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Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782227/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-rural-nursing-homes-impact-of-interprofessional-education-and-clinical-decision-tool-implementation-on-urinary-tract-infection-treatment-in-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#1
Darren K Pasay, Micheal S Guirguis, Rhonda C Shkrobot, Jeremy P Slobodan, Adrian S Wagg, Cheryl A Sadowski, John M Conly, Lynora M Saxinger, Lauren C Bresee
OBJECTIVES: To measure the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship initiative on the rate of urine culture testing and antimicrobial prescribing for urinary tract infections (UTIs) between control and intervention sites. Secondary objectives included evaluation of potential harms of the intervention and identifying characteristics of the population prescribed antimicrobials for UTI. DESIGN: Cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Nursing homes in rural Alberta, Canada...
February 20, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782221/changing-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-for-staphylococcus-aureus-surgical-site-infections
#2
Dina F Khamash, Aaron M Milstone, Karen C Carroll, Avinash Gadala, Eili Klein, Lisa L Maragakis, Sara E Cosgrove, Valeria Fabre
Beta-lactam antibiotics such as cefazolin are first-line agents for preoperative prophylaxis, whereas clindamycin is often administered to patients with a reported penicillin allergy. 1 Recent studies have reported increased resistance to clindamycin in Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates from both pediatric and adult populations, and these changes may have implications for surgical site infection (SSI) prophylaxis and empirical management. 2 , 3 Antibiotic resistance trends of SA isolates recovered from SSIs in adults in the United States have not been recently described...
February 20, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777587/shedding-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-by-colonized-patients-during-procedures-and-patient-care-activities
#3
Heba Alhmidi, Jennifer L Cadnum, Sreelatha Koganti, Annette L Jencson, Joseph D Rutter, Robert A Bonomo, Brigid M Wilson, JeanMarie Mayer, Matthew H Samore, Curtis J Donskey
OBJECTIVE: Medical procedures and patient care activities may facilitate environmental dissemination of healthcare-associated pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). DESIGN: Observational cohort study of MRSA-colonized patients to determine the frequency of and risk factors for environmental shedding of MRSA during procedures and care activities in carriers with positive nares and/or wound cultures. Bivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with environmental shedding...
February 19, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777586/the-human-microbiota-and-infection-prevention
#4
R Araos, Erika M C D'Agata
The human microbiome participates in numerous aspects of human physiology and disease states. Recently, studies have begun to explore the role of the microbiome in colonization, infection and transmission of pathogens. This review provides a summary of the methodological principles used in microbiome studies and the published evidence of the impact of microbiome dysbiosis in infection prevention.
February 19, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777580/burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections-at-six-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-saudi-arabia-a-point-prevalence-survey
#5
Majid M Alshamrani, Aiman El-Saed, Asim Alsaedi, Ayman El Gammal, Wafa Al Nasser, Syed Nazeer, Hanan H Balkhy
ABSTRACTA point prevalence survey was conducted on May 11, 2017, among inpatients at 6 hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The overall point prevalence was 6.8% (114 of 1,666). The most common types of infections were pneumonia (27.2%), urinary tract infections (20.2%), and bloodstream infections (10.5%). Approximately 19.2% of healthcare-associated infections were device associated.
February 19, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777579/impact-of-discontinuation-of-contact-precautions-on-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-an-academic-children-s-hospital
#6
Emily J Godbout, Barry J Rittmann, Michele Fleming, Heather Albert, Yvette Major, Huong Jane Nguyen, Andrew J Noda, Kaila Cooper, Michelle Doll, Michael P Stevens, Gonzalo Bearman
We investigated the impact of discontinuation of contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infected or colonized patients on central-line associated bloodstream infection rates at an academic children's hospital. Discontinuation of contact precautions with a bundled horizontal infection prevention platform resulted in no adverse impact on CLABSI rates.
February 19, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773168/automated-data-mining-of-the-electronic-health-record-for-investigation-of-healthcare-associated-outbreaks
#7
Alexander J Sundermann, James K Miller, Jane W Marsh, Melissa I Saul, Kathleen A Shutt, Marissa Pacey, Mustapha M Mustapha, Ashley Ayres, A William Pasculle, Jieshi Chen, Graham M Snyder, Artur W Dubrawski, Lee H Harrison
BACKGROUND: Identifying routes of transmission among hospitalized patients during a healthcare-associated outbreak can be tedious, particularly among patients with complex hospital stays and multiple exposures. Data mining of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential to rapidly identify common exposures among patients suspected of being part of an outbreak. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 9 hospital outbreaks that occurred during 2011-2016 and that had previously been characterized both according to transmission route and by molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates...
February 18, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773166/preventability-of-hospital-onset-bacteremia-and-fungemia-a-pilot-study-of-a-potential-healthcare-associated-infection-outcome-measure
#8
Raymund B Dantes, Clare Rock, Aaron M Milstone, Jesse T Jacob, Sheri Chernetsky-Tejedor, Anthony D Harris, Surbhi Leekha
Hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB), a potential measure of healthcare-associated infections, was evaluated in a pilot study among 60 patients across 3 hospitals. Two-thirds of all HOB events and half of nonskin commensal HOB events were judged as potentially preventable. Follow-up studies are needed to further develop this measure.
