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Infectious Disease Clinics of North America

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30981594/human-monkeypox-epidemiologic-and-clinical-characteristics-diagnosis-and-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Eskild Petersen, Anu Kantele, Marion Koopmans, Danny Asogun, Adesola Yinka-Ogunleye, Chikwe Ihekweazu, Alimuddin Zumla
Recently, concern has been raised about the emergence of human monkeypox virus and the occasionally severe clinical presentation bearing resemblance to that of smallpox. In 2018 3 patients in the UK were diagnosed with monkeypox, and the frequency and geographic distribution of cases across West and Central Africa have increased in recent years. In Nigeria, most monkeypox patients are aged <40 years and lack cross-protective immunity because they were born after discontinuation of the smallpox eradication campaign...
April 10, 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940465/infections-with-dna-viruses-adenovirus-polyomaviruses-and-parvovirus-b19-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-and-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#2
REVIEW
Karam M Obeid
Infections due to adenovirus, polyomaviruses (BK and JC viruses), and parvovirus B19 may not be as common as infections due to other DNA viruses, such as cytomegalovirus in patients with hematological malignancies and the recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, these infections may result in life-threatening diseases that significantly impact patients' recovery, morbidity, and mortality. Treating physicians should be aware of the diseases associated with these viruses, the patient populations at increased risk for complications due to these infections, and the available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches...
March 30, 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940464/complications-of-stem-cell-transplantation-that-affect-infections-in-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-with-analogies-to-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#3
REVIEW
Sunita Nathan, Celalettin Ustun
This article discusses the complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantion (HSCT) that affect infections in HSCT recipients, with analogies to patients with hematologic malignancies. Mucositis, with mucosal barrier disruption, is common and increases the risk of gram-positive and anaerobic bacterial, and fungal infections, and can evolve to typhlitis. Engraftment syndrome; graft-versus-host disease, hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome; and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome can affect the infectious potential either directly from organ dysfunction or indirectly from specific treatment...
March 30, 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940463/management-of-infectious-diseases-in-stem-cell-transplantation-and-hematologic-malignancy
#4
EDITORIAL
Jo-Anne H Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940462/respiratory-virus-infections-of-the-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-and-the-hematologic-malignancy-patient
#5
REVIEW
Lauren Fontana, Lynne Strasfeld
Respiratory virus infections in hematologic stem cell transplant recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies are increasingly recognized as a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The often overlapping clinical presentation makes molecular diagnostic strategies imperative for rapid diagnosis and to inform understanding of the changing epidemiology of each of the respiratory viruses. Most respiratory virus infections are managed with supportive therapy, although there is effective antiviral therapy for influenza...
March 30, 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940461/host-and-graft-factors-impacting-infection-risk-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Roy L Kao, Shernan G Holtan
Infection contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplantation. A complex interplay of host, graft, and technical factors contributes to infectious risk in the recipient. Host factors such as age, underlying disease, and comorbidities; central venous access; and the preparative regimen contribute to mucosal disruption, organ dysfunction, and immunodeficiency before hematopoietic cell transplantation. Graft factors, including donor histocompatibility, cell source, and graft components, along with immunosuppression and graft-versus-host disease, contribute to the speed of immune reconstitution...
March 30, 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940460/cytomegalovirus-infections-of-the-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-and-hematologic-malignancy-patient
#7
REVIEW
Anupam Pande, Erik R Dubberke
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) may no longer be the menace that plagues stem cell transplant outcomes, owing to marked improvements in transplantation techniques and methods of prophylaxis. However, it still remains a common and morbid problem for recipients of stem cell transplant and patients with certain hematologic malignancies. This article discusses the epidemiology and risk factors of CMV infection and disease, associated morbidity and mortality, diagnosis, and clinical features of clinical syndromes associated with CMV and the principles of management of CMV, with special attention to resistant CMV as it pertains to infectious disease specialists...
March 30, 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30935703/chemotherapy-and-beyond-infections-in-the-era-of-old-and-new-treatments-for-hematologic-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Atkins, Fiona He
Treatment options for hematologic malignancies have been rapidly expanding in the past decade, resulting in better survival outcomes for many patients. Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has well-studied infectious risks related to the degree and duration of myelosuppression. Targeted therapies and immunotherapies have less clearly predictable infectious risk and diverse effects on immune function. This review discusses contemporary management of hematologic malignancies, followed by special discussion of novel agents, including signaling/small molecule inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulators, and immunotherapies, for treatment of hematologic malignancies with focus on infectious risk...
March 30, 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31005140/vaccination-of-the-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-and-the-hematologic-malignancy-patient
#9
REVIEW
Mini Kamboj, Monika K Shah
Patients with hematologic malignancy or those who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation experience variable degrees of immunosuppression, dependent on underlying disease, therapy received, time since transplant, and complications, such as graft-versus-host disease. Vaccination is an important strategy to mitigate onset and severity of certain vaccine-preventable illnesses, such as influenza, pneumococcal disease, or varicella zoster infection, among others. This article highlights vaccines that should and should not be used in this patient population and includes general guidelines for timing of vaccination administration and special considerations in the context of newer therapies, recent vaccine developments, travel, and considerations for household contacts...
