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Environmental Pollution

Nicole Meyer, Clarisa Guillermina Santamaria, Judith Elisabeth Müller, Anne Schumacher, Horacio Adolfo Rodriguez, Ana Claudia Zenclussen
17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) is a synthetic compound widely used in the generation of contraceptive pills. EE2 is present in the urine of women taking contraceptives and its presence has been confirmed at increasing concentrations contaminating rivers all over the world. Because of this cycle, it can entry the human food chain when watering plants. A negative influence of EE2 on fertility and reproductive capacity of wildlife was already suggested. The short-term impact of exposure to contaminating EE2 on pregnancy outcome has not been addressed...
May 9, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Liugen Zheng, Zheng Qiu, Quan Tang, Yang Li
Sulfide-rich tailings produced by mineral processing are prone to oxidation and cause many pollution problems in the surrounding environment; therefore, this issue has become a focus of attention. The Tongling Shuimuchong tailings reservoir contains a large amount of sulfide minerals, especially pyrrhotite and pyrite. This reservoir features obvious oxidation in the surface layer, and the slab is very hard. Mineralogical and environmental geochemical analyses were performed on tailings with different degrees of oxidation in the Shuimuchong tailings reservoir to investigate the influence of the formation of the hard oxidized layer on environmental pollution in the tailings pond...
May 9, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Miranda T Prendergast-Miller, Andreas Katsiamides, Mustafa Abbass, Stephen R Sturzenbaum, Karen L Thorpe, Mark E Hodson
Microplastic (MP) pollution is everywhere. In terrestrial environments, microfibres (MFs) generated from textile laundering are believed to form a significant component of MPs entering soils, mainly through sewage sludge and compost applications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of MFs on a keystone soil organism. We exposed the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris to soil with polyester MFs incorporated at rates of 0, 0.1 and 1.0 %w/w MF for a period of 35 days (in the dark at 15 °C; n = 4 for each treatment)...
May 9, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Jordi Colomer, Mara F Müller, Aina Barcelona, Teresa Serra
There is consensus on the need to study the potential impact microplastics (MP) have on freshwater planktonic organisms. It is not yet fully understood how MP enter the aquatic food web or the effect they have on all the trophic levels. As a result of the potential for MP to accumulate throughout food webs, there is increasing interest in evaluating their fate in a variety of environmental conditions. This study investigated the variability in the ingestion of MP to food ratios and the exposed time of MP to Daphnia magna in non-sheared and sheared conditions...
May 9, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Chalder Nogueira Nunes, Vanessa Egéa Dos Anjos, Sueli Pércio Quináia
Alprazolam, clonazepam and diazepam are drugs belonging to the benzodiazepine class. These drugs might be important environmental contaminants in aquatic media. A total understanding of behavior and fate of drugs in aquatic environment is not available for these and other drugs. Thus, in this work, a complete optimization of sample treatment and extraction of analytes from sediments and water was described, as well a study of sediment/water distribution comparing it with sample characteristics. Ultrasound for 10 min and 3 steps using 3 mL of extraction solvent were chosen as the stirring form for extraction...
May 8, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Nele Horemans, David J Spurgeon, Catherine Lecomte-Pradines, Eline Saenen, Clare Bradshaw, Deborah Oughton, Ilze Rasnaca, Jorke H Kamstra, Christelle Adam-Guillermin
The issue of potential long-term or hereditary effects for both humans and wildlife exposed to low doses (or dose rates) of ionising radiation is a major concern. Chronic exposure to ionising radiation, defined as an exposure over a large fraction of the organism's lifespan or even over several generations, can possibly have consequences in the progeny. Recent work has begun to show that epigenetics plays an important role in adaptation of organisms challenged to environmental stimulae. Changes to so-called epigenetic marks such as histone modifications, DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs result in altered transcriptomes and proteomes, without directly changing the DNA sequence...
May 8, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Jun-Meng Jian, Chi Zhang, Fen Wang, Xingwen Lu, Fei Wang, Eddy Y Zeng
The interaction of pollutants with nanomaterials has attracted attention due to the extensive application of nanomaterials. In this study, the adsorption behavior of PFOS on nano-alumina with different shapes was investigated. First, the adsorption isotherms and kinetics of PFOS on alumina nanoparticles (NPs) and nanowires (NWs) were measured to calculate thermodynamic parameters. The effects of solution chemistry (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and the presence of humic acid) on adsorption were further studied...
