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Schizophrenia Research

B B Brodey, R R Girgis, O V Favorov, C E Bearden, S W Woods, J Addington, D O Perkins, E F Walker, B A Cornblatt, G Brucato, S E Purcell, I S Brodey, K S Cadenhead
INTRODUCTION: A faster and more accurate self-report screener for early psychosis is needed to promote early identification and intervention. METHODS: Self-report Likert-scale survey items were administered to individuals being screened with the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS) and followed at eight early psychosis clinics. An a priori analytic plan included Spectral Clustering Analysis to reduce the item pool, followed by development of Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers...
February 14, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Xiao Wang, Wei Liao, Shaoqiang Han, Jiao Li, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disease associated with dysfunction of brain regions and networks. Recent, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have determined that the global signal (GS) is an important source of the local neuronal activity. However, the dynamics of this effect in SCZ remains unknown. To address this issue, 39 drug-naive patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and 31 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans...
February 14, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Jose María Pelayo Terán, Esther Setién-Suero, Karl Neergaard, Susana Ochoa, Mariluz Ramírez-Bonilla, Rocío Pérez-Iglesias, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Prevention of symptom relapse and promotion of functional recovery are the two main goals of early intervention following a first episode of non-affective psychosis (FEP). The identification of patterns of recovery is important in developing and implementing recovery focused interventions at set time interval. METHOD: Patterns of recovery course, in terms of symptomatic and functional remission, were explored at 1 and 3-year follow-up in a sample of 373 consecutive FEP patients...
February 14, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Ryan Van Patten, Ellen E Lee, Rebecca Daly, Elizabeth Twamley, Xin M Tu, Dilip V Jeste
Recent decades have seen growing empirical research in wisdom as a complex, trait-based psychological characteristic. Wisdom has been shown to possess individual and societal benefits through associations with health and well-being, but it has not yet been evaluated in people with schizophrenia (PwS). In the current study, we administered a widely used, validated 3-dimensional wisdom scale that includes three interrelated dimensions: cognitive, reflective, and affective. We examined group differences in wisdom, as well as relationships between wisdom and sociodemographics, clinical symptoms, neurocognitive and functional performance, and mental and physical health in 65 stable adult outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 96 non-psychiatric comparison participants (NPCPs)...
February 11, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Valeria Mondelli, Paola Dazzan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Chie Shimamoto-Mitsuyama, Tetsuo Ohnishi, Shabeesh Balan, Hisako Ohba, Akiko Watanabe, Motoko Maekawa, Yasuko Hisano, Yoshimi Iwayama, Yuji Owada, Takeo Yoshikawa
Dampened prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a consistent observation in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and qualifies as a robust endophenotype for genetic evaluation. Using high PPI C57BL/6NCrlCrlj (B6Nj) and low PPI C3H/HeNCrlCrlj (C3HNj) inbred mouse strains, we have previously reported a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for PPI at chromosome 10 and identified Fabp7 as a candidate gene for regulating PPI and schizophrenia pathogenesis using Fabp7-deficient mice (B6.Cg-Fabp7 KO). Here, considering a possibility of carryover of residual genetic materials from embryonic stem (ES) cells used in generating knockout (KO) mice, we set out to re-address the genotype-phenotype correlation in a uniform genetic background...
February 11, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
S Andrea Wijtenburg, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Stephanie A Korenic, Roger J Mullins, Joyce Tran, Frank E Gaston, Shuo Chen, Maja Mustapic, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Memory is robustly impaired in schizophrenia (SZ) and related to functional outcome. Memory dysfunction has been shown to be related to altered brain glucose metabolism and brain insulin resistance in animal models and human studies of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, differences in brain glucose using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and blood Extracellular Vesicle (EV) biomarkers of neuronal insulin resistance (i.e. Akt and signaling effectors) between SZ and controls were investigated, as well as whether these measures were related to memory impairments...