February 18, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773162/a-comparison-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-in-alberta-using-a-provincial-surveillance-system
#9
Kathryn R Bush, Jennifer Ellison, Kaitlin Hearn, Ted Pfister, Geoffrey Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773160/is-unidirectional-airflow-in-operating-theater-still-recommended-to-reduce-surgical-site-infections-the-french-point-of-view-through-the-recent-international-literature
#10
Didier Lepelletier, Bruno Grandbastien, Olivia Keita-Perse, Pierre Parneix, Crespin C Adjidé, Raoul Baron, Ludwig Serge Aho Glélé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773159/analyzing-the-impact-of-duration-of-ventilation-hospitalization-and-ventilation-episodes-on-the-risk-of-pneumonia
#11
Martin Wolkewitz, Mercedes Palomar-Martinez, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Pedro Olaechea-Astigarraga, Martin Schumacher
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of duration of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization and multiple ventilation episodes on the development of pneumonia while accounting for extubation as a competing event. DESIGN: A multicenter data base from a Spanish surveillance network was used to conduct a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected intensive care patients followed from admission to discharge. SETTING: Spanish intensive care units (ICUs)...
February 18, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773156/droplet-aerosol-dissemination-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-surrounding-ventilated-patients
#12
Madelyn Mousa, David Schwartz, Yehuda Carmeli, Amir Nutman
We measured droplet aerosol dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) by sampling air surrounding 10 ventilated patients with CRAB isolated in sputum. Over 70 hours, we sampled 252,000 L of air; CRAB was detected in 39,600 L (16%). CRAB growth was higher during patient care, notably suctioning and sheet changing.
February 18, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773155/opportunities-to-bridge-gaps-between-respiratory-protection-guidance-and-practice-in-us-health-care
#13
Barbara I Braun, Brette A Tschurtz, Hasina Hafiz, Debra A Novak, Maria C Montero, Cynthia M Alexander, Loretta Litz Fauerbach, MaryAnn Gruden, Marcia T Isakari, David T Kuhar, Lisa A Pompeii, Melanie D Swift, Lewis J Radonovich
Healthcare organizations are required to provide workers with respiratory protection (RP) to mitigate hazardous airborne inhalation exposures. This study sought to better identify gaps that exist between RP guidance and clinical practice to understand issues that would benefit from additional research or clarification.
February 18, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767842/inappropriate-ceftriaxone-use-in-outpatient-acute-respiratory-infection-management
#14
Laura M King, Pamela Talley, Marion A Kainer, Christopher D Evans, Cullen Adre, Lauri A Hicks, Katherine E Fleming-Dutra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767838/dispersal-of-gram-negative-bacilli-from-contaminated-sink-drains-to-cover-gowns-and-hands-during-hand-washing
#15
Zeina Hajar, Thriveen Sankar Chittoor Mana, Jennifer L Cadnum, Curtis J Donskey
We demonstrated that hand washing resulted in frequent dispersal of gram-negative bacilli from colonized sink drains in hospitals to cover gowns and hands. A plastic drain cover reduced but did not eliminate the risk for contamination. This mechanism of dispersal could result in contamination of healthcare personnel and patients.
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767830/the-burden-of-colonization-and-infection-by-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-neuro-rehabilitation-setting-a-prospective-six-year-experience
#16
Sara Tedeschi, Filippo Trapani, Annalisa Liverani, Fabio Tumietto, Francesco Cristini, Salvatore Pignanelli, Andrea Berlingeri, Jacopo Bonavita, Gian Piero Belloni, Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella, Roberto Pederzini, Pierluigi Viale
We describe the high burden of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) colonization and infection in a neuro-rehabilitation hospital in Italy over a 6-year period. Overall, 9.3% of patients were found to be CPE carriers on admission; the rates of CPE in-hospital acquisition and CPE-BSI were 9.2 and 2.9 cases per 10,000 patient days, respectively.
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767829/healthcare-provider-diagnostic-testing-practices-for-identification-of-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-in-children-an-emerging-infections-network-survey
#17
Larry K Kociolek, Preeta K Kutty, Philip M Polgreen, Susan E Beekmann
OBJECTIVE: To characterize healthcare provider diagnostic testing practices for identifying Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic carriage in children. DESIGN: Electronic survey. METHODS: An 11-question survey was sent by e-mail or facsimile to all pediatric infectious diseases (PID) members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network (EIN). RESULTS: Among 345 eligible respondents who had ever responded to an EIN survey, 196 (57%) responded; 162 of these (83%) were aware of their institutional policies for CDI testing and management...
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767828/mycobacterium-saskatchewanense-strain-associated-with-a-chronic-kidney-disease-patient-in-an-italian-transplantation-hospital-and-almost-misdiagnosed-as-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Giuseppina Di Mento, Anna Paola Carreca, Francesco Monaco, Nicola Cuscino, Francesca Cardinale, Pier Giulio Conaldi, Bruno Douradinha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767820/oseltamivir-for-prophylaxis-of-influenza-in-vaccinated-hemodialysis-patients
#19
Jens T Van Praet, Sanne Steyaert, Mirjam Demesmaecker, Veerle Grootaert, Marijke Reynders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767816/viral-oncolytic-immunotherapy-in-the-war-on-cancer-infection-control-considerations
#20
Elizabeth V Robilotti, Asmita Kumar, Michael S Glickman, Mini Kamboj
Oncolytic viral immunotherapy is an emerging treatment modality for cancer that exploits in vivo replication and other viral properties to enhance immune killing of malignant cells. The potential for horizontal transmission of native or engineered oncolytic viruses creates several unique infection control challenges. In 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) became the first agent in this class to gain FDA approval for treatment of melanoma, and several others are being developed. Although some data on the transmissibility of TVEC are available from clinical studies, the aftermarket or real-world experience remains limited...
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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