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Virus Genes

L McMichael, C Smith, A Gordon, K Agnihotri, J Meers, J Oakey
A novel gamma-retroviral sequence (7912 bp), inclusive of both partial 5' and 3' long terminal repeat regions, was identified from the brain of a black flying-fox (Pteropus alecto), Queensland, Australia. The sequence was distinct from other retroviral sequences identified in bats and showed greater identity to Koala, Gibbon ape leukaemia, Melomys burtoni and Woolly monkey retroviruses, forming their own phylogenetic clade. This finding suggests that these retroviruses may have an unknown common ancestor and that further investigation into the diversity of gamma-retroviruses in Australian Pteropus species may elucidate their evolutionary origins...
March 15, 2019: Virus Genes
Demsachew Guadie, Kassahun Tesfaye, Dennis Knierim, Stephan Winter, Adane Abraham
Maize (Zea mays L.) is host for more than 50 virus species worldwide with Maize streak virus (MSV) (genus Mastrevirus) causing significant yield losses in Africa. A survey for viruses infecting maize was conducted in major growing regions of Ethiopia. To test for DNA viruses, in particular mastreviruses, rolling circle amplification was performed for the analysis of virus composition in assayed samples. Following the analysis of the entire virus genomes, three genetic groups, each representing distinct virus species, were identified...
March 14, 2019: Virus Genes
Steven M Valles, Adam R Rivers
The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) escaped its natural enemies when it was introduced into North America in the 1930s from South America. US efforts have focused on discovery of natural enemies, like viruses, to provide sustainable control of the ant. Nine new virus genomes were sequenced from the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta using metagenomic RNA sequencing. The virus genomes were verified by Sanger sequencing and random amplification of cDNA ends reactions. In addition to the nine new virus genomes, the previously described Solenopsis viruses were also detected, including Solenopsis invicta virus 1 (SINV-1), SINV-2, SINV-3, SINV-4, SINV-5, and Solenopsis invicta densovirus...
March 7, 2019: Virus Genes
Hualei Liu, Jingjing Wang, Shengqiang Ge, Yan Lv, Yin Li, Dongxia Zheng, Yunling Zhao, David Castellan, Zhiliang Wang
Newcastle disease (ND) has been enzootic in China for several decades since the first recognition of the disease in 1946 in China. Continuous surveillance revealed that the sub-genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been predominantly responsible for most of ND outbreak in China in recent years. But in the present study, three virulent NDVs isolated from poultry in southern China were classified as sub-genotype VIIh, which is highly related to the viruses circulating in some Southeast Asia countries...
March 5, 2019: Virus Genes
Claudia Alteri, Rossana Scutari, Ada Bertoli, Daniele Armenia, Caterina Gori, Gabriele Fabbri, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Carlotta Cerva, Antonio Cristaudo, Ilaria Vicenti, Bianca Bruzzone, Maurizio Zazzi, Massimo Andreoni, Andrea Antinori, Valentina Svicher, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Carlo Federico Perno, Maria Mercedes Santoro
Integrase-strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are known to rapidly reduce HIV-1 plasma viral load, replication cycles, and new viral integrations, thus potentially limiting viral evolution. Here, we assessed the role of INSTIs on HIV-1 V3 evolution in a cohort of 89 HIV-1-infected individuals starting an INSTI- (N = 41, [dolutegravir: N = 1; elvitegravir: N = 3; raltegravir: N = 37]) or a non-INSTI-based (N = 48) combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), with two plasma RNA V3 genotypic tests available (one before [baseline] and one during cART)...
February 22, 2019: Virus Genes
Hilda Montero, Gustavo Pérez-Gil, Clara L Sampieri
The helicase eIF4A is part of the cellular eIF4F translation initiation complex. The main functions of eIF4A are to remove secondary complex structures within the 5'-untranslated region and to displace proteins attached to mRNA. As intracellular parasites, viruses regulate the processes involved in protein synthesis, and different mechanisms related to controlling translation factors, such as eIF4A, have been found. The inhibitors of this factor are currently known; these substances could be used in the near future as part of antiviral pharmacological therapies in instances of replication cycles in which eIF4A is required...
February 22, 2019: Virus Genes
David Alan Read, Jonathan Featherston, David Jasper Gilbert Rees, Genevieve Dawn Thompson, Ronel Roberts, Bradley Charles Flett, Kingstone Mashingaidze, Gerhard Pietersen, Barnabas Kiula, Alois Kullaya, Ernest R Mbega
Typically associated with fungal species, members of the viral family Totiviridae have recently been shown to be associated with plants, including important crop species, such as Carica papaya (papaya) and Zea mays (maize). Maize-associated totivirus (MATV) was first described in China and more recently in Ecuador, where it has been found to co-occur with other viruses known to elicit maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND). In a survey for maize-associated viruses, 35 samples were selected for Illumina HiSeq sequencing, from the Tanzanian maize producing regions of Mara, Arusha, Manyara, Kilimanjaro, Morogoro and Pwani...
