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Behavioral Medicine

Anne-Marie Selzler, Wendy M Rodgers, Tanya R Berry, Michael K Stickland
The literature suggests self-efficacy is a determinant of physical activity and management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to (1) test the effects of two vicarious experience interventions, coping versus mastery modeling, on self-efficacy in COPD patients performing a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), and (2) determine the type of self-efficacy most strongly related to physical activity in COPD patients. After a baseline assessment of self-efficacy (task, coping for exercise, coping for breathing, scheduling, and walking) and potential moderators, 120 COPD patients watched a mastery model or coping model CPET video, or received usual care verbal instructions...
February 13, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
E Thomaseo Burton, Tamekia L Jones, Webb A Smith, Joan C Han
Youth with obesity are more likely than normal-weight peers to experience psychosocial problems. Empirically-based recommendations for addressing pediatric obesity include intensive interdisciplinary weight management comprising medical, behavioral health, nutrition, and exercise components. The present study examined changes in psychosocial functioning associated with frequency of participation in an interdisciplinary pediatric weight management program. Participants were 86 patients (55.8% females; median age = 11...
February 6, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Manuel Kiesswetter, Heidi Marsoner, Arne Luehwink, Massimiliano Fistarol, Alois Mahlknecht, Stefan Duschek
Between 10% and 15% of couples in western society are affected by infertility. As a major source of psychological distress, infertility may be accompanied by a substantial decline in well-being, and mental symptoms including those of depression and anxiety. This study aimed to quantify impairments in life satisfaction in infertile couples and to identify psychosocial variables moderating these impairments. For this purpose, 228 infertile couples completed the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Partnership Questionnaire (PQ), Social Support Questionnaire, (SSQ) and Questionnaire on the Desire to Have a Child (QDC)...
February 6, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Bennett Allen, Alex Harocopos, Rachel Chernick
Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are databases that track controlled substances at the provider, patient, and pharmacy levels. While these databases are widely available at the state level throughout the United States, several jurisdictions in recent years have mandated the use of these systems by health care providers. This study explores the implementation of mandatory PDMP technology in primary care practice and the effects on treatment of people with possible substance use disorders. Findings are based on 53 in-depth interviews with primary care providers in New York City, collected shortly following the passage of legislation mandating use of a PDMP by health care providers in New York State...
February 6, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Krystal Warmoth, Nelson C Y Yeung, Jing Xie, Hannah Feng, Alice Loh, Lucy Young, Qian Lu
Breast cancer survivors report persistent psychological and physical symptoms, which affect their quality of life and may challenge the recovery process. Due to social, cultural, and linguistic barriers, culturally sensitive care is largely unavailable for Chinese Americans, and their psychological needs are not often addressed. We aimed to investigate whether the Joy Luck Academy (JLA), a psychosocial intervention providing both information and peer support, was associated with positive adjustment among Chinese American breast cancer survivors...
January 18, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
F Kapadia, P A D'Avanzo, S H Cook, S Barton, S N Halkitis, P N Halkitis
We seek to move beyond a deficits-based approach, which has dominated our understanding of health and wellbeing in in young sexual minority males (YSMM), by examining how indicators of positive development are associated with development of positive self-rated health in YSMM. Using data from a prospective cohort study of YSMM (n = 514; 18-22 years old; 36.9% Hispanic/Latino, 15.6% non-Hispanic Black, 30.2% White, 16.9% other/multi-racial), we examined how three measures of positive development-the Life Orientation Test, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Social Responsibility Scale (SRS) were associated with self-rated health (SRH), a valid and reliable measure of self-assessed general health status...
January 18, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Rebecca L Pearl, Thomas A Wadden, Ariana M Chao, Naji Alamuddin, Robert I Berkowitz, Olivia Walsh, Kelly C Allison, Jena Shaw Tronieri
Obesity is a complex disease caused by a wide array of behavioral, biological, and environmental factors. However, obesity is often attributed to oversimplified and stigmatizing causal factors such as laziness, lack of willpower, and failure to take personal responsibility for one's health. Understanding of the causal factors that contribute to obesity among people with obesity may affect their weight management efforts. The current study explored associations between causal attributions for obesity and long-term weight loss, as well as examined potential changes in attributions with weight reduction...
