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Viral Immunology

David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2019: Viral Immunology
Mengru Guo, Shushuai Yi, Yanbing Guo, Shuang Zhang, Jiangting Niu, Kai Wang, Guixue Hu
Porcine epidemic diarrhea caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious disease in newborn piglets. The spike (S) protein is the surface glycoprotein of PEDV, which can induce specific neutralization antibodies and is a candidate antigen for vaccination attempts. In our study, the S1 region of PEDV strain CH/JLDH/2016 spike gene was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector, pNZ8149, resulting in recombinant plasmid pNZ8149-S1, and the immunogenicity of recombinant L. lactis pNZ8149-S1/NZ3900 was evaluated in mice...
March 11, 2019: Viral Immunology
Yuan Chen, Yingyin Liao, Kangzhuang Yuan, Aiwu Wu, Lidong Liu
Dengue virus infection (DEN) is one of the most prevalent arbovirus diseases in the tropical and subtropical areas. Some human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles have been reported to be a protective or risk factor to DEN. Due to the limited sample sizes and regional limitations, the results of individual studies were various. This meta-analysis aimed at investigating the relationship between HLA alleles and dengue disease. Relevant studies of the relationship between HLA and dengue disease were searched through PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and Cochrane databases...
March 5, 2019: Viral Immunology
Kelly Shepardson, Kyle Larson, Hanbyul Cho, Laura Logan Johns, Zeynep Malkoc, Kayla Stanek, Julia Wellhman, Sarah Zaiser, Jaelyn Daggs-Olson, Travis Moodie, Joshua M Klonoski, Victor C Huber, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have multiple mechanisms for altering the host immune response to aid in virus survival and propagation. While both type I and II interferons (IFNs) have been associated with increased bacterial superinfection (BSI) susceptibility, we found that in some cases type I IFNs can be beneficial for BSI outcome. Specifically, we have shown that antagonism of the type I IFN response during infection by some IAVs can lead to the development of deadly BSI. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) from IAV is well known for manipulating host type I IFN responses, but the viral proteins mediating BSI severity remain unknown...
March 1, 2019: Viral Immunology
Mohammad Irshad, Priyanka Gupta, Khushboo Irshad
The present report describes current concepts about the mechanism of liver cell injury caused by host immune response against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human beings. This report is based on the observations from experimental studies and follow-up actions on human liver diseases. The results from different investigations suggest that liver injury depends on the presentation of viral antigen and the level of host immune response raised against HCV-related peptides. Both innate and adaptive immunity are triggered to counter the viral onset...
February 28, 2019: Viral Immunology
Patricia Biganzoli, Leonardo Ferreyra, Silvia Nates, Jorge Pavan
Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), and Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) can persist by establishing a lifelong infection which could have implications on the immunocompetent host. The aim of this work is to contribute with some knowledge about the HHV-6‚ÄČA/B and HHV-7 infection in healthy individuals. We have carried out a longitudinal study in seropositive healthy individuals for the detection of viral DNA in saliva and plasma samples, and for determining a specific IgG isotype immune response, which enabled the performance of these viruses to be observed over time...
February 14, 2019: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Viral Immunology
Tyson H Holmes, Priyanka B Subrahmanyam, Weiqi Wang, Holden T Maecker
An immune cell's phenotype expresses through its high-dimensional marker signature. Cluster analyses of data from high-throughput mass and flow cytometry marker panels permit discovery of previously undescribed immune cell phenotypes. Impactful reporting of new phenotypes demands low-dimensional visualization tools that preserve with integrity phenotypes' original high-dimensional structure. For this purpose, we introduce penalized supervised star plots. As designed and as we demonstrate, penalized supervised star plots are two-dimensional projections that tend to preserve separation of clusters as well as information on the relative contributions of various markers in differentiating phenotypes...
January 30, 2019: Viral Immunology
Elda Righi, Alessia Carnelutti, Alessandro La Rosa, Assunta Sartor, Patrizia Tulissi, Tolinda Gallo, Federico Ivaldi, Matteo Bassetti
Limited data on varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine responses are available in HIV-positive adults, especially among those with end-stage renal disease on dialysis or undergoing kidney transplantation (KT). Serological and T cell responses were analyzed using anti-VZV IgG titers, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometric intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in two HIV-positive kidney transplant candidates undergoing dialysis and receiving VZV immunization. The results were compared with two HIV-positive and two HIV-negative VZV-seropositive patients (two kidney transplant candidates and two kidney transplant recipients), and with one HIV-negative vaccinee...
January 29, 2019: Viral Immunology
Purvita Chowdhury, Siraj Ahmed Khan
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne viral disease with clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe neurological symptoms and even leading to death. The exact pathophysiology for diverse clinical spectrum of the disease is complex and has not yet been defined. Studies have postulated that during JE infection, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are produced after the initial recognition of viral antigens through the engagement of toll-like receptors (TLR) pathways. However, there is paucity of knowledge on the expression levels of chemokines and TLRs among mild and severely affected JE patients...
