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Reproductive Toxicology

Rong Li, Christian Lee Andersen, Lianmei Hu, Zidao Wang, Yuehuan Li, Tamas Nagy, Xiaoqin Ye
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a common food contaminant (ppb˜ppm) derived from Fusarium fungi. With its estrogenicity and potential chronic exposure, ZEA poses a risk to pregnancy. Our previous studies implied post-implantational lethality by ZEA. Since a functional placenta is essential for fetal development and survival, it was hypothesized that ZEA may have adverse effects on placental development leading to post-implantational lethality. Exposure of young mice to 0, 0.8, 4, 10, and 40 ppm ZEA diets from gestation day 5...
February 14, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Yu Guo, Di Xiao, Xiaojing Yang, Jiang Zheng, Shuwei Hu, Panfeng Wu, Xiaoxia Li, Hao Kou, Hui Wang
Hepatic and pulmonary toxicity in fetal rats induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) was investigated. Retrorsine (RTS) or monocrotaline (MCT) was intragastrically administered during pregnancy. The reduction of body and tail lengths was consistent with body weight loss in PA-exposed fetuses, and pathological lesions in liver and lung were observed only in fetuses. Both PAs reduced fetal serum transaminase activities. The GSH/GSSG ratio, GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities also decreased but glutathione S-transferase activity increased in fetal lung, especially for MCT...
February 13, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Cheng Xu, Xi Chen, Wei-Bin Sheng, Peixin Yang
Autophagy is required for neurulation, and autophagy activators with minimal toxicity, such as the natural compound trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide, possess high therapeutic value. To determine whether trehalose directly induces autophagy, FITC-labeled trehalose was used for tracing its presence in autophagosome complexes. Trehalose was as potent as rapamycin and starvation in inducing de novo autophagosome formation and increasing autophagosome flux in GFP-LC3 reporter cells and C17.2 neural stem cells...
February 12, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Selin Acar, Elif Keskin-Arslan, Hilal Erol-Coskun, Tijen Kaya-Temiz, Yusuf Cem Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether maternal exposure to quinolones, fluoroquinolones and specifically ciprofloxacin is associated with major malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase and Reprotox® databases were searched. Observational studies with an exposed and control group were included. RESULTS: Analysis of 8 cohort and 2 case-control studies showed no significant increases in rates of major malformations for quinolone (OR, 1...
February 7, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Maruhen A D Silveira, João Paulo C Marcondes, Juliana R Lara, Wellerson R Scarano, Iracema M P Calderón, Marilza V C Rudge, Daisy M F Salvadori
We investigated whether mitochondrial-related genes and proteins are modulated by hyperglycemia promoted by gestational diabetes (GDM), thereby increasing neonate obesity predisposition. 19 healthy pregnant women, 16 pregnant women with GDM and their respective neonates were enrolled. Additionally, 19 obese and 19 eutrophic adults were recruited as a reference population. Umbilical cord, peripheral blood and placental (villous and decidua) tissues were collected to evaluate SOD2, PPAR-α and PPARGC-1β and their respective protein expressions...
February 6, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Maxwell C K Leung, Marilyn H Silva, Amanda J Palumbo, Peter N Lohstroh, Svetlana E Koshlukova, Shelley B DuTeaux
There is growing concern that increased use of medical and recreational cannabis may result in increased exposure to contaminants on the cannabis, such as pesticides. Several states are moving towards implementing robust regulation of the sales, cultivation, and manufacture of cannabis products. However, there are challenges with creating health-protective regulations in an industry that, to date, has been largely unregulated. The focus of this publication is a theoretical examination of what may happen when women are exposed pre-conceptually or during pregnancy to cannabis contaminated with pesticides...