May 8, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Yan Zhang, Xin Bo, Yu Zhao, Chris P Nielsen
Emission inventories are critical to understanding the sources of air pollutants, but have high uncertainties in China due in part to insufficient on-site measurements. In this study, we developed a method of examining, screening and applying online data from the country's improving continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) to reevaluate a "bottom-up" emission inventory of China's coal-fired power sector. The benefits of China's current national emission standards and ultra-low emission policy for the sector were quantified assuming their full implementation...
May 8, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Jun Han, Yangshuo Liang, Bo Zhao, Yu Wang, Futang Xing, Linbo Qin
In China, the huge amounts of energy consumption caused severe carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) concentration in the soil and ambient air. This paper summarized that the references published in 2008-2018 and suggested that biomass, coal and vehicular emissions were categorized as major sources of PAHs in China. In 2016, the emitted PAHs in China due to the incomplete combustion of fuel was about 32720 tonnes, and the contribution of the emission sources was the sequence: biomass combustion > residential coal combustion > vehicle > coke production > refine oil > power plant > natural gas combustion...
May 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Qichun Yang, Xuesong Zhang, James E Almendinger, Maoyi Huang, Xingyuan Chen, Guoyong Leng, Yuyu Zhou, Kaiguang Zhao, Ghassem R Asrar, Xia Li
Responses of streamflow and nutrient export to changing climate conditions should be investigated for effective water quality management and pollution control. Using downscaled climate projections and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), we projected future streamflow, sediment export, and riverine nutrient export in the St. Croix River Basin (SCRB) during 2020-2099. Results show substantial increases in riverine water, sediment, and nutrient load under future climate conditions, particularly under the high greenhouse gas emission scenario...
May 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Xu Yang, Xuliang Zhang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Ji, Wanyue Huang, Xueyan Zhang, Yanfei Li
T-2 toxin is an unavoidable contaminant in human food, animal feeds, and agricultural products. T-2 toxin has been found to impair male reproductive function. But, few data is available that reveals the reproductive toxicity mechanism. In the study, male Kunming mice were orally administrated with T-2 toxin at the doses of 0, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. The body and reproductive organs weight, the concentration, malformation rate and ultrastructure of sperm in cauda epididymis were detected...
May 6, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Buddhi Wijesiri, An Liu, Kaveh Deilami, Beibei He, Nian Hong, Bo Yang, Xu Zhao, Godwin Ayoko, Ashantha Goonetilleke
The provision of water to meet the needs of an ever increasing urban population is a significant challenge. This is because urban receiving waters are constantly at risk from pollutant inputs via stormwater runoff and wastewater discharge. This research study employed multiple approaches including principal component analysis, Bayesian Networks (BNs) modelling and geospatial analysis to identify patterns in the distributions of nutrients and metals in water and sediments in an urban river and the interactions between the two phases...
May 6, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Xi-Yin Zhou
Linking water to research on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) has attracted wide interest as a means of supporting human-natural sustainability. However, most current research does not focus on water environmental properties; instead, it is at the stage of holistic status assessment and measures adjustment from the point of view of the whole study region without revealing the dynamic interaction between human activities and natural processes. This paper establishes an integrated model that combines a System Dynamics model, a Cell Automaton model and a Multiagent Systems model and exploits the potential of the combined model to reveal regions' human-water interaction status during the process of urban evolution, identify the main pollution sources and spatial units, and provide the explicit space-time measurements needed to enhance local human-natural sustainability...
