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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

K H Jackson, J M Polreis, N L Tintle, P M Kris-Etherton, W S Harris
BACKGROUND: An Omega-3 Index (O3I; EPA+DHA as a % of erythrocyte total fatty acids) in the desirable range (8%-12%) has been associated with improved heart and brain health. OBJECTIVE: To determine the combination of fish intake and supplement use that is associated with an O3I of >8%. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies comparing the O3I to EPA+DHA/fish intake. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The first study included 28 individuals and assessed their fish and EPA+DHA intake using both a validated triple-pass 24-hr recall dietary survey and a single fish-intake question...
March 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Kazumi Satogami, Ping-Tao Tseng, Kuan-Pin Su, Shun Takahashi, Satoshi Ukai, Dian-Jeng Li, Tien-Yu Chen, Pao-Yen Lin, Yen-Wen Chen, Yutaka J Matsuoka
OBJECTIVES: Eating disorders result in poor nutrition, poor physical conditions and even suicidality and mortality. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have attracted attention in the emerging field of nutritional psychiatry, their role in eating disorders remains unknown. This meta-analysis investigates the differences of PUFA levels between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and the potentially beneficial effects of PUFAs in such patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search and meta-analysis under the random effects model...
March 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Richard P Bazinet, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac, Michel Lagarde
The brain requires a constant supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from blood to maintain DHA levels within the brain. Several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the brain with DHA, including plasma lipoproteins, lysophosphatidylcholine and unesterified fatty acids. Here we briefly review the evidence for each plasma pool supplying the brain highlighting controversies and remaining questions. We conclude that circulating lysophosphatidylcholine has a higher brain/body partition coefficient than unesterified DHA while unesterified DHA entry into the brain is more rapid...
March 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Jennifer Labrecque, Andréanne Michaud, Marie-Frédérique Gauthier, Mélissa Pelletier, François Julien, Léonie Bouvet-Bouchard, André Tchernof
IL-1β stimulates expression of prostaglandin (PG)-synthesizing enzymes cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and aldo-keto reductase (AKR)1B1 in human preadipocytes. We aimed to examine the impact of IL-1β, COX-2 and AKR1B1 on markers of human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue function, and to assess whether PG synthesis by these enzymes mediates IL-1β effects. Omental and subcutaneous fat samples were obtained from bariatric surgery patients. PG release and expression of inflammatory and adipogenic markers were assessed in explants treated with COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 or AKR1B1 inhibitor Statil, with or without IL-1β...
February 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Lucien G J Cayer, Anne M Mendonça, Samantha D Pauls, Tanja Winter, Shan Leng, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Harold M Aukema
Dietary PUFA and their effects on adipose tissue have been well studied, but oxylipins, the oxygenated metabolites of PUFA, have been sparsely studied in adipose tissue. To determine the oxylipin profile and to examine their potential importance in various adipose sites, female and male rats were provided control, high linoleic acid (LA), or high LA and high α-linolenic acid (LA + ALA) diets for six weeks. Analysis of gonadal (GAT), mesenteric (MAT), perirenal (PAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) revealed higher numbers of oxylipins in MAT and SAT, primarily due to 20-22 carbon cytochrome P450 oxylipins, as well as metabolites of cyclooxygenase derived oxylipins...
February 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Hoang Kim Tu Trinh, Dong-Hyeon Suh, Thuy Van Thao Nguyen, Youngwoo Choi, Hae-Sim Park, Yoo Seob Shin
Identification of the characterization of cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor (CysLTRs) could facilitate our understanding of these receptors' role in asthma. We aimed to investigate the localization and interactions of CysLTRs using a mouse model of asthma. BALB/c mice were administered ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma. Some mice were administered the antagonists of CysLTR1, CysLTR2, and purinergic receptor P2Y12 (P2Y12R) (montelukast, HAMI 3379 and clopidogrel, respectively). The expression levels of CysLTR1, CysLTR2, and P2Y12R on lung tissues and inflammatory cells were evaluated by western blot, flow cytometry, and immunochemistry...
