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Jukkrapong Pinyo, Tohru Hira, Hiroshi Hara
OBJECTIVES: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by enteroendocrine L-cells in response to nutrient ingestion. To date, GLP-1 secretion in diet-induced obesity is not well characterized. We aimed to examine GLP-1 secretion in response to meal ingestion during the progression of diet-induced obesity and determinewhether a combined high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) diet, an individual high-fat (HiFat), or a high-sucrose (HiSuc) diet affect adaptive changes in the postprandial GLP-1 response...
January 11, 2019: Nutrition
William Manzanares, Pierre Singer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2018: Nutrition
Pascal L Langlois, Frédérick D'Aragon, William Manzanares
Critical illness in patients is characterized by systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Vitamin D has a myriad of biological functions relevant to this population, including immunomodulation by the alteration of cytokine production and nuclear factor loop amplification. Low serum levels have consistently been found in observational studies conducted on critically ill patients, but the causality with mortality and worse outcomes has not been confirmed. The current focus is on interventional trials, whereas the pharmacokinetic profile of vitamin D administration remains sparse and the optimal strategy has not been confirmed...
May 2019: Nutrition
Pascal L Langlois, Fréderick D'Aragon, Gil Hardy, William Manzanares
OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by an acute inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma leading to severe hypoxemia. Because of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) have been administered to ARDS patients, mostly by the enteral route, as immune-enhancing diets with eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and antioxidants. However, clinical benefits of ω-3 PUFAs in ARDS patients remain unclear because clinical trials have found conflicting results...
May 2019: Nutrition
Pascal L Langlois, François Lamontagne
Vitamin C exhibits interesting properties in the context of critical illness, with benefits described in neurologic, cardiovascular, renal, and hematologic systems, both in in vitro and in animal models. Through direct effects on bacterial replication, immunomodulation, and antioxidant reserve of the organism, vitamin C directly affects the pathophysiological process of sepsis, trauma, burn, and systemic inflammation. Even if several observational trials have linked vitamin C deficiency to worse outcomes, the evidence is not such as to provide us with a distinction between causality effects or simple epiphenomenon, and the current focus is on interventional trials...
April 2019: Nutrition
Cheng Kong, Renyuan Gao, Xuebing Yan, Linsheng Huang, Huanlong Qin
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in host energy homeostasis, which is affected by both high-fat diets (HFDs) and high-sucrose diets (HCDs). Probiotics treatment can effectively modulate intestinal microbiota. However, it remains unclear whether probiotics can effectively improve HFD- and HCD-induced microbiota dysbiosis. METHODS: Mice were fed either an HFD, HCD, or normal diet for 13 wk and administered probiotics during the last 4 wk of the diet...
April 2019: Nutrition
Paula Helena Dayan, Gary Sforzo, Nathalie Boisseau, Luciana Oquendo Pereira-Lancha, Antonio Herbert Lancha
Although current guidelines for obesity treatment endorse lifestyle modifications to achieve weight loss, energy-restricted diets are still the most commonly used method for the management of overweight. Diet restriction, however, not only is ineffective in promoting long-term weight loss but also may have more costs than benefits, predisposing the individual to fat regain. Several physiological and psychological mechanisms protect the body against starvation and explain how food restriction can promote paradoxically the opposite of what it is planned to achieve, triggering changes in energy metabolism, endocrine function and, thus, body composition...
April 2019: Nutrition
Xuezhen Zhou, Renjuan Chen, Chunrong Zhong, Jiangyue Wu, Xiating Li, Qian Li, Wenli Cui, Nianhua Yi, Mei Xiao, Heng Yin, Guoping Xiong, Weizhen Han, Liping Hao, Xuefeng Yang, Nianhong Yang
OBJECTIVE: Fresh fruit intake has been found to be associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the evidence is limited and the findings are inconsistent. We aimed to assess the association of fresh fruit intake by fruit subgroups based on their glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values and GDM incidence in Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: We included 3300 eligible women from the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed by using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire...
April 2019: Nutrition
Tobias Fischer, Ulrike Och, Thorsten Marquardt
OBJECTIVES: Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is the most severe disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation. Treatment of this disorder is difficult because the functional loss of the electron transfer flavoprotein makes energy supply from fatty acids impossible. Acetyl-CoA, provided by exogenous ketone bodies such as NaßHB, is the only treatment option in severe cases. Short-term therapy attempts have shown positive results. To our knowledge, no reports exist concerning long-term application of ketone body salts in patients with severe MADD...
April 2019: Nutrition
Gina M Broom, Ian C Shaw, Julia J Rucklidge
The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, a chronic neurodegenerative condition, is increasing as is the need for effective treatments and preventions. The underlying pathology of Alzheimer's is not yet fully understood, so existing research has focused on understanding the prominent features of the disease. These include amyloid plaques, which accumulate in the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease; impaired glucose metabolism; and neuronal cell death. Emerging evidence suggests that a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet may help to mitigate the damage associated with these pathologies...
