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Advances in Dental Research

E A Martinez-Mier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Advances in Dental Research
F V Zohoori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Advances in Dental Research
A J Spencer, L G Do, U Mueller, J Baines, M Foley, M A Peres
Policy on fluoride intake involves balancing caries against dental fluorosis in populations. The origin of this balance lies with Dean's research on fluoride concentration in water supplies, caries, and fluorosis. Dean identified cut points in the Index of Dental Fluorosis of 0.4 and 0.6 as critical. These equate to 1.3 and 1.6 mg fluoride (F)/L. However, 1.0 mg F/L, initially called a permissible level, was adopted for fluoridation programs. McClure, in 1943, derived an "optimum" fluoride intake based on this permissible concentration...
March 2018: Advances in Dental Research
A J Rugg-Gunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Advances in Dental Research
I Mejàre
The purpose of this report is to examine critically the appropriateness of the current guidance for fluoride intake in the population (0.05-0.07 mg F/kg bodyweight/d), consider whether changes to the current guidance are desirable, and suggest further research that will strengthen the evidence base for future decisions on guidance/advice in this area. The benefits and the risks of using fluoride particularly concern preschool children because it is at this age that excessive fluoride intake may result in dental fluorosis...
March 2018: Advances in Dental Research
A W G Walls
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Advances in Dental Research
M A R Buzalaf
Since the classical epidemiological studies by Dean, it has been known that there should be an optimum level of exposure to fluoride that would be able to provide the maximum protection against caries, with minimum dental fluorosis. The "optimal" daily intake of fluoride for children (0.05-0.07 mg per kilogram bodyweight) that is still accepted worldwide was empirically determined. In the present review, we discuss the appropriateness of the current guidance for fluoride intake, in light of the windows of susceptibility to caries and fluorosis, the modern trends of fluoride intake from multiple sources, individual variations in fluoride metabolism, and recent epidemiological data...
March 2018: Advances in Dental Research
J A Horst
Medical management of caries is a distinct treatment philosophy that employs topical minimally invasive therapies that treat the disease and is not merely prevention. This strategy is justified as an alternative or supplement to traditional care by significant disease recurrence rates following comprehensive operative treatment under general anesthesia. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is one agent to enable effective noninvasive treatment. The announcement of breakthrough therapy designation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) suggests that SDF may become the first FDA-approved drug for treating caries...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
Y Shi, R Li, D J White, A R Biesbrock
A genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed to elucidate the bacterial cellular response of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus to NaF and SnF2 . The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of SnF2 were predetermined before microarray study. Gene expression profiling microarray experiments were carried out in the absence (control) and presence (experimental) of 10 ppm and 100 ppm Sn2+ (in the form of SnF2 ) and fluoride controls for 10-min exposures (4 biological replicates/treatment)...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
C González-Cabezas, C E Fernández
Remineralization of caries lesions is naturally achieved by salivary ions, and it can be enhanced by external factors or elements such as fluoride. Numerous studies have demonstrated the remineralizing efficacy of fluoride therapies as well as the limitations with some groups of the population. Consequently, developing new remineralization therapies to close this gap in efficacy has been a priority for the last 2 decades. In this review, we summarize and briefly discuss some of the latest advances in remineralization therapies...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
P de Cock
Erythritol belongs chemically to the family of polyols (or sugar alcohols), yet it is metabolized by animals and humans very differently compared to all other polyols. While polyols have been used traditionally (for about 80 y) to replace sugar in sweet foods to reduce demineralization of tooth enamel and to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels, benefits achieved merely through the absence of sugar, emerging evidence shows that erythritol can play a number of functional roles to actively support maintenance of oral and systemic health...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
J O Burgess, P M Vaghela
Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a solution containing ionic silver, fluoride, and ammonia that arrests the progress of carious lesions and prevents the development of future caries. The silver particle extends into the dentin tubules and could create some bonding problems for subsequent composite resin restorations placed over SDF-treated darkened tooth structures. The fluoride penetrates deeper into the tooth with SDF as compared with other fluoride solutions, creating a fluoride reservoir in the tooth structure...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