June 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31005139/parasitic-infections-of-the-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-and-the-hematologic-malignancy-patient-including-toxoplasmosis-and-strongyloidiasis
#10
REVIEW
Driele Peixoto, Daniel P Prestes
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients may infrequently develop parasitic infections at the time of the procedure via contamination from allograft tissue or blood products, and in the post-transplantation period through the traditional route of infection or as a reactivation caused by immunosuppression related to the transplant. To reduce risk, efforts should be directed at performing a comprehensive history, maintaining a high index of suspicion, and adhering to preventive measures. Additional strategies for the prevention, screening and careful follow-up, identification, and pre-emptive treatment of parasitic infections are required to reduce morbidity and mortality in HSCT patients...
June 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31005138/fungal-infections-of-the-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-and-hematologic-malignancy-patients
#11
REVIEW
Derek J Bays, George R Thompson
Despite advances in chemotherapy and supportive care, morbidity and mortality remain high for patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs). Those who require hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) often require significant immunosuppression and are subject to a variety of complications. These patients carry multiple risk factors for infectious complications, including the development of invasive fungal infections, compared with the general population. Because antifungal prophylaxis has been widely adopted, there has been a shift away from invasive candidiasis toward invasive mold infections, including breakthrough infections...
June 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31005137/herpes-virus-infections-other-than-cytomegalovirus-in-the-recipients-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Sanjeet Singh Dadwal
This review discusses the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of herpes viruses other than cytomegalovirus in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
June 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31005136/clostridioides-difficile-infection-in-the-stem-cell-transplant-and-hematologic-malignancy-population
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth Ann Misch, Nasia Safdar
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is common in the stem cell transplant (SCT) and hematologic malignancy (HM) population and mostly occurs in the early posttransplant period. Treatment of CDI in SCT/HM is the same as for the general population, with the exception that fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has not been widely adopted because of safety concerns. Several case reports, small series, and retrospective studies have shown that FMT is effective and safe. A randomized controlled trial of FMT for prophylaxis of CDI in SCT patients is underway...
June 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31005135/bacterial-infections-in-the-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-and-hematologic-malignancy-patient
#14
REVIEW
Elizabeth Ann Misch, David R Andes
Bacteremia (bloodstream infection) is frequent (20%-30% incidence) in the stem cell transplant and hematologic malignancy population and often occurs in the early post-transplant engraftment period. In most studies, Gram-positive bacteria occur at greater frequency than gram-negative bacteria, although some centers report that rates of gram-negative bloodstream infections have recently increased. In many centers, resistance rates among Enterococci and gram-negative bacteria, especially the Enterobacteriaceae, are extensive and associated with increased mortality...
June 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31005134/work-up-for-fever-during-neutropenia-for-both-the-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-and-the-hematologic-malignancy-patient
#15
REVIEW
Gowri Satyanarayana
Fever is a common complication in patients with underlying neutropenia and is associated with significant mortality in neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or hematopoietic cell transplant. Fever may be the only sign of infection and requires further clinical assessment, including a history, a physical examination, and additional laboratory and radiographic testing. National and international guidelines recommend initiation of empiric antimicrobial therapy in patients with fever during neutropenia...
June 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31005133/antimicrobial-prophylaxis-and-preemptive-approaches-for-the-prevention-of-infections-in-the-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-with-analogies-to-the-hematologic-malignancy-patient
#16
REVIEW
Dionysios Neofytos
Infectious complications represent one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Prophylactic and preemptive treatment strategies against bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic pathogens are routinely implemented during high-risk post-HCT periods at most transplant centers. The basic concepts and review of current guidelines of antibiotic prophylaxis and empirical/preemptive antibiotic treatment in allogeneic HCT recipients are reviewed in this article...
June 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712770/what-s-in-a-name-and-why-tropical-medicine-matters-in-2019
#17
EDITORIAL
Michael Libman, Cédric P Yansouni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712769/visceral-leishmaniasis-recent-advances-in-diagnostics-and-treatment-regimens
#18
REVIEW
Johan van Griensven, Ermias Diro
Diagnostic advances in visceral leishmaniasis include the development of the rK39 and rK28 rapid diagnostic test. The direct agglutination test is also increasingly used, as well as conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which also performs well on peripheral blood. The choice of treatment for visceral leishmaniasis depends on the geographic region where the infection is acquired. Liposomal amphotericin B is generally found to be safe and effective in most endemic regions of the world; antimonials still remain to be the most effective in eastern Africa despite its high toxicity...
March 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712768/human-african-trypanosomiasis-progress-and-stagnation
#19
REVIEW
Emmanuel Bottieau, Jan Clerinx
Control efforts have considerably reduced the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in West/Central Africa and to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa. Management of T brucei gambiense HAT has recently improved, with new antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests suited for mass screening and clinical care, and simpler treatments, including the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy and the new oral drug fexinidazole to treat the second stage of the disease...
March 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712767/malaria-what-s-new-in-the-management-of-malaria
#20
REVIEW
Katherine Plewes, Stije J Leopold, Hugh W F Kingston, Arjen M Dondorp
The global burden of malaria remains high, with 216 million cases causing 445,000 deaths in 2016 despite first-line treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy. Decreasing transmission in Africa shifts the risk for severe malaria to older age groups as premunition wanes. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with intravenous artesunate in addition to appropriate supportive management are critical to reduce deaths from severe malaria. Effective individual management is challenging in settings with limited resources for higher-level care...
March 2019: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
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