January 18, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Saul G Alamilla, Bradley J Barney, Robert Small, Sherry C Wang, Seth J Schwartz, Roxanne A Donovana, Cooper Lewis
The present study explored the Immigrant Paradox (IP), generational differences in problematic alcohol use (alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences), among immigrants and US born groups from a number of ethnic minority backgrounds. Our approach separates group differences in problematic alcohol consumption in a counterfactual manner for immigrants and the US born to answer the following counterfactual question: "What would problematic alcohol use levels be for the US born had they been exposed to the alcohol use generation (or protective) processes of immigrants and vice versa?" Multidimensional measures of enculturation (involvement with heritage culture), acculturation (involvement with US culture), acculturative stress, and demographic covariates were used to statistically explain these differences...
January 7, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Rashmi Yadav, Raj Kumar Yadav, Rajesh Khadgawat, Ravindra Mohan Pandey, Ashish Datt Upadhyay, Nalin Mehta
Metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic and precardiovascular pathologic condition that begins early in life, tracks into adulthood and magnifies with age. Randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy of yoga-based lifestyle vs. dietary intervention on metabolic syndrome are lacking. Here, the efficacy of a 12-week yoga-based lifestyle intervention vs. dietary intervention on cardio-metabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome risk scores have been assessed in Indian adults with metabolic syndrome. In this two-arm, open label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial, 260 adults (20-45 years) diagnosed with metabolic syndrome as per joint interim statement, 2009 were randomized to yoga-based (including diet) lifestyle or dietary intervention alone (n = 130, each) for 12 weeks...
January 7, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Irena Ilic, Sandra Grujicic Sipetic, Djordje Radovanovic, Milena Ilic
The purpose of this study was to assess the use of e-cigarettes among pharmacy students. In 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study among pharmacy students enrolled at the University of Kragujevac (Serbia). Overall, 47.0% of pharmacy students reported that they ever smoked cigarettes; 29.7% were former and 17.3% were current smokers. The overall prevalence of e-cigarette use was 9.9%. The final year pharmacy students significantly more frequently smoked tobacco cigarettes (p = .001) and used e-cigarettes (p = ...
January 7, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Yingxue Dai, Patou Masika Musumari, Huailiang Chen, Yuling Huang, Teeranee Techasrivichien, S Pilar Suguimoto, Jianxin Zhang, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara
Although recreational drug use is associated with risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), it is unclear to what extent these behaviors and outcomes differ between single-drug users and polydrug users in China. This is a cross-sectional study conducted from July to September 2016 among MSM in three cities of Sichuan Province, China. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to examine factors correlated with single-drug and polydrug use. A total of 1,122 participants were included in the study...
January 3, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Robin M Dorman, Sarah H Sutton, Lynn M Yee
Pill aversion, defined as difficulty swallowing pills without identifiable medical cause, is a poorly characterized barrier to sustained viral suppression for many HIV-infected persons. We aimed to quantify the frequency of self-reported pill aversion, characterize its symptoms, and measure the association between self-reported pill aversion and missing antiretroviral doses. This is a prospective, observational, exploratory survey study of English-speaking persons living with HIV (PLHIV) at a single urban tertiary outpatient clinic...
January 3, 2019: Behavioral Medicine
Johanna Basten-Günther, Madelon Peters, Stefan Lautenbacher
A growing body of literature provides evidence of the health-promoting effects of optimism, including its protective role in acute and chronic pain. Optimists are characterized by positive expectations concerning the future. These positive outcome expectancies lead to more and longer goal-directed efforts and the use of approach coping strategies. No systematic review on the effects of optimism on the experience of pain has so far been conducted. A search in the databases PubMed, Web of Science and PsycInfo, and the scanning of reference lists identified 69 eligible studies...
