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APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761610/cystic-fibrosis-an-example-of-personalized-and-precision-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Marianne Skov, Christine Rønne Hansen, Tacjana Pressler
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a severe, monogenic, autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) gene, where disturbed chloride and bicarbonate transportation in epithelial cells results in a multiorgan disease with primarily pulmonary infections and pancreatic insufficiency. In 1968, the Copenhagen CF Center was established, and centralized care of CF patients with monthly control was introduced. Close monitoring and treatment of Pseudomonas lung infection as well as segregation of patients with different infection status improved the clinical outcome as well as survival...
February 14, 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740783/biomarkers-in-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-a-review
#2
REVIEW
David Scheie, Huda Haidar Abdallah Kufaishi, Helle Broholm, Eva Løbner Lund, Karin de Stricker, Linea C Melchior, Morten Grauslund
Until recently, diagnostics of brain tumors were almost solely based on morphology and immunohistochemical stainings for relatively unspecific lineage markers. Although certain molecular markers have been known for longer than a decade (combined loss of chromosome 1p and 19q in oligodendrogliomas), molecular biomarkers were not included in the WHO scheme until 2016. Now, the classification of diffuse gliomas rests on an integration of morphology and molecular results. Also, for many other central nervous system tumor entities, specific diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been detected and continue to emerge...
February 10, 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689231/whole-genome-sequencing-of-breast-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Maria Rossing, Claus Storgaard Sørensen, Bent Ejlertsen, Finn Cilius Nielsen
Breast cancer was the first to take advantage of targeted therapy using endocrine therapy, and for up to 20% of all breast cancer patients a further significant improvement has been obtained by HER2-targeted therapy. Greater insight in precision medicine is to some extent driven by technical and computational progress, with the first wave of a true technical advancement being the application of transcriptomic analysis. Molecular subtyping further improved our understanding of breast cancer biology and has through a new tumor classification enabled allocation of personalized treatment regimens...
January 28, 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30687947/amino-acid-substitution-mutations-and-mrna-expression-levels-of-the-pbp5-gene-in-clinical-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-conferring-high-level-ampicillin-resistance
#4
Hosein Darehkordi, Fereshteh Saffari, Hamid Reza Mollaei, Roya Ahmadrajabi
In this study, clinical ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin in the ranges from 128 to ˃512 μg/mL (n = 17) and two ampicillin-susceptible isolates (MIC 1 μg/mL) were investigated. No β-lactamase production was detected in these isolates. Alterations in the C-terminal part of pbp5 and levels of pbp5 mRNA expression were investigated by sequencing and quantitative real-time qRT-PCR, respectively. Sequencing analysis revealed five different pbp5 alleles (A to E) having differences in 18 amino acid positions spanning from residue 426 to 642...
January 27, 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30687941/mapping-bacterial-biofilms-on-recovered-orthopaedic-implants-by-a-novel-agar-candle-dip-method
#5
James P Moley, Mary S McGrath, Jeffrey F Granger, Anne C Sullivan, Paul Stoodley, Devendra H Dusane
While the detrimental effects of periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are well known, the process of biofilm formation on orthopaedic hardware is unclear. Previous work has shown that encasement of explant hardware in agar can aid in identifying biofilms. This study tested the utility of agar 'candle dip' method in detecting and mapping the location of biofilm on infected orthopedic components. Explant components from 15 patients were rinsed, briefly submerged in agar to create a surface coating, and incubated...
January 27, 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30614067/the-inflamed-sputum-in-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-l-lactate-levels-are-correlated-to-neutrophil-accumulation
#6
Gabriella Fredman, Mette Kolpen, Frederik Boetius Hertz, Pelle Trier Petersen, Andreas Vestergaard Jensen, Gertrud Baunbaek-Egelund, Pernille Ravn, Peter Østrup Jensen, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are common, but little is known about the response of biomarkers of inflammation in the lungs. Therefore, our primary aim was to compare the concentration of l-lactate to the concentration of neutrophils in sputum and systemic markers of infection. Because it is difficult to differentiate viral and bacterial infection on the basis of clinical presentation in LRTI, our secondary aim was to evaluate if l- and d-lactate may serve as markers of local inflammation as representatives of neutrophils and bacteria, respectively...
January 6, 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30585355/mycobacterium-brisbanense-lung-infection-facilitated-by-steroid-induced-adrenal-insufficiency
#7
Rosa Gynthersen, Tavs Qvist, Åse B Andersen, Terese L Katzenstein
Mycobacterium brisbanense is rapid-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. It was first described in 2004 as a human pathogen and only one case report has previously been published. We report a case of M. brisbanense infection in a young man with asthma, recurrent lung infections and secondary adrenal insufficiency induced by inhalation steroids and itraconazole use. The mycobacterial infection was successfully treated with a long-term multidrug regimen.