February 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Christian S Bork, Ella J Baker, Søren Lundbye-Christensen, Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are precursors for longer-chain more unsaturated fatty acids and for lipid signalling molecules that may influence inflammatory processes through a variety of mechanisms. The actions of LA and ALA may be divergent and interdependent. The aim of this study was to investigate the incorporation and metabolism of ALA and LA in cultured in EA.hy926 endothelial cells and the production of inflammatory mediators (VEGF, RANTES, ICAM-1, MCP-1, IL-6 and IL-8) by these cells when exposed to different concentrations of ALA, LA and ratios of LA:ALA...
February 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Janaina Guimarães, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
We aimed to investigate the effects of medium-chain triglyceride oil on the high fructose diet-provoked hepatic abnormalities in mice. We used C57bl/6 mice of 3-months-old divided into four groups for 12 weeks: control (C), control with MCT (C-MCT), fructose (F), and fructose with MCT (F-MCT). We investigated food and water intake, body mass, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma and liver biochemistry, hepatic protein and gene expression. There were no changes in body mass, food intake and glucose tolerance among the groups...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
A Nandi, N Wadhwani, S R Joshi
Reports indicate that maternal vitamin D deficiency may be associated with increased inflammation. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs); omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are known to have anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties respectively. The present study examines the effect of vitamin D deficiency on fatty acid composition and metabolism in a rat model. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control and vitamin D deficient (VDD). Diets (control: 1000 IU D3/kg diet; VDD: 0 IU D3/kg diet) were given from weaning and continued throughout pregnancy...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Dipanjan Chanda, Dietbert Neumann, Jan F C Glatz
The endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglyerol (2-AG) are endogenous lipid mediators that exert protective roles in pathophysiological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. In this brief review, we provide a conceptual framework linking endocannabinoid signaling to the control of the cellular and molecular hallmarks, and categorize the key components of endocannabinoid signaling that may serve as targets for novel therapeutics. The emerging picture not only reinforces endocannabinoids as potent regulators of cellular metabolism but also reveals that endocannabinoid signaling is mechanistically more complex and diverse than originally thought...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Arthur A Spector, Hee-Yong Kim
Shortly after the discovery that linoleic acid was an essential fatty acid in 1930, α-linolenic acid also was reported to prevent the fatty acid deficiency syndrome in animals. However, several prominent laboratories could not confirm the findings with α-linolenic acid, and as a result there was a loss of interest in omega-3 fatty acids in lipid research. Even the findings that a prostaglandin can be synthesized from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is necessary for optimum retinal function generated only limited interest in omega-3 fatty acids...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Luis A Videla, Romina Vargas, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Patricio Muñoz, Alicia Corbari, María C Hernandez-Rodas
Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids or thyroid hormone (T3 ) exhibit negative effects on inflammatory reactions in experimental animals. The aim of this work was to assess the hypothesis that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plus T3 co-administration enhances liver resolvin (Rv) levels as inflammation resolution mediators. Combined DHA (daily doses of 300 mg/kg for 3 consecutive days)-T3 (0.05 mg/kg at the fourth day) administration significantly increased the content of hepatic RvD1 and RvD2, without changes in that of RvE1 and RvE2, an effect that exhibits synergy when compared to the separate DHA and T3 treatments...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Dominik Berliner, Sarah Mattern, Mareike Wellige, Carolin Malsch, Gülmisal Güder, Susanne Brenner, Caroline Morbach, Nikolas Deubner, Margret Breunig, Rosemarie Kiefl, Christiane E Angermann, Georg Ertl, Clemens von Schacky, Stefan Störk
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies on the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in heart failure are scarce, while one large intervention trial demonstrated a modest benefit. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis from the Interdisciplinary Network Heart Failure (INH) program. Patients hospitalized for systolic heart failure were enrolled and followed for 36 months. At baseline, whole blood samples from 899 patients were analyzed for fatty acid composition using a standardized analytical procedure (HS-Omega-3 Index®, O3-I)...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Jessica Tressou, Benjamin Buaud, Noëmie Simon, Stéphane Pasteau, Philippe Guesnet