February 11, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Allison M LoPilato, Katrina Goines, Jean Addington, Carrie E Bearden, Kristin S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Barbara A Cornblatt, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Larry Seidman, Diana O Perkins, Ming T Tsuang, Scott W Woods, Elaine F Walker
Childhood adversity is among the strongest risk factors for psychosis-spectrum disorders, though the nature and specificity of the biological mechanisms underlying this association remains unclear. Previous research reveals overlaps in the volumetric alterations observed in both adversity-exposed individuals and in psychosis-spectrum populations, highlighting the possibility that deviations in corticolimbic gray matter development may be one mechanism linking adversity and psychosis. Given that childhood adversity encompasses a wide range of adverse experiences, there is also a critical need to examine whether these different types of experiences have unique effects on corticolimbic regions...
February 7, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Brian J Miller, Amy Claxton, Yangchun Du, Peter J Weiden, Steven G Potkin
We assessed the effectiveness of switching from paliperidone palmitate (PP) or risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) to aripiprazole lauroxil (AL). Prospective, 6-month study in patients with schizophrenia with residual symptoms or intolerance with PP/RLAI. Effectiveness assessed via all-cause and medication-related discontinuation; CGI-S/BPRS and adverse event monitoring assessed efficacy/tolerability, respectively. Fifty-one patients (n = 50 PP; n = 1 RLAI) enrolled; 35 completed the study. All-cause and medication-related discontinuation was 30% and 9% over 6 months, respectively...
February 7, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Yoonho Chung, Jean Addington, Carrie E Bearden, Kristin Cadenhead, Barbara Cornblatt, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas McGlashan, Diana Perkins, Larry J Seidman, Ming Tsuang, Elaine Walker, Scott W Woods, Sarah McEwen, Theo G M van Erp, Tyrone D Cannon
In a recent study, a neuroanatomical-based age prediction model observed neuromaturational deviance among clinical high-risk individuals who developed psychosis. Here we aimed to investigate whether incorporating "brain age gap" (discrepancy between neuroanatomical-based predicted age and chronological age) to the North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study risk calculator would enhance prediction of psychosis conversion. The effect of brain age gap was significant (HR = 1.21, P = 0.047), but its predictive variance was found to overlap entirely with age at ascertainment, consistent with the view that greater brain-age gap and earlier age at onset of prodromal symptoms are correlated indicators of insidious-onset forms of psychosis...
February 7, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Miranda Sollychin, Bradley N Jack, Andrea Polari, Ayaka Ando, G Paul Amminger, Connie Markulev, Patrick D McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, Thomas J Whitford, Hok Pan Yuen, Suzie Lavoie
Decreased brain activity in the frontal region, as indicated by increased slow wave EEG power measured by electrodes place on the skull over this area, in association with negative symptoms has previously been shown to distinguish ultra-high risk (UHR) individuals who later transitioned to psychosis (UHR-P) from those who did not transition (UHR-NP). The aims of the current study were to: 1) replicate these results and 2) investigate whether similar association between increased frontal slow wave activity and functioning shows any value in the prediction of transition to psychosis in UHR individuals...
February 6, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Yash B Joshi, Michael L Thomas, William C Hochberger, Andrew W Bismark, Emily B H Treichler, Juan Molina, John Nungaray, Lauren Cardoso, Joyce Sprock, Neal R Swerdlow, Gregory A Light
Targeted cognitive training (TCT) has been reported to improve verbal learning deficits in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Despite positive findings, it is not clear whether demographic factors and clinical characteristics contribute to the success of TCT on an individual basis. Medication-associated anticholinergic burden has been shown to impact TCT-associated verbal learning gains in SZ outpatients, but the role of anticholinergic medication burden on TCT gains in treatment refractory SZ patients has not been described...