January 19, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Stefan Maxwell, Stephanie Thompson, Fadi Zakko, Luis A Bracero
Detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is important for early intervention and treatment. The main purpose of this study was to compare 1.) PAE rates using the biomarker, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), in umbilical cord (UC) blood vs. ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in UC tissue, the standard of care, and 2.) Pregnancy characteristics and neonatal outcomes in newborns positive vs. negative for PAE biomarkers. We examined records of neonates born over a two-year span receiving UC-PEth dried blood spots testing at the time of delivery in addition to standard of care PAE screening (n = 146)...
January 18, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Sigal Kaplan, B Pharm, Yael Shalit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Bianca Nayra Malfará, Jhohann Richard de Lima Benzi, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira Filgueira, Cleslei Fernando Zanelli, Geraldo Duarte, Ricardo de Carvalho Cavalli, Natália Valadares de Moraes
Nifedipine, a known substrate to breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP), is used for the treatment of hypertension during breastfeeding. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ABCG2 c.421C > A on nifedipine transfer to breast milk (BM) in hypertensive women. Nineteen hypertensive breastfeeding women treated with 20 mg nifedipine every 12 hours were investigated. Blood and BM samples were collected simultaneously 15-30 days after delivery and at least 15 days after drug treatment. Patients genotyped as ABCG2 c...
January 16, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Hongou Wang, Yu Zhu, Yulang Chi, Sijun Dong
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is one of the most common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In utero B[a]P exposure exerts multiple adverse effects on embryo development, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have still not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we used human embryonic stem cell derived embryoid body (EB) as an in vitro model to investigate the embryotoxicity effects of B[a]P. EBs were exposed to B[a]P for 14 days, and the morphology, viability and differentiation of the cells were analyzed, in addition to the molecular changes...
January 16, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Chan Jin Park, Radwa Barakat, Alexander Ulanov, Zhong Li, Po-Ching Lin, Karen Chiu, Sherry Zhou, Pablo Perez, Jungyeon Lee, Jodi Flaws, CheMyong Jay Ko
Sanitary pads and diapers are made of synthetic plastic materials that can potentially be released while being used. This study measured the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (methylene chloride, toluene, and xylene) and phthalates (DBP, DEHP, DEP, and BBP) contained in sanitary pads and diapers. In sanitary pads, 5,900- and 130-fold differences of VOC and phthalate concentrations were seen among the brands. In the diapers, 3- and 63-fold differences of VOC and phthalate concentrations were detected among the brands...
January 16, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Christine Zhou, Ninad Zaman, Yunbo Li, Daniel B Martinez-Arguelles, Vassilios Papadopoulos, Barry Zirkin, Kassim Traore
Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), is a plasticizer with endocrine disruptor activity that has been shown to stimulate basal steroid biosynthesis in Leydig cells. The mechanism by which it does so is unknown. Using MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells, we assessed the effects of MEHP on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and on the signal transduction pathways that mobilize cholesterol. Exposure to 0-300 µM MEHP stimulated basal progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner...
January 12, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
J L Richardson, F Martin, H Dunstan, A Greenall, S Stephens, L M Yates, S H L Thomas
BACKGROUND: Venlafaxine is a serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor used to treat major depressive episodes and anxiety disorders. The primary aim of this study was to investigate spontaneous abortion risks following gestational exposure. METHODS: This prospective observational comparative cohort study utilised data collected by the UK Teratology Information Service (UKTIS) between 1995 and 2018. The study sample included 281 venlafaxine exposed pregnancies matched to antidepressant unexposed (n = 1,405) and SSRI exposed (n = 843) comparator groups...
January 10, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Yazhen Hu, Yawei Wang, Ting Yan, Demin Feng, Yue Ba, Huizhen Zhang, Jingyuan Zhu, Xuemin Cheng, Liuxin Cui, Hui Huang
We previously investigated excessive fluoride exposure elicited intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and led to Sertoli cells dysfunction in vitro. However, the mechanisms underlying fluoride-mediated male reproductive damage in vivo remain largely unknown. Considerable evidence has now revealed ER stress is closely linked with testicular oxidative damage. Hence, we aimed to explore whether ER stress signaling was involved in the testicular protective effects of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against testicular apoptosis induced by fluoride...