BACKGROUND: The French National survey INCA2 pointed out that the majority of the French population (children, adolescents, adults and elderly) ingest low quantities of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the form of both precursor (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) and long-chain (mainly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). However, we don't know whether such inadequate n-3 PUFA consumption is also found again in pregnant and lactating women. METHODS: Dietary lipid and PUFA intakes were determined from 28 pregnant and 21 lactating French women by using the most recent set of national robust data on food (National Survey INCA2 performed in 2006 and 2007), and compared with that of 742 women of childbearing age...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Ilze Mentoor, A-M Engelbrecht, Theo Nell
Globally, breast cancer continues to be a major concern in women's health. Lifestyle related risk factors, specifically excess adipose tissue (adiposity) has reached epidemic proportions and has been identified as a major risk factor in the development of breast cancer. Dysfunctional adipose tissue has evoked research focusing on its association with metabolic-related conditions, breast cancer risk and progression. Adipose dysfunction in coordination with immune cells and inflammation, are responsible for accelerated cell growth and survival of cancer cells...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Gong Su, Tao Wang, Tao Zhang, Hong-Xia Yang, Shan-Shan Yu, Wen-Long Dai, Shu-Hua Mi
We evaluated the association of urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α ) with the vulnerability of culprit lesions in 156 age- and sex-matched diabetic stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with or without thin-capped fibroatheroma (TCFA) identified by iMAP intravascular ultrasound. Fasting urinary 8-iso-PGF2α level was measured and corrected by creatinine clearance. Compared to non-TCFA group, patients with TCFA had higher urinary 8-iso-PGF2α levels [114.6 (71.1, 181.5) vs. 83...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Alicia I Leikin-Frenkel, Horacio A Garda
Rodolfo R. Brenner, died on 3rd July 2018, two weeks before his 96th birthday. His memory will remain forever with all of us who had the privilege of knowing him.
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Ryo Okubo, Hiroko Noguchi, Kei Hamazaki, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Takayuki Kinoshita, Noriko Katsumata, Tomomi Narisawa, Yasuhito Uezono, Jinzhong Xiao, Yutaka J Matsuoka
In contrast to the cumulative evidence suggesting the inverse association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with depression, few studies have examined the association of n-6 PUFAs with depression. In particular, no study has examined the relationship between n-6 PUFAs and depression in cancer patients. Thus, we conducted this cross-sectional study to comprehensively examine the association of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs with depressive symptoms in breast cancer survivors. Adults who had been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and were not undergoing chemotherapy were enrolled...
December 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Anne Barden, Michael Phillips, Lisa M Hill, Evelyn M Fletcher, Emilie Mas, P S Loh, Martyn A French, Kwok M Ho, Trevor A Mori, Tomás B Corcoran
INTRODUCTION: The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone is a commonly administered antiemetic. It has immunosuppressive effects and may alter postoperative blood glucose concentrations. Dexamethasone can effect key enzymes involved in inflammation resolution that is an active process driven by specialised lipid mediators of inflammation resolution (SPM). The purpose of this study in healthy volunteers was to examine whether dexamethasone effects cell populations and synthesis of SPM that are critical for the resolution of inflammation...
December 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Chang Gao, Robert A Gibson, Andrew J Mcphee, Shao J Zhou, Carmel T Collins, Maria Makrides, Jacqueline Miller, Ge Liu
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake during infancy has been associated with many health benefits, and the LCPUFA intake of breastfed infants is largely dependent on the composition of breast milk. The conventional method for breast milk fatty acid profiling is complicated by the need for cold-chain transportation and storage, and the newly developed dried milk spot (DMS) technology overcomes these difficulties. This study aimed to determine the accuracy, sensitivity and applicability of the DMS method developed based on the PUFAcoat™ technology...
December 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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