December 25, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30575139/accurate-prediction-of-anti-phagocytic-activity-of-vibrio-vulnificus-by-measurement-of-bacterial-adherence-to-hydrocarbonsprediction-of-anti-phagocytic-activity
#8
Takehiro Kado, Takashige Kashimoto, Kohei Yamazaki, Kaho Matsuda, Shunji Ueno
Vibrio vulnificus can cause necrotizing soft tissue infection via exposure through an open wound, and the incubation period in cases of wound infection is only about 16 h. These facts strongly suggest that mechanisms to evade innate immune cell phagocytosis are essential for its pathogenicity. Hydrophobic interaction is one of the binding mechanisms between bacteria and phagocytes. Several factors that maintain cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) can contribute to anti-phagocytic activity. In this study, we tried to identify V...
December 21, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746792/immunogenicity-of-hpv-and-hbv-vaccines-adjuvanticity-of-synthetic-analogs-of-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-combined-with-aluminum-hydroxide
#9
Nastaran Taleghani, Ali Bozorg, Amin Azimi, Homa Zamani
Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a purified and detoxified product of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella minnesota R595, has been used as an adjuvant in different vaccines. In this study, the efficacy of human papillomaviruses (HPV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines formulated with aluminum hydroxide combined with two different synthetic MPLs, 3D-(6-acyl)-PHAD or 3D-PHAD, or aluminum hydroxide combined with the mixtures of such MPLs, has been assessed. The immunogenicity in female BALB/c mice was verified by two intramuscular injections of differently formulated HPV and HBV vaccines and the total immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response was considered to compare the employed adjuvants...
March 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746791/chlamydia-pneumoniae-enhances-interleukin-8-il-8-production-with-reduced-azithromycin-sensitivity-under-hypoxia
#10
Junji Matsuo, Kohei Sakai, Torahiko Okubo, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae causes respiratory tract infections such as community-acquired pneumonia. During infection, C. pneumoniae induces inflammatory responses in host cells and the oxygen concentration at the infection sites subsequently decreases. Because hypoxic conditions influence further inflammatory responses and reduced antibacterial effects, this may exacerbate the C. pneumoniae infection. Here, we show inflammatory responses and drug sensitivity in C. pneumoniae-infected cells under hypoxic conditions...
March 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746790/autoantibodies-to-a-specific-peptide-epitope-of-human-hsp60-atvla-with-homology-to-helicobacter-pylori-hspb-in-h-pylori-infected-patients
#11
Weronika Gonciarz, Agnieszka Matusiak, Karolina Rudnicka, Tomasz Rechciński, Maciej Chałubiński, Elżbieta Czkwianianc, Marlena Broncel, Adrian Gajewski, Magdalena Chmiela
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) may initiate autoimmunity as a result of molecular mimicry. The aim of this study was to compare the level of IgG antibodies to a specific epitope (P1 peptide) of human heat shock protein (Hsp)60 homologous to Hp Hsp60 (HspB) in the sera of healthy donors (HD), patients with Hp-related gastritis or coronary heart disease (CHD), uninfected or with Hp infection confirmed by rapid urease test, histological examination (dyspeptic patients) the 13 C urea breath test (13 C UBT), and anti-Hp antibodies (healthy donors, CHD patients)...
March 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698309/the-role-of-tenascin-c-and-twist1-in-gastric-cancer-cancer-progression-and-prognosis
#12
Wenbo Qi, Zhaoting Yang, Haoyue Li, Yan Cui, Yanhua Xuan
The aim of the present study was to identify the relation between Tenascin-C (TNC) and Twist1 and determine their clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC). We analyzed the expression of TNC and Twist1 in 159 GC samples and in 91 non-tumor samples using immunohistochemistry. In this study, TNC expression in stromal fibroblasts of GC was remarkably higher than non-tumor gastric lesions. The expression of TNC in GC stromal fibroblasts was significantly associated with pT stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis...
February 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698308/carbamoyl-phosphate-synthetase-1-cps1-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection
#13
Ranya M El-Sheikh, Soheir S Mansy, Iris G Nessim, Hala N Hosni, Ali El Hindawi, Moataz H Hassanein, Ahmed S AbdelFattah
This study aims to assess the value of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), as a non-invasive serum marker, for the evolution of chronic HCV infection and hepatic fibrosis. Seventy-two patients with HCV positive serum RNA and 15 health volunteers were enrolled in this study. Out of 72 patients, 10 patients had decompensated liver with ascites. Quantitative analysis of CPS1 was performed in the harvested sera and corresponding liver biopsies using ELISA and immunohistochemistry techniques respectively. Also, mitochondrial count using electron microscopy, urea analysis and conventional liver tests were done...