February 6, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Jennifer Dykxhoorn, Anna-Clara Hollander, Glyn Lewis, Christina Dalman, James B Kirkbride
OBJECTIVE: The determinants of increased psychosis risk among immigrants remain unclear. Given ethnic density may be protective, we investigated whether the presence of immediate family, or "family networks", at time of immigration was associated with risk of non-affective psychosis. METHODS: We followed a cohort of migrants (n = 838,717) to Sweden, born 1968-1997, from their 14th birthday, or earliest immigration thereafter, until diagnosis of non-affective psychosis (ICD-9/ICD-10), emigration, death, or 2011...
February 6, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Lilian Yanqing Li, Christie K Fung, Melody M Moore, Elizabeth A Martin
Schizotypy, a multidimensional personality organization that reflects liability to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, has been associated with a number of emotional abnormalities. Yet, the exact nature of any emotional abnormalities in schizotypy is relatively unclear. Using an ethnically diverse nonclinical sample (N = 2637), the present study identified homogenous clusters of individuals based on positive and negative schizotypy dimensions and explored three interrelated domains of emotion traits closely tied to functional outcomes and quality of life: affective experience, emotional awareness, and meta-level emotions...
February 4, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
David Dodell-Feder, Abhishek Saxena, Lauren Rutter, Laura Germine
Outcomes for people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) are generally poor, making it important to understand risk states and illness transition. The network approach, which conceptualizes psychopathology as a network of causally interacting symptoms, may hold promise in this regard. Here, we present a network analysis of schizotypal personality traits (i.e., schizophrenia-like cognitive, perceptual, affective, interpersonal, and behavioral anomalies that may index one's vulnerability for a SSD) using an international sample...
February 4, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
M Friedman-Yakoobian, E M Parrish, A Thomas, R Lesser, A Gnong-Granato, S Eack, M S Keshavan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits, a core feature contributing to disability in schizophrenia, are present in milder form in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. This study investigated the feasibility of Cognition for Learning and Understanding Everyday Social Situations (CLUES), an integrated neurocognitive and social cognitive treatment for youth at CHR. METHOD: This was an open, pilot feasibility trial. Seventeen individuals meeting CHR criteria were assessed prior to and following participation in CLUES for changes in symptoms, social and role functioning, and cognition...
February 4, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
A F Santillo, S Lundgren, C Xu, F Orhan, H Fatouros-Bergman, K Blennow, H Zetterberg, E Portelius, S Cervenka, E G Jönsson, S Erhardt, G Engberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Bruno Biagianti, Melissa Fisher, Benjamin Brandrett, Danielle Schlosser, Rachel Loewy, Mor Nahum, Sophia Vinogradov
Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is often severe, enduring, and contributes significantly to chronic disability. A standardized platform for identifying cognitive impairments and measuring treatment effects in cognition is a critical aspect of comprehensive evaluation and treatment for individuals with schizophrenia. In this project, we developed and tested a suite of ten web-based, neuroscience-informed cognitive assessments that are designed to enable the interpretation of specific deficits that could signal that an individual is experiencing cognitive difficulties...
February 4, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Rebecca Rodrigues, Arlene G MacDougall, Guangyong Zou, Michael Lebenbaum, Paul Kurdyak, Lihua Li, Salimah Z Shariff, Kelly K Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Early psychosis is an important window for establishing long-term trajectories. Involuntary hospitalization during this period may impact subsequent service engagement in people with newly diagnosed psychotic disorder. However, population-based studies of involuntary hospitalization in early psychosis are lacking. We sought to estimate the proportion of people aged 16 to 35 years with early psychosis in Ontario who are hospitalized involuntarily at first admission, and to identify the associated risk factors and outcomes...
February 4, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Carla McEnery, Michelle H Lim, Hailey Tremain, Ann Knowles, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterised as an excessive fear of negative judgment from others and is considered one of the most disabling of the mental ill health conditions. Research findings indicate that it is also a significant issue for individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, with prevalence rates of social anxiety ranging from 8% to 36%. This study was conducted to address the variance of the reported prevalence rates of comorbid SAD amongst individuals with a psychotic disorder diagnosis...
February 2, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
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