications. The collection of a urine specimen for culture requires a standardized technique to prevent contamination...
April 10, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38594140/unitary-tract-infection-treatment-when-to-use-what-agents-including-beta-lactam-combination-agents
#3
REVIEW
Arsheena Yassin, Keith S Kaye, Tanaya Bhowmick
In this study, the authors review antibiotic treatment options for both acute uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). In addition, they also review regimens used in the setting of drug-resistant pathogens including vancomycin resistant Enterococcus, extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacterals, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterals and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas, which are encountered with increasing frequency.
April 8, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38580574/urinary-tract-infection-diagnostic-and-management-considerations-in-people-with-spinal-cord-injury-and-neurogenic-bladder
#4
REVIEW
Margaret A Fitzpatrick, Nnamdi Nwafo
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common complications in people with neurogenic bladder. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are challenging for several reasons, including a high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and catheter use, frequent ambiguous nonlocalizing signs and symptoms, increased risk for complications and difficult-to-treat pathogens, and a lack of effective preventative methods. Current research aims to improve elicitation and evaluation of signs and symptoms, implement algorithms to avoid urine cultures in asymptomatic patients and use appropriate antibiotics for UTI, and identify novel effective prevention methods...
April 4, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38575494/urinary-tract-infection-in-male-patients-challenges-in-management
#5
REVIEW
Dimitri M Drekonja
Urinary tract infections in male patients share many of the management principles as used in the management of female patients, including the need to accurately define the clinical syndrome, choose empirical therapy based on the severity of illness and the potential for antimicrobial resistance, and consider the need for source control in severely ill patients. The microbiology of the causative organisms is more unpredictable compared to female patients, and data to inform treatment decisions from clinical trials specific to male patients are relatively scarce...
April 3, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38575493/scientific-advances-in-understanding-the-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-the-past-10%C3%A2-years
#6
REVIEW
Daniel R Engel, Florian M E Wagenlehner, Olga Shevchuk
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common disease that is accompanied by various complications in the affected person. UTI triggers diverse inflammatory reactions locally in the infected urinary bladder and kidney, causing tissue destruction and organ failure. Moreover, systemic responses in the entire body carry the risk of urosepsis with far-reaching consequences. Understanding the cell-, organ-, and systemic mechanisms in UTI are crucial for prevention, early intervention, and current therapeutic approaches...
April 3, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38575492/reducing-treatment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-what-works
#7
REVIEW
Lindsay E Nicolle
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common, but usually benign. Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria contributes to negative antimicrobial outcomes. Optimizing antimicrobial use for bacteriuria is a component of antimicrobial stewardship programs and includes key practices of dissemination and implementation of guidelines, laboratory practices which support stewardship, and programs to monitor and implement optimal antimicrobial treatment for urinary infection. These activities vary in their effectiveness, costs, and complexity to institute...
April 3, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38575491/antibiotic-stewardship-interventions-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-outpatient-settings-a-narrative-review
#8
REVIEW
Larissa Grigoryan, Barbara W Trautner
Inappropriate antibiotic choice or duration of therapy for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in outpatients is common and is a major contributor to antibiotic overuse. Most studies on outpatient antibiotic stewardship for UTIs follow a pre-design or post-design with a multifaceted intervention; these trials generally have found improvement in appropriateness of antibiotic use for UTI. Audit and feedback was one of the most commonly employed strategies across these trials but may not be sustainable. Future research on antibiotic stewardship for UTIs in outpatients should measure both effectiveness and implementation success...
April 3, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38575490/diagnostic-stewardship-for-urine-cultures
#9
REVIEW
K C Coffey, Kimberley Claeys, Daniel J Morgan
Urinary tract infections are among the most common infectious diagnoses in health care, but most urinary tract infections are diagnosed inappropriately in patients without signs or symptoms of infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria leads to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and negative downstream effects, including antimicrobial resistance, health care-associated infections, and adverse drug events. Diagnostic stewardship is the process of modifying the ordering, performing, or reporting of test results to improve clinical care...
April 3, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38538385/untangling-the-nuances-complicating-urinary-tract-infection-diagnosis-and-management-moving-beyond-the-basics
#10
EDITORIAL
Kalpana Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280768/management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-guidelines
#11
REVIEW
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
Two recent major guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) recommend consideration of local antibiotic resistance patterns and individual patient risks for resistant pathogens when formulating an initial empiric antibiotic regimen. One recommends against invasive diagnostic techniques with quantitative cultures to determine the cause of VAP; the other recommends either invasive or noninvasive techniques. Both guidelines recommend short-course therapy be used for most patients with VAP...