February 21, 2019: Virus Genes
Amira Adel Al-Hosary, Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Nageh El-Taweel, Ann Nordengrahn, Malik Merza, Rebecca Badra, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed A Ali
During 2015-2016 period, an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was observed in cattle in four governorates of the upper of Egypt. The infection was extended to the vaccinated cattle. A total of 54 mouth swabs and serum samples were collected from vaccinated cattle for serological and virological investigation. The typical clinical signs of FMDV infection were observed in all cattle under investigation. All samples were positive for FMDV using molecular methods, while the serological method showed 85% positive of tested samples...
February 15, 2019: Virus Genes
Jihye Shin, Dongseob Tark, Van Phan Le, SeEun Choe, Ra Mi Cha, Gyu-Nam Park, In-Soo Cho, Bui Thi To Nga, Nguyen Thi Lan, Dong-Jun An
A maximum clade credibility tree constructed using the full-length spike (S) and hemagglutinin-esterase genes revealed that Vietnamese Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) strains belong to a single cluster (C1); therefore, they might share a common origin with Cuban and Chinese BCoV strains. The omega values of cluster 1 (C1) and cluster 2 (C2) were 0.15734 and 0.11613, respectively, and naive empirical bayes analysis identified two amino acid positions (179 and 501) in the S protein in C1 and three amino acid positions (113, 501, and 525) in that of C2 that underwent positive selection (p > 99%)...
February 15, 2019: Virus Genes
Zsolt Boldogkői, Dóra Tombácz, Zsolt Balázs
The temporal coordination of viral gene expression is imperative for the regulation of the herpesvirus replication cycle. While the main factors of this transcriptional coordination are known, the subtler control mechanisms of gene expression remain elusive. Recent long read sequencing-based approached have revealed an intricate meshwork of overlaps between the herpesvirus transcripts and the overlap of the replication origins with noncoding RNAs. It has been shown that the transcriptional apparatuses can physically interfere with one another while transcribing overlapping regions...
February 14, 2019: Virus Genes
M A Velázquez-Cervantes, M Martínez-Castillo, L D González-García, T A Vargas-Pavía, M G Martínez-Salazar, I Mancilla-Herrera, G León-Reyes, J García-Cordero, A C Helguera-Repetto, M León-Juárez
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main pathogen associated with upper respiratory tract infections during early childhood. Vertical transmission of this virus has been suggested in humans, based on observations recorded during animal studies that revealed an association of RSV with persistent structural and functional changes in the developing lungs of the offspring. However, human placentas have not yet been evaluated for susceptibility to RSV infection. In this study, we examined the capacity of RSV to infect a human trophoblast model, the BeWo cell line...
February 13, 2019: Virus Genes
Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz, Maciej Kuczkowski, Joanna Sajewicz-Krukowska
Quail deltacoronavirus (QdCoV) described for the first time in the United Arab Emirates in 2018 belongs to the same deltacoronavirus species as viruses discovered in swine and tree sparrows. The full-length genome of QdCoV detected in quails with enteritis in Poland has similar organization as Middle Eastern viruses although there is no NSP7c gene. The overall degree of nucleotide sequence identity was 92.4-92.6% between Polish PL/G032/2015 and Middle Eastern UAE-HKU30 QdCoV isolates. The sequences of the individual genes show similar nucleotide identities in the range of 91...
February 13, 2019: Virus Genes
Shuhuan Ma, Fukun Zhang, Lijun Zheng, Jinjin Liu, Jie Ma, Xuhui Chen, Zhaojie Yang, Wenhui Wang, Li Li, Mingchen Wang, Yuqi Huo
Noroviruses are leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In our previous study, we established an in vitro histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) binding blockade assay against GII.3 Norovirus virus like particles (VLPs) with trypsin digestion. In this study, we characterized the blocking antibody binding site and epitope type (linear or conformational) by using hyperimmune sera produced against different antigens. VP1 from Jingzhou402 (GII.3, JZ402) strain was expressed by using pGEX-6p-1 expression vector and the insoluble proteins were purified for immunization in rabbit...