December 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Amina K Kuby, Bernd Loewe, Alexandra B Fabisch, Katharina Piontek, Martin Haerter, Hans-Helmut Koenig, Meike C Shedden-Mora
Many primary care patients with high somatic symptom burden do not initiate mental health treatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this study aimed to identify predictors of psychotherapy seeking behavior for patients with high somatic symptom burden within the last 12 months. Data from 20 primary care practices were analyzed. Patients with high somatic symptom burden were identified using the Patient Health Questionnaire, structured interviews, and information from primary care physicians (PCPs). Within the final sample of 142 patients, 54 (38...
December 11, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Angela F Lukowski, Lauren Eales, Dmitry Tsukerman
Although there are theoretical reasons to expect associations among temperament, sleep hygiene behaviors (SHB), and global sleep quality (GSQ), these relations have not yet been examined despite their potential impact on undergraduate student well-being. The present study was conducted to (1) examine relations between temperament and GSQ in university students broadly recruited, (2) document associations between SHB and temperament in this sample, and (3) to determine whether associations among temperament, SHB, and GSQ were best explained by mediation or moderation models...
November 27, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Carol Duh-Leong, Sandra Braganza
Increased sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is linked to childhood obesity. The risk of increased SSB consumption is multifactorial. Limited studies have examined children's SSB consumption and social networks. In order to examine the association between SSB consumption and SSB preferences of a child's social network, a cross-sectional survey was administered to patients aged 8-17 years from June to September 2016. In a questionnaire, subjects completed a beverage consumption recall, identified people important to them along with each person's favorite beverage, and answered questions about habits, environment, and attitudes...
November 27, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Anna A Rubtsova, María J Marquine, Colin Depp, Marcia Holstad, Ronald J Ellis, Scott Letendre, Dilip V Jeste, David J Moore
Frailty is a geriatric condition characterized by increased vulnerability to physical impairments and limitations that may lead to disabilities and mortality. Although studies in the general population suggest that psychosocial factors affect frailty, less is known about whether similar associations exist among people living with HIV (PLWH). The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial correlates of frailty among PLWH and HIV-uninfected adults. Our sample included 127 adults (51% PLWH) participating in the Multi-Dimensional Successful Aging among HIV-Infected Adults study at the University of California San Diego (average age 51 years, 80% male, 53% White)...
November 15, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Lynne B Klasko-Foster, Lina M Jandorf, Deborah O Erwin, Marc T Kiviniemi
African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer, which may be due to low adherence to screening recommendations. Previous studies have found relationships between decision-making factors and screening behavior, but few have looked at both cognitive and affective factors or within a specifically African American sample. To better understand determinants that drive screening behavior, this study examines affective, cognitive, and social variables as predictors of colonoscopy in an age-eligible African American population...
November 14, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Afton Kechter, Adam M Leventhal
The mechanism by which sleep problems adversely impacts adolescent health is poorly understood. Distress tolerance-a multifactorial trait indicative of one's ability to withstand negative emotions and persist toward long-term goals-is implicated in numerous emotional psychopathologies and an important target for research and practice. We hypothesized that the adverse psychobiological effects of sleep problems could disrupt the development of distress tolerance during adolescence. This longitudinal study examined whether sleep problems predicted changes in four facets of distress tolerance during adolescence: (1) absorption-feeling attention is captured by negative emotions, (2) appraisal-experiencing distress as unacceptable, (3) regulation-engaging in behaviors to terminate distress, and (4) tolerance-low perceived ability to tolerate distress...
October 25, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Mayara C S Santos, Selma M de Andrade, Alberto D González, Douglas Fernando Dias, Arthur Eumann Mesas
Chronic pain (CP) is a public health problem with harmful social and individual effects, and its relationships with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors are unclear. This study examined the relationship between CP and PA and time spent watching television as an indicator of leisure time sedentary behavior, and explored the effects of major confounding factors. The information was obtained between 2012 and 2013 from individual interviews with 943 teachers from public schools in Londrina, Brazil. Statistical analysis was performed in 2014 using a logistic regression model adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, depression, and working conditions variables...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
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