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280767/novel-and-rapid-diagnostics-for-common-infections-in-the-critically-ill-patient
#12
REVIEW
Chiagozie I Pickens, Richard G Wunderink
There are several novel platforms that enhance detection of pathogens that cause common infections in the intensive care unit. These platforms have a sample to answer time of a few hours, are often higher yield than culture, and have the potential to improve antibiotic stewardship.
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280766/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumonia
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Sungurlu, Robert A Balk
Biomarkers are used in the diagnosis, severity determination, and prognosis for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Selected biomarkers may indicate a bacterial infection and need for antibiotic therapy (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells). Biomarkers can differentiate CAP patients who require hospital admission and severe CAP requiring intensive care unit admission. Biomarker-guided antibiotic therapy may limit antibiotic exposure without compromising outcome and thus improve antibiotic stewardship...
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280765/coronavirus-disease-2019-in-the-immunocompromised-host
#14
REVIEW
Christopher D Bertini, Fareed Khawaja, Ajay Sheshadri
Immunocompromised hosts, which encompass a diverse population of persons with malignancies, human immunodeficiency virus disease, solid organ, and hematologic transplants, autoimmune diseases, and primary immunodeficiencies, bear a significant burden of the morbidity and mortality due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Immunocompromised patients who develop COVID-19 have a more severe illness, higher hospitalization rates, and higher mortality rates than immunocompetent patients. There are no well-defined treatment strategies that are specific to immunocompromised patients and vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and convalescent plasma are variably effective...
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280764/radiographic-imaging-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-case-based-review
#15
REVIEW
Lacey Washington, Bryan O'Sullivan-Murphy, Jared D Christensen, H Page McAdams
The chest radiograph is the most common imaging examination performed in most radiology departments, and one of the more common indications for these studies is suspected infection. Radiologists must therefore be aware of less common radiographic patterns of pulmonary infection if they are to add value in the interpretation of chest radiographs for this indication. This review uses a case-based format to illustrate a range of imaging findings that can be associated with acute pulmonary infection and highlight findings that should prompt investigation for diseases other than community-acquired pneumonia to prevent misdiagnosis and delays in appropriate management...
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280763/influenza-and-viral-pneumonia
#16
REVIEW
Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A Ramirez
Influenza and other respiratory viruses are commonly identified in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia. Clinically, it is difficult to differentiate viral from bacterial pneumonia. Similarly, the radiological findings of viral infection are in general nonspecific. The advent of polymerase chain reaction testing has enormously facilitated the identification of respiratory viruses, which has important implications for infection control measures and treatment...
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280762/viral-pneumonias
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer Febbo, Jonathan Revels, Loren Ketai
Viral pneumonia is usually community acquired and caused by influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus. Many of these infections are airway centric and chest imaging demonstrates bronchiolitis and bronchopneumonia, With the exception of adenovirus infections, the presence of lobar consolidation usually suggests bacterial coinfection. Community-acquired viral pathogens can cause more severe pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts, who are also susceptible to CMV and varicella infection...
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280761/novel-approaches-to-multidrug-resistant-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#18
REVIEW
Thomas S Murray, Gail Stanley, Jonathan L Koff
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often develop respiratory tract infections with pathogenic multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and a variety of gram-negative organisms that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Despite the introduction of new therapies to address underlying cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction, MDRO infections remain a problem and novel antimicrobial interventions are still needed...
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280760/opportunistic-infections-post-lung-transplantation-viral-fungal-and-mycobacterial
#19
REVIEW
Gabriela Magda
Opportunistic infections are a leading cause of lung transplant recipient morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for infection include continuous exposure of the lung allograft to the external environment, high levels of immunosuppression, impaired mucociliary clearance and decreased cough reflex, and impact of the native lung microbiome in single lung transplant recipients. Infection risk is mitigated through careful pretransplant screening of recipients and donors, implementation of antimicrobial prophylaxis strategies, and routine surveillance posttransplant...
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38280759/infections-in-heart-and-lung-transplant-recipients
#20
REVIEW
Mohammed Alsaeed, Shahid Husain
Infections in heart and lung transplant recipients are complex and heterogeneous. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, specific clinical syndromes, and most frequent opportunistic infections in heart and/or lung transplant recipients that will be encountered in the intensive care unit and will provide a practical approach of empirical management.
March 2024: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
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