February 6, 2019: Virus Genes
Fujiko Sunaga, Tsuneyuki Masuda, Mika Ito, Masataka Akagami, Yuki Naoi, Kaori Sano, Yukie Katayama, Tsutomu Omatsu, Mami Oba, Shoichi Sakaguchi, Tetsuya Furuya, Hiroshi Yamasato, Yoshinao Ouchi, Junsuke Shirai, Tetsuya Mizutani, Makoto Nagai
The Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) is an enteric virus of pigs that can cause various disorders. However, there are few reports that describe the molecular characteristics of the PSV genome. In this study, almost the entire genomes of 23 PSVs detected in Japanese pigs were analyzed using bioinformatics. Analysis of the cis-active RNA elements showed that the predicted secondary structures of the internal ribosome entry site in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a cis-replication element in the 2C coding region were conserved among PSVs...
February 2, 2019: Virus Genes
Anja Dalmann, Kerstin Wernike, Ilona Reimann, Deborah S Finlaison, Peter D Kirkland, Martin Beer
Bungowannah virus, which belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae, has been associated with myocarditis and a high incidence of stillbirths in pigs. In 2003, the virus was initially detected in a large pig farming complex on two separate sites in New South Wales, Australia. Until now, it has not been detected at other locations. Despite a program of depopulation and disinfection, the virus could be only eradicated from one of the affected farm complexes, the Bungowannah unit, but became endemic on the second complex, the Corowa unit...
January 31, 2019: Virus Genes
Xinglong Wang, Ruiyi Dang, Zengqi Yang
Protein V of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) serves as interferon (IFN) antagonist, and NDV stains with different pathogenicity show different abilities in inhibition IFN expression. To further reveal the relationship between viral virulence and their IFN-antagonistic activity derived from protein V, six NDV strains with three different pathotypes were used in this study and their V gene were cloned into eukaryotic expression vector. The V gene derived from different NDV strains were expressed in same level in cells after transfection according to the results from Western blotting...
January 31, 2019: Virus Genes
Qian Wang, Fang-Zheng Xu, Lu-Lu An, Hai-Ying Xiang, Wei-Hua Zhang, Guan-Shan Liu, Hao-Bao Liu
Brassica yellows virus (BrYV), prevalently distributed throughout mainland China and South Korea while triggering serious diseases in cruciferous crops, is proposed to be a new species in the genus Polerovirus within the family Luteoviridae. There are three distinct genotypes (BrYV-A, BrYV-B and BrYV-C) reported in cabbage and radish. Here, we describe a new BrYV isolate infecting tobacco plants in the field, which was named BrYV-NtabQJ. The complete genome sequence of BrYV-NtabQJ is 5741 nt in length, and 89% of the sequence shares higher sequence identities (about 90%) with different BrYV isolates...
January 29, 2019: Virus Genes
Sergio Hernández, Ariel Díaz, Alejandra Loyola, Rodrigo A Villanueva
Posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins is critical to modulate protein function and to improve the functional diversity of polypeptides. In this report, we have analyzed the PTM of both hepatitis C virus NS3 and NS5B enzyme proteins, upon their individual expression in insect cells under the baculovirus expression system. Using mass spectrometry, we present evidence that these recombinant proteins exhibit diverse covalent modifications on certain amino acid side chains, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation...
January 29, 2019: Virus Genes
Toshiyuki Fukuhara
Endornaviruses are unique, persistent, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses with symbiotic properties that infect diverse eukaryotes, such as plants, fungi, and oomycetes. Endornaviruses contain a linear dsRNA genome of approximately 10 to 17 kbp in length and are classified in the family Endornaviridae, which consists of two genera, Alphaendornavirus and Betaendornavirus. The endornaviruses encode a single long open reading frame encoding approximately 3200 to 5800 amino acid residues of conserved viral RNA helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains, and some endornaviruses contain a site-specific nick in the coding strand of their dsRNA genome...
January 14, 2019: Virus Genes
Lan Li, Xiaoming Yu, Haoming Zhang, Haiwei Cheng, Liting Hou, Qisheng Zheng, Jibo Hou
Griffithsin is a lectin with potent antiviral activity against enveloped viruses. The objective of this study was to assess Griffithsin's inhibitory effect on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The results showed that Griffithsin reduced PEDV infection of Vero cells by approximately 82.8%. Moreover, using time-of-addition assays and RT-qPCR, we found that delayed addition of Griffithsin had a weaker inhibitory effect on PEDV than earlier treatment. The mechanism of Griffithsin's action against PEDV involved both preventing viral attachment to host cells and disrupting cell-to-cell transmission; its dual mode of action distinguished Griffithsin from most other antiviral drugs...
January 14, 2019: Virus Genes
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