February 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698307/establishment-and-effects-of-allograft-and-synthetic-bone-graft-substitute-treatment-of-a-critical-size-metaphyseal-bone-defect-model-in-the-sheep-femur
#14
Werner Hettwer, Peter F Horstmann, Sabine Bischoff, Daniel Güllmar, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Patrina S P Poh, Martijn van Griensven, Florian Gras, Michael Diefenbeck
Assessment of bone graft material efficacy is difficult in humans, since invasive methods like staged CT scans or biopsies are ethically unjustifiable. Therefore, we developed a novel large animal model for the verification of a potential transformation of synthetic bone graft substitutes into vital bone. The model combines multiple imaging methods with corresponding histology in standardized critical sized cancellous bone defect. Cylindrical bone voids (10 ml) were created in the medial femoral condyles of both hind legs (first surgery at right hind leg, second surgery 3 months later at left hind leg) in three merino-wool sheep and either (i) left empty, filled with (ii) cancellous allograft bone or (iii) a synthetic, gentamicin eluting bone graft substitute...
February 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698306/homologous-role-of-covrs-two-component-regulatory-system-in-nad-glycohydrolase-activity-in-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subsp-equisimilis-as-in-streptococcus-pyogenes
#15
Tadao Hasegawa, Masakado Matsumoto, Nanako Hata, Hisako Yano, Masanori Isaka, Ichiro Tatsuno
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is primarily caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, but it may also be caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE). The analyses of S. pyogenes have revealed the important roles of NAD+ -glycohydrolase (Nga) and CovR/CovS, a two-component regulatory system. We examined these factors in SDSE by analyzing mainly two isogenic SDSE strains (12-10-1 and 12-10-3) from the blood of a patient with STSS. The Nga activities were measured and the nucleotide sequences of covR and covS genes were determined...
February 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698305/gb-virus-type-c-cross-reactivity-in-clinical-samples-with-a-low-hepatitis-c-virus-antibody-positive-response
#16
LETTER
Daniele Lapa, Chiara Agrati, Paola Scognamiglio, Eleonora Cimini, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Anna Rosa Garbuglia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30549139/primary-signet-ring-stromal-tumour-of-the-testis-case-report-with-literature-review
#17
Alexander Fichtner, Annette Fisseler-Eckhoff, Wolfgang Kramer, Heinz Joachim Radzun, Philipp Ströbel, Felix Bremmer
Primary signet-ring stromal tumour of the testis (PSRSTT) is a very rare type of primary testicular tumour, which is not actually mentioned in the current WHO categorization of tumours of the male genital organs. In this case we report about histologically and immunohistochemically features of this rare tumour. In the present case, PSRTT was found in the orchiectomy preparation of a 69-year-old man with painless swelling of his left testicle. The tumour was well circumscribed and separated from the normal testicular tissue by a fibrous capsule...
January 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30549138/the-diabetic-phenotype-is-preserved-in-myotubes-established-from-type-2-diabetic-subjects-a-critical-appraisal
#18
REVIEW
Michael Gaster
Cultured human myotubes offer a unique model to distinguish between primary and environmental factors in the aetiology of insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle. The objective of this review was to summarize our and other group studies on insulin resistance in human myotubes established from lean, obese and type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. Overall, studies of human myotubes established from lean, obese and T2D subjects clearly show that part of the diabetic phenotype observed in vivo is preserved in diabetic myotubes...
January 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30549137/subtyping-of-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasms-pitfalls-of-muc1-immunohistochemistry
#19
Pia Klausen, Bojan Kovacevic, Anders Toxvaerd, Evangelos Kalaitzakis, John Gásdal Karstensen, Charlotte Vestrup Rift, Carsten Palnaes Hansen, Jan Storkholm, Peter Vilmann, Jane Preuss Hasselby
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Current edition of WHO Classification of Tumors of the Digestive System recognizes four different subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic) and recommends analysis of mucin expression (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6) as well as evaluation of architectural and cell differentiation patterns for correct classification. However, there is no consensus on MUC1 expression of IPMN-lesions in the literature...
January 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30549136/comparison-of-methods-for-measuring-antibiotic-consumption-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#20
Markus Harboe Olsen, Jacob Anhøj, Jenny Dahl Knudsen, Niels Frimodt-Møller, Kirsten Møller
Hospitals worldwide are working on minimizing unnecessary use of antimicrobials. To assess actual changes of antimicrobial usage, correct and precise measurements are necessary. This study aimed to compare data on the purchase of antibiotics from the pharmacy and the administration of antibiotics to patients, respectively, in an intensive care unit (ICU). Data were obtained from the Neurointensive Care Unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet, Denmark. During a 23-month period, comprising 10 770 bed-days (BD), the ward purchased 16 908 defined daily doses (DDD) of antibiotics from the pharmacy, and 15 130 DDD and 41 304 individual doses were administered...
January 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
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