May 6, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Xiaoqian Jia, Shengju Yin, Junhui Xu, Nan Li, Mengyuan Ren, Yanan Qin, Jiansuo Zhou, Yuan Wei, Yunhe Guo, Miaomiao Gao, Yanxin Yu, Bin Wang, Zhiwen Li
The degree of population exposure to various organic pollutants (OPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, can be determined by measuring their concentrations in human serum. However, performing large-scale measurements with such a variety of compounds in serum is challenging in terms of efficiency and cost. We describe herein the development of a high-efficiency extraction and sample cleanup protocol for simultaneous and quantitative analyses of OPs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 3, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Andrea Luca Tasca, Monica Puccini, Davide Clematis, Marco Panizza
Terbuthylazine (TBA) has replaced atrazine in many EU countries, becoming one of the most frequently detected pesticides in natural waters. TBA is a compound of emerging concern, due to its persistence, toxicity and proven endocrine disruption activity to wildlife and humans. Techniques applied in water treatment plants remove only partially this herbicide and poor attention is given to the generation and fate of by-products, although some of them have demonstrated an estrogenic activity comparable to atrazine...
May 3, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Petra Spirhanzlova, Jean-Baptiste Fini, Barbara Demeneix, Sophie Lardy-Fontan, Sophie Vaslin-Reimann, Béatrice Lalere, Nelson Guma, Andrew Tindall, Sabrina Krief
Pesticides are used worldwide with potential harmful effects on both fauna and flora. The Kibale National Park in Uganda, a site renowned for its biodiversity is surrounded by tea, banana and eucalyptus plantations as well as maize fields and small farms. We previously showed presence of pesticides with potential endocrine disruptive effects in the vicinity. To further investigate the water pollution linked to agricultural pressure in this protected area, we implemented a complementary monitoring strategy based on: analytical chemistry, effects based methods and the deployment of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS)...
May 2, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Shanshan Wang, Ruilian Yu, Huazhen Shen, Shuai Wang, Qichao Hu, Jianyong Cui, Yan Yan, Huabin Huang, Gongren Hu
Severe pollution caused by atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has become a global environmental issue. Samples of atmospheric PM were collected before and during the Chinese Spring Festival in Xiamen, a coastal city in Southeast China, to investigate their chemical characteristics, sources, and formation mechanisms. The results indicated that PM2.5 mass concentrations comprised 53.60% and 56.31% of total suspended particulates before and during the Spring Festival, respectively. Due to the halt of factory production and construction and the reduction of vehicle flow during the Spring Festival, the concentrations of organic carbon, elemental carbon and water soluble ions in PM2...
May 2, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Michael R Minicozzi, Frank A von Hippel, Christoffh G Furin, C Loren Buck
Perchlorate is a pervasive, water-soluble contaminant that competitively inhibits the sodium/iodide symporter, reducing the available iodide for thyroid hormone synthesis. Insufficient iodide uptake can lead to hypothyroidism and metabolic syndromes. Because metabolism, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are tightly linked, we hypothesized that perchlorate would act as an obesogen and cause NAFLD via accumulation of lipids in liver of developing threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)...
May 2, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Yuan Luo, Jie Liang, Guangming Zeng, Xiaodong Li, Ming Chen, Longbo Jiang, Wenle Xing, Ning Tang, Yilong Fang, Xuwu Chen
Biological tests with plant seeds have been adopted in many studies to investigate the phytotoxicity of pollutants to facilitate the control of risks and remain to be optimized. In this work, the experiment with a small sample size (Experiment 1) and the experiment with a large one (Experiment 2) were designed to study the effect of tetracycline (TC) on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) at seed germination and radicle elongation stages. At the former stage, germination number data were obtained to analyze the germination energy (GE) and to judge the probability of the number of germinated seeds (Pn ) by the binomial distribution model in Experiment 1...
May 2, 2019: Environmental Pollution
C Vignet, R A Frank, C Yang, Z Wang, K Shires, M Bree, C Sullivan, W P Norwood, L M Hewitt, M E McMaster, J L Parrott
The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of a short exposure to natural sediments within the Athabasca oil sand formation to critical stages of embryo-larval development in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Three different sediments were used: Ref sediment from the upper Steepbank River tested at 3 g/L (containing 12.2 ng/g ∑PAHs), and two bitumen-rich sediments tested at 1 and 3 g/L; one from the Ells River (Ells downstream, 6480 ng/g ∑PAHs) and one from the Steepbank River (Stp downstream, 4660 ng/g ∑PAHs)...
May 2, 2019: Environmental Pollution
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