J D B Featherstone, B W Chaffee
A system for Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA® ) has been developed in California. The purpose of this article is to summarize the science behind the methodology, the history of the development of CAMBRA, and the outcomes of clinical application. The CAMBRA caries risk assessment (CRA) tool for ages 6 y through adult has been used at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), for 14 y, and outcome studies involving thousands of patients have been conducted. Three outcomes assessments, each on different patient cohorts, demonstrated a clear relationship between CAMBRA-CRA risk levels of low, moderate, high, and extreme with cavitation or lesions into dentin (by radiograph) at follow-up...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
A Mira
Understanding the microbiology of dental caries is not a mere academic exercise; it provides the basis for preventive, diagnostic, and treatment strategies and gives the dentist a theoretical framework to become a better professional. The last years have seen the development of new research methodologies, ranging from high-throughput sequencing or "omics" techniques to new fluorescence microscopy applications and microfluidics, which have allowed the study of the oral microbiome to an unprecedented level of detail...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
Y Liu, Z Ren, G Hwang, H Koo
Cariogenic biofilms are highly structured microbial communities embedded in an extracellular matrix, a multifunctional scaffold that is essential for the existence of the biofilm lifestyle and full expression of virulence. The extracellular matrix provides the physical and biological properties that enhance biofilm adhesion and cohesion, as well as create a diffusion-modulating milieu, protecting the resident microbes and facilitating the formation of localized acidic pH niches. These biochemical properties pose significant challenges for the development of effective antibiofilm therapeutics to control dental caries...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
M S Wolff, A B Schenkel
Dental caries remains a world-wide disease despite the global distribution of fluoride. It has become apparent that the introduction of significant levels of sugar (fermentable carbohydrate) into the diet has resulted in a change in the biofilm, encouraging acid formation. Further, there has been a shift in the microbiota in the biofilm to a flora that produces acid, and thrives and reproduces in an acidic environment. The management of caries activity under these conditions has focused on brushing to remove the biofilm with fluoride pastes, and high-dose fluoride treatments...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
R E Heyman, A K Wojda, J M Eddy, N C Haydt, J F Geiger, A M Smith Slep
Over 1 in 5 dental patients report moderate to severe dental fear. Although the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for dental fear has been examined in over 20 randomized controlled trials-with 2 meta-analyses finding strong average effect sizes ( d > 1)-CBT has received almost no dissemination beyond the specialty clinics that tested it. The challenge, then, is not how to treat dental fear but how to disseminate and implement such an evidence-based treatment in a way that recognizes the rewards and barriers in the US health care system...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
L Zhan
Dental caries is a disease that results from microbiome dysbiosis with the involvement of multiple cariogenic species, including mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacilli, Scardovia wiggsiae, and several Actinomyces species that have the cariogenic traits of acid production and acid tolerance. Sugar consumption also plays an important role interacting with microbiome dysbiosis, determining the fate of caries development. In addition, the MS transmission that encompasses multiple sources can have long-term impacts on the oral microbiome and caries development in children...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
N B Pitts, J P Wright
This article aims to outline the early development of a King's College London dental spinout company, Reminova, formed to commercialize a novel clinical method of caries remineralization: electrically accelerated and enhanced remineralization (EAER). This method is being developed to address the unmet clinical need identified by modern caries management strategies to keep enamel "whole" through remineralization of clinical caries as a form of nonoperative caries treatment for initial-stage and moderate lesions...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
D R Schwass, K M Lyons, R Love, G R Tompkins, C J Meledandri
A novel silver nanoparticle (AgNP) formulation was developed as a targeted application for the disinfection of carious dentine. Silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) was chemically reduced using sodium borohydrate (NaBH4 ) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to form micelle aggregate structures containing monodisperse 6.7- to 9.2-nm stabilized AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized by measurement of electrical conductivity and dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
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