January 8, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Marleen M H J van Gelder, Lutea A A de Jong, Bernke Te Winkel, Erik J H Olyslager, Saskia Vorstenbosch, Eugène P van Puijenbroek, André L M Verbeek, Nel Roeleveld
OBJECTIVE: To compare assessment of early pregnancy medication exposure using three methods of data collection. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 752 women participating in the PRegnancy and Infant DEvelopment (PRIDE) Study before gestational week 17. For 52 women using medication at the date of blood sampling according to Web-based questionnaires or pharmacy records, we analysed serum samples using untargeted liquid chromatography time-of-flight spectrometry...
January 4, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Seungkwon You, Gwonhwa Song
4-Methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) is an estrogenic compound used in a variety of personal care products and is associated with water pollution. In this study, we verified that exposure to 4-MBC suppresses the proliferation and invasiveness of the HTR8/SVneo human trophoblast cell line. Moreover, HTR8/SVneo cells treated with 4-MBC underwent apoptosis with increased DNA fragmentation. 4-MBC also activated the PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in HTR8/SVneo cells. Furthermore, 4-MBC induced oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production, which was associated with HTR8/SVneo cell death...
December 28, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Marlena Fejzo, Alyssa Kam, Amanda Laguna, Kimber MacGibbon, Patrick Mullin
The purpose of this study was to follow up on the reporting of neurodevelopmental disorders in children exposed in utero to Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG). This was an exploratory descriptive study whereby neurodevelopmental outcomes of 267 children delivered by 177 mothers with HG were compared to neurodevelopmental outcomes from 93 children delivered by 60 unaffected mothers. Similar to at age 8, the children (now 12) exposed in utero to HG had over 3-fold increase in odds of neurodevelopmental disorders including attention, anxiety, sensory, sleep difficulty, and social development delay/social anxiety...
December 27, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Linda Titus, Elizabeth E Hatch, Keith M Drake, Samantha E Parker, Marianne Hyer, Julie R Palmer, William C Strohsnitter, Ervin Adam, Arthur L Herbst, Dezheng Huo, Robert N Hoover, Rebecca Troisi
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes epigenetic alterations in primordial germ cells that affect the next generation, but human studies are sparse. METHODS: We assessed hormonally mediated outcomes in third generation women whose mothers were prenatally DES-exposed and unexposed. RESULTS: Compared to the unexposed, DES-exposed third generation women had an increased risk of irregular menses and amenorrhea; the respective prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in follow-up data were 1...
December 27, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Alexis D Greene, Jessica A Kendziorski, Jeanette M Buckholz, Liang Niu, Changchun Xie, Susan M Pinney, Katherine A Burns
Endometriosis is a complex disease impacted by the hormonal and immune systems. Cytokines and chemokines are serum biomarkers that maybe useful to develop a noninvasive disease diagnosis. Individuals in the Fernald Community Cohort were exposed to uranium, a heavy metal with radioactive properties and estrogenic potential; therefore, serum samples from women in this cohort with or without uranium and with or without endometriosis were compared for alterations in chemokine, cytokine, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels...
December 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Ashley L Arancio, Kyla D Cole, Anyssa R Dominguez, Emry R Cohenour, Julia Kadie, William C Maloney, Chane Cilliers, Sonya M Schuh
Bisphenol A (BPA), Bisphenol AF (BPAF), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are widespread compounds used in the production of plastics. We used Xenopus laevis to compare their effects on early embryo cell division and development. Directly after in vitro fertilizations, embryos were exposed to BPA, BPAF, DBP, or 17β-estradiol (E2) for up to 96 hours. BPA (1-50 μM) and BPAF (0.003-25 μM) caused disrupted cleavage divisions, slowed cytokinesis, and cellular dissociation within 1-6 hours. Flexures of the spinal cord, shorter body axis/tail, craniofacial malformations, and significant mortality occurred with environmentally relevant doses of BPAF (LC50  = 0...
December 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
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