December 26, 2018: Viral Immunology
Nafise Yaghouti, Reza Boostani, Asadollah Mohamamdi, Zohreh Poursina, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Veda Vakili, Narges Valizadeh, Ali Shams, Houshang Rafatpanah
Human T cell lymphotropic type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic viral neuroinflammatory disease, which leads to damage of the central nervous system. Inflammatory responses and mediators are both involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and in determining its outcome. High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a chromatin-associated nuclear protein acting as a signaling molecule in cells after binding to its receptors. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a transmembrane multiligand receptor that binds to HMGB1...
December 26, 2018: Viral Immunology
Jianhua Zhang, Huiqi Huang, Lian Xu, Chaonan Lou, Mi Pan
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) has attracted widespread attention in the past decade because of its higher neurotropicity in addition to causing hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Mapping epitopes of viral proteins may promote our understanding of antiviral humoral immunity, and is useful for clinical application. In this study, the linear B cell epitopes within nonstructural proteins of EV-A71 were identified using bioinformatics methods combined with peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty epitopes were predicted and located at 2ABC (7), 3ABC (5), and 3D (8) protein, respectively...
December 6, 2018: Viral Immunology
David Verhoeven
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a very frequent viral respiratory pathogen of the young (<5 years old) with a significant portion of young toddlers having been infected before 2 years of age. Although we understand that some of the morbidity associated with RSV in neonates is due to immunological maturation that favors immunosuppression over antiviral innate and/or adaptive immune responses, the rapid development of the immune system right after birth suggests that each age group (newborn, early infant, older infant, toddler, and older) may respond to the virus in different ways...
November 30, 2018: Viral Immunology
Manohar Lal Choudhary, Kalichamy Alagarasu, Urmila Chaudhary, Samruddhi Kawale, Prachi Malasane, Yogesh K Gurav, Vikram Padbidri, Deelip Kadam, Shashikala A Sangle, Sonali Salvi, Ashish R Bavdekar, Pradeep D'costa, Mandeep S Chadha
Susceptibility to severe influenza A/H1N1pdm09 virus is multifactorial. The present study was carried out in 246 patients infected with A/H1N1pdm09 virus to find out whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes coding for proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are associated with disease severity. Among the cases, 129 had mild disease, whereas 117 had severe disease. There were 27 fatal cases. TNFA rs1800629, IFNG rs2430561, IL10 rs1800872, IL10 rs1800896, and CCL2 rs1024611 SNPs were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-based methods...
November 28, 2018: Viral Immunology
Fei Gao, Jun-Chi Xu, Li Zhu, Hui Chen, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Xin-Ran You, Shu-Xiang Li, Chen-Lu Zhu, Chen Yang, Chuan-Wu Zhu, Ping Xu
B7-H3, one of the costimulatory members participating in checkpoint pathway, has been shown to be upregulated after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To further explore the clinical significance of dynamic B7-H3 expression during the progression of HBV infection, we systematically investigated the expression pattern of B7-H3 and the correlation of B7-H3 expression with the ratio of T lymphocyte subsets and clinical parameters at different stages in the course of the disease. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay data showed that soluble form of B7-H3 (sB7-H3) was positively correlated with the frequency of Treg cells in acute hepatitis B (AHB), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and hepatocellular carcinoma patients with HBV infection (HBV-HCC)...
November 27, 2018: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2018: Viral Immunology
Maria Malm, Kirsi Tamminen, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Majority of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks and sporadic infections in the past 20 years have been caused by GII.4 variants. In 2014, NoV GII.17 genotype replaced GII.4 strains in several Asian countries and major outbreaks were reported in other continents. As GII.17 is a recently evolved NoV strain, there is a gap especially in immunogenicity data. In this study, we investigated GII.17 virus-like particle (VLP) binding to various cellular ligands, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), using human saliva, pig gastric mucin, and synthetic oligosaccharides as HBGA sources...
November 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Brunda Tumala, Kathleen R Phelps, Stephanie Zhang, Somashubhra Bhattacharya, Laurie P Shornick
During respiratory viral infection, conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) take up antigen and migrate to the draining lymph nodes to present viral antigen and activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes; however, regulation of cDC activation and migration may be age dependent. In this study, we used a mouse model of paramyxoviral infection (Sendai virus) and demonstrated that cDCs, which have migrated from lungs to the draining lymph nodes, are delayed in expressing activation markers in neonatal mice compared with adults...
November 7, 2018: Viral Immunology
Yu-Jih Su, Wen-Chan Chiu, Ho-Chang Kuo
This longitudinal study focused on the relationship between lupus activity and the levels of intracellular proteins, phosphorylated interferon regulatory factor 7 (pIRF7), caspase-9 and -10, and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5). Ten patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were followed at clinics, and their disease activity indexes (SLEDAIs) were determined. Correlation analysis was used to test the influence of changes in intracellular markers on changes in SLEDAI score at two time points...
November 3, 2018: Viral Immunology
Shouping Hu, Qiang Liu, Sufang Zang, Zhuo Zhang, Jingfei Wang, Xuehui Cai, Xijun He
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) can spread along the peripheral nerves near the site of infection in the animals, and gradually migrates into the central nervous system, where it leads to the development of brain lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of microglia after PRV inoculation. A mouse model inoculated with PRV was established to study the interactions between PRV and microglia, microglial recruitment, and polarization effects. The mice were subcutaneously inoculated with different doses of PRV-Bartha K61 vaccine strain...
November 2018: Viral Immunology
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