April 2019: Nutrition
A M van Opstal, I Kaal, A A van den Berg-Huysmans, M Hoeksma, C Blonk, H Pijl, S A R B Rombouts, J van der Grond
OBJECTIVE: The brain is essential in regulating intake of food and beverages by balancing energy homeostasis, which is regulated by the hypothalamus, with reward perception, which is regulated by the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sucralose (a non-caloric artificial sweetener) on the magnitude and trajectory of the hypothalamic and the VTA blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses. METHOD: In five visits, 16 healthy men between 18 to 25 y of age with a body mass index between 20 and 23 kg/m2 drank five interventions in a randomized order while a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was taken...
April 2019: Nutrition
Masato Nishiwaki, Yuri Nakano, Naoyuki Matsumoto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of regular high-cocoa chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness and fat oxidation during light- to moderate-intensity exercise. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, parallel-group intervention study included 32 Japanese college students (mean age, 20.7 ± 0.3 y; men, n = 24; women, n = 8) who were assigned to either control or intervention groups (n = 16 each). The control group did not alter their habitual diet or physical activity throughout the study period...
April 2019: Nutrition
Jaqueline Rodrigues da Silva, Emanuelly Varea Maria Wiegert, Livia Oliveira, Larissa Calixto-Lima
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sarcopenia, diagnosed by different muscle mass measurement techniques, with nutritional status and overall survival in patients with advanced cancer under palliative care. AIM: To investigate the association of sarcopenia, according to distinct muscle mass measurement methods, with nutritional status and overall survival (OS). METHODS: This observational and prospective study, including 334 patients, defined sarcopenia as reduced muscle mass and strength...
April 2019: Nutrition
Daniel Antonio de Luis, David Primo, Olatz Izaola, Emilia Gomez Hoyos, Juan Jose Lopez Gomez, Ana Ortola, Rocio Aller
OBJECTIVES: The role of ADIPOQ gene variants on weight loss after a dietary intervention remain unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of rs266729 of the ADIPOQ gene on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity parameters after adherence to a Mediterranean-type hypocaloric diet. METHOD: Eighty-three obese patients were studied before and after 12 wk on a Mediterranean-type hypocaloric diet. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical profiles were measured...
April 2019: Nutrition
Mette M Berger, Claude Pichard
Since the early 1990s enteral nutrition (EN) has been considered the optimal route of feeding rather than parenteral nutrition (PN), which was considered harmful in critically ill patients with intense inflammation. The aim of this review was to summarize recent developments and progress in PN, which have changed the view on this feeding technique. PubMed and personal databases were searched for studies and reviews reporting historical development of PN, and for clinical trials conducted after 2010 investigating PN in critical illness, comparing it to EN or not...
March 2019: Nutrition
Beatriz Salamanca-Zarzuela, María Elena Infante López, Carlos Alcalde Martín
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of phenylalanine (phe) metabolism caused by a deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase that converts phe into tyrosine. If left untreated, PKU results in increased phe concentrations in the blood and in the brain, which cause severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and behavioral problems. These disorders can be prevented if a diet low in phe is introduced. This report focuses on a preterm newborn (gestational age 29 wk) with adequate weight (1290 g) and no family history of PKU...
March 2019: Nutrition
Theertham Pradyumna Rao, Giuseppina Quartarone
Digestive health plays key role in our active daily life; but maintaining proper bowel movements, i.e., being free from constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, flatulence, bloating, and abdominal pain, is complex. Dietary fibers often are recommended to maintain proper digestive health, but none seems to provide a single comprehensive solution for overall maintanance of proper digestive health. Guar fiber, however, has emerged as a credible candidate for just such a solution...
March 2019: Nutrition
Xueling Wei, Jian-Rong He, Yan Lin, Minshan Lu, Qianling Zhou, Shenghui Li, Jinhua Lu, Mingyang Yuan, Niannian Chen, Lifang Zhang, Lan Qiu, Weibi Mai, Yonghong Pan, Caixin Yin, Cuiyue Hu, Huimin Xia, Xiu Qiu
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between dietary patterns and gestational weight gain (GWG) in different pregnancy stages has rarely been reported among the Asian population. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and GWG in Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: Participants were women from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at 24 to 27 wk gestation (N = 5733). Dietary patterns were generated by cluster analysis...
March 2019: Nutrition
Seyed Mohammad Mousavi, Sakineh Shab-Bidar, Hamed Kord-Varkaneh, Masoud Khorshidi, Kurosh Djafarian
Several studies have shown the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on lipid profile. However, findings remain controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to systematically summarize the available clinical trials that examined the effects ALA supplementation on the lipid profile of adults. A systematic search through PubMed and Scopus was done for studies published in English up to April 2017. Effect sizes were combined with fixed- or random-effects analysis, where appropriate. Between-study heterogeneity was evaluated by Cochran's Q test and I2 ...
March 2019: Nutrition
Shinsuke Kanekiyo, Shigeru Takeda, Michihisa Iida, Mitsuo Nishiyama, Masahiro Kitahara, Yoshitaro Shindo, Yukio Tokumitsu, Shinobu Tomochika, Ryoichi Tsunedomi, Nobuaki Suzuki, Toshihiro Abe, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shoichi Hazama, Tomio Ueno, Hiroaki Nagano
OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is common in patients with esophageal cancer, resulting in increased postoperative complications and mortality. Although preoperative immunonutrition can significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative infectious complications, its effect in patietns with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of perioperative immunonutritional support on the postoperative course and long-term survival of this group of patients...
March 